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Bk ^Ibris 

'Paul 'S. Tanuoonh 

' fi ' J/ ' ^ ■ ' .) 


^— <^"'^-«^<-^.->./^^^^ 


Estate of 

Paul Farnsworth 









CiNaNNATi. New York. London. 

''The House Devoted to the Progress of American Music** 

Copyright, 1806, by The John Chubch Co. 
International Copyright. 



Time and Meter. 



Measure Notation. 

Measure Signature. 

Pitch Notation. 

Staff and Cleff. 

Tones in Key. 


Tonic Sol-Fa. 

Patent Notes. 

Grace Notes and Embellishments. 


Pedals of the Pianoforte. 

Phrasing and Expression. 


Special Signs in Instrumental Music. 


THE book herewith offered the musical public has one aim, which is 
uUUti^ — ^practical use. While there is already a considerable number 
of small dictionaries, the publishers of the present work believe that 
there is still room for another, which, as far as possible, should combine 
the advantages of all the best ones and avoid their prominent defects, 
such as obsolete and often incorrect phraseology, reduplication of terms, 
redundancy of obsolete terms, and the like. Accordingly, the work was 
committed to the present editors, who have agreed upon the selection of 
terms and information following. Its special points of usefulness are 

1. The vocabulary, while not so large as two others, is more com- 
plete and modern, aggregating nearly 10,000 terms. 

2. The definitions have been amended where necessary, and some 
hundreds of important topics have been entirely rewritten, such as Ac- 
cent, Consonance, Dissonance, Temperament, and the like. 

3. Pronunciations have been affixed to all terms from foreign lan- 
guages. These are very necessary by reason of the totally different prin- 
ciples of pronunciation which govern terms from the French, German 
and Italian respectively. The pronunciations are approximate only, but 
they will be found of great assistance. 

4. At the beginning, in place of an Introduction, we have placed a 
general view of Musical Notation, not alone the topics which ordinarily 
are included under that head, but also those rarer matters of the signs 
employed in different departments of manuscript music and score-writing. 
As far as we have been able to collect them, this summary includes every 
sign liable to be met with by the student, no matter in what department 
he may work. 


5. At one point the work is not consistent with itself. In several of 
the small works now before the public, long lists of terms are found be- 
ginning with the German article die, a principle of lexicography as false 
as would be the inclusion of a series of phrases in an English dictionary 
beginning with "the". Accordingly these have been relegated to their 
proper places, under their leading terms. In other cases, however, entire 
phrases have been included under their leading word, such as those be- 
ginning with Allegro, Andante, etc., because these combinations are of 
constant occurrence, and the complex term possesses an individual sig- 
nificance which is not in all cases exactly the same as the sum of its 

6. A large amount of editing has been devoted to rectifying the 
faulty phraseology of former definitions. We cannot hope to have fully 
succeeded at this point. Oareless habits of speech (and of thought as 
well) retain in colloquial use such erroneous expressions as "note" for 
tone, "bar" for measure, "time" for measure, "tone" and "semitone" as 
names of interval, and the like, until scientific musicians pass over such 
expressions without noticing their defective and misleading form. It is 
altogether likely that many such examples still remain in the present 
volume, despite the care that has been taken to remove them. 


In writing a piece of music which he has imagined or worked out at the 
instrument, the composer has mainly to do with two elements in it, the Pitch 
and the Time. The Expression and Tone-color he leaves for mere suggestion, 
by means of an occasional /., f.^ sf.^ or other incidental mark. Here almost 
ever3rthing is left to the intelligence of the interpretative artist. But in the 
two provinces first mentioned this is not the case. Everything is set down 
with exactness. The number and recurrence of tones, their ordering into 
pulsation and measure, their various relations in pitch, as melody and har- 
mony, all are fully and finally determined. Hence a clear understanding of 
these parts of musical notation is of the utmost importance to the student, 
since without it he will never arrive at an exact comprehension of the com- 
poser's intention. 


The distinctive sign of musical tone is a character called a Note, which 
consists essentially of a round or oval head, with or without a stem downward 
or upward from it 

Whole. Half. Quarter. Eighth. i6th. 32d. 64th. 

Notes: ^ f f f fj f^ f. 

i K ^, 

There is also a note called a Breve, equal to two Whole notes. This is ob- 
solete in modern music, but occasionally it is found in old music. 

A Note indicates Musical utterance, as distinguished from any other kind 
of utterance. The fornis of the notes indicate relative duration. The dura- 
tion-values correspond to the names given above. 

A dot after a note adds one half to its value. A second dot adds half as 
much as the first Hence two dots add three fourths to the value of the note. 



A Rest is a musical silence, or a rhythmic silence. By this is meant that 
whereas the term rest in general means merely a cessation from activity, a 
musical rest indicates a temporary cessation from musical activity while the 
idea of the music is still going on, A musical rest is a silence during a cer- 
tain compass of musical time ; i. e.^ of Rhythm, or Meter. Hence, during rests, 
the musician is conscious of the rhythmic pulsation and meter. This is the 
distinction between a musical rest and rest in general. The characters in- 
dicating musical rest are also called Rests. They are of forms and denomina- 
tions corresponding to the notes. Dots are applied to them iu the same way 
as to notes. 






















A rest of several measures in succession is generally indicated by one of 
the forms of rest following, together with the figures indicating the length of 
rest desired, written above the staff. 

4 Measures. Rest of 8 Measures. Rest of 16 Measures. 




The first step towards music is the recurrence of rhythmic pulsation. All 
music moves rhythmically, by pulsations of equal value, which are grouped 
into measures by means of accents. Measures are of two, three, four, six, 
nine, or twelve pulsations each, and all alike have the strong pulse at begin- 
ning. The place of this pulsation is indicated by means of a line across the 
staff, called a Bar. The strong accent falls upon the tone or time-space im- 
mediately following it Accent is indicated also by means of a little angle 
=»T. In the following examples of measure-forms the accent mark is unnec- 
essary, but is placed there for the guidance of the student. The mere bar, 
without the extra mark, means exactly the same thing. The bar always shows 
the place of the strong accent 


At the beginning of every piece or movement is placed a Measure Sigfna- 
turc, consisting of two figures in the form of a fraction, immediately follow- 
ing the clef. The upper figure denotes the number of pulsations in a measure. 


The lower figure tells what kind of note is taken to represent one unit of 
time. All other notes in the piece are computed with reference to this. The 
time within the measure may be occupied in any manner the composer pleases. 
One tone may be prolonged through the entire measure ; or every pulse may 
be subdivided into several parts. All that the measure signature requires is 
that the unit note or its value shall be present in each pulsation of the meas- 
ure according to the tables of note-values preceding. 

The unit note is generally a quarter or eighth ; less frequently a half- 
note ; least often of all a sixteenth or other shorter note. 

Now, since the measures run from two pulsations to three, four, six, nine 
and twelve, each signature appears in several different forms, such as a half- 
note unit with two, three, four, etc., pulsations ; a quarter-note unit with all 
the varieties of measures, etc. Hence the following forms: 

1 1 1 A whole-note unit, and two, three, or four pulsations in a measure. 

In all of these forms the value of every note is computed in beats, reck- 
oning from the whole note as one beat. 

2 ^' SP 2 2 2 

In all these forms the unit is a half note, and all other note forms are 
computed from that 

J I J .r B J J V 

In all these forms the unit is a quarter, and this is the measure-note from 
which all are computed. 

/2\ 8 /4\ 6 9 12 
U^ 8 U; 8 8 8 

In these forms the measure-note is an eighth, and all forms are computed 
from that 

16 7 6 1^ ® "-• 
In these forms the measure-note is a sixteenth. 

^r f^ Alia b revci. 

" i J \ I J \ 

i J J \ i J J i 



* J J J I J J J I 

t .^ 

-^ -M ;^ ;^ ;^ I 

i i J J J I J J J J 


All measures having more than three pulsations are grouped within 
themselves into twos or threes, thus requiring smaller accents, as indicated 
approximately in the examples following : 

* I 

J J J J J J I J J J J J J 


Note.— 6-8 measure is not at all the same as six-eights derived from 3-4 
measure. The latter is accented as three groups of two : 

t r^ /I rj\ r, ri ji 

t i J J i J J i J J i.i J J i J J i J J I 

t m rn rn i m rn m i 

^ in w ni rn \ rn rn rn rn i "-^^ 



Musical pitch is noted by means of lines and spaces, grouped into con- 
venient systems called staves, or a staff. In modem music the staff consists 
of five lines and the appertaining spaces, which number six (those above and 
below the lines being included). Each of these lines and spaces is called a 
degree of the staff, and represents a degree of the scale. Therefore, five lines, 
with the six appertaining spaces, afford places for eleven scale degrees. When 
more are wanted, short additional lines (called added lines) are written above 
or below. When these become excessive, the same are repeated with the ex- 
pression 8vo above or below. The former indicates that the octave above is 
intended ; the latter, the octave below. 

Pianoforte music generally employs two such systems of lines, one for 
the notes to be played by each hand. Organ music employs three staves, the 
part for the feet requiring an additional staff. Orchestral scores employ as 
many staves as there are instruments employed. These different staves are 
distinguished from each other by means of special designations, and by char- 
acters, called Clefs, or keys. The clefs in use are three in form, and six in 
variety, according to the manner of appl3dng them. First comes the treble, 
or G Clef, indicating the place of G above middle C. This is used for the 
right-hand parts in piano and organ music, the violin, oboe, flute, and instru- 
ments of high pitch. The bass, or F Clef, indicates the place of F below mid- 
dle C. It is used for the basses. The C Clef indicates middle C. It is applied 
in several different manners. 

The following diagram shows the great staff of eleven lines (the line of 
middle C in the center), with the different clefs applied to the selection of 
five lines which they serve to identify. 


6howing the relation and pitch of the various Clefs and Staves used in Piano- 
forte and Vocal Music, and in Orchestral Scores; together with the 
letters indicating absolute pitch. 

Violin or Soprano 

Boprano-Staff. — V*-JlL 

-a^'- - 





— G- 


-Mezso-Sopr. Staff.- 











Baoc Staff. 





-AA- - 





Very high tones, requiring many added lines to properly indicate, are 
sometimes written an octave lower, with an Sva over them to show that the 
passage is to be played an octave higher. 


+-4—4—4—4—4—4—4— 4— t— t— ♦— *- -^ 




The equivalence of the different clefs is also shown by the following 
figure, in which the notes which are identical are connected by dotted lines. 

Treble Clef. 


Soprano Clef. 


g" a" b" c'" 
e f gab c' d' e' f ' g* a' b' c" d" e"f" ^^^ 

I I I I I 



' • • • 

• • •. 

» « I I J * ^ * 

• • ^F ^^ • • • • • 


Alto Clef. 



;::::::;::: i^tf:E 

• • '•, -I ' i • i » * r r 1 1 ' "i-^" 


Tenor Clef. 



• • • 

*rr i I 


I \\]}^^''* ^ 

• • • • 

Bass Clef. 


• • • • ST [ S • 


fT i I I I I I 

C d e I 


a b c d e f gab c' d' e' f ' g' a' 

These different clefs, although at first confusing to the student of theory, 
are later a convenience, since they permit him to represent almost any melody 
without running off the staff and requiring the addition of added lines. 

The staff as above represented may be taken as equivalent to the white 
keys of the pianoforte, each line and space standing for the tone made by a 
single key. 



The staff is adjusted to the representation of the chromatic tones, and the 
black keys, by means of characters called sharps #, flats t^, and naturals I]. 
The sharp, placed upon a staff degree, indicates the next higher tone in the 
chromatic scale. The flat, the next chromatic tone lower. The natural can- 
cels the flat or, sharp, and in certain cases effects adjustments equivalent to 
either of the former. 

Thus, a sharp upon the staff-degree G^ indicates G-sharp; upon A^ 
A'Sharpy etc. 

A flat upon A^ indicates A-flat ; upon B^ B-flat, etc. 

A natural upon A-sharp, indicates A ; upon B-flat, B^ etc. 

Double sharps x and double flats ^^ are also employed when needed. 
These indicate a chromatic change of an entire whole step upwards or down- 
wards from the unaffected degree. A double sharp upon A^ indicates A- 
double-sharpy which is enharmonic with B-natural. A-double-flat is equiva- 
lent to G-natural, and so on. The double sharps and double fiats are em- 
ployed for indicating chromatic tones in pieces where single sharps or flats 
are already in use. Thus, to the ear the following two series of tones are not 


Chromatic signs affect the staff degree upon which they are placed 
throughout the measure in which they occur, and no further. They affect 
only the degree upon which they are placed, and not the octaves, except when 
used as Signatures, in which case they affect not only the degrees to which 
they are applied, but all octaves of them upon the same staff. 


By Signature is meant sharps or flats written after the clef to indicate the 
adjustment of the staff to key. In this way is indicated whatever modification 
from the plain staff the key may require, except in the case of the minor 
mode, which generally requires an accidental sharp or natural upon its sev- 
enth degree. Hence, in the following table of signatures, and the names of 
the staff degrees under them, the minor modes are also shown with this 



Signatures of the Keys, and Relative Minors. 




Key of C or A minor. 







Key of A or ¥% minor. 





Key of Bi2 or G minor. 








Key of G or E minor. 


i ( 




Key of E or C| minor. 



I i 

/ Key of F| or D$ minor. < 



Key of C| or A| minor 

1 (W 




Key of Eh or C minor. 



Key of Db or Bk minor. / 



Key of Gb or FIz minor. 

I (^ 


Key of D or B minor. 






'-ffi I • 


Key of B or G| minor. 





Key of F or D minor. 







Key of Ah or F minor. 

( P^'yt^ I " 1 

y ^ nqr 



Key of Ch or Ah minor. 



Note. — The occurrence of the characteristic accidental above, with a 
given signature* generally indicates the minor key nairif^H. 




The Tonic Sol-fa notation consists of the initials of the scale names of 
tones written in a horizontal line. Digressions into a higher or lower octave 
are indicated by a short tick above or below the initial. The key ie indi- 
cated by a direction at beginning. 

The bars indicate measure beginnings, and the colons' the beats. As 
many tones are sung in one beat as are represented within the time-space 
devoted to it. Prolongation of tone is indicated by a — in the spaces through 
which the tone is to be prolonged. Rests are indicated by leaving the time- 
space vacant. Example : 

Key of G, 


: s, .,s . s, ,m.— I r .,d ; r, m.— J s, .,8, \ 1, .s, 

I . ' . 

s» .jin \ d, m. — I r .,d * r, m. — I s .,iii \ d .s 


.•m * f M^ I u^ ^d I r, m. — I s •,& * 1, 



This is a staff notation, much used in the South, with note-heads of peci'- 
iar form, indicating the key-name of the tone. All the staff notation (includ- 
ing signatures) is employed, and the characteristic shapes of the note-head 




Do, Ray, Me, Faw, Sol, Law, Se, Da 





THis embellishment consists of a grace note which takes half (a), two- 
thirds (d)y or even the whole {c)y of the time of its principal, as shown in the 
examples following: 

a. l,ong appogrgriatura before a d. Before a note divis- c. Before a note 
note which can be divided ible bv three (a to which an- 

into two equal parts. dotted note). other is tied. 

Written, | 


















^ I '>•' r * I I 

The long appoggiatura is now usually written out in full in large note». 


The short appoggiatura is a grace note with a little stroke through its 
stem. It begins at the time of the principal note, and is played as quickly as 
possible — (fl, bi c.) 

J5- . A 









a. Moderato. 

b. Presto. 







c. Be/ore double notes. 




After iiotes consist of one or more grace notes introduced as passing or 
changing notes, in passing from one melody note to another. They are gen- 
erally connected with their principal note by a slur, and never fall on aa 





i j, J. i'j 1^,-7:^7^ ^ 

• jld* ' 


Played. HHS i^ '-' " ^ . 


Double appoggiaturas consist of two grace notes preceding a melody 
note. They begin at the proper time of the principal note (and therefore with 
the corresponding Base note), and are played as quickly as possible, the 
accent falling on the principal note. 


? f 


The turn consists of a principal note and two auxiliary notes, above and 
below respectively, which may be a whole step or a half step distant from the 
principal. Generally, the upper auxiliary is the next tone above in the same 
key, and the lower a semitone below the principal. When the upper auxiliary 
is only a semitone above the principal, as in the case of turns on the 3d and 
7th degree of the scale, the lower auxiliary is played diatonic, and conse- 
quently a whole step below the principal, in order to avoid the misleading 
chromatic effect which would otherwise be produced. On the 5th degree of 
the minor scale the lower auxiliary is played chromatic. The turn usually 
comes at the close of the principal note, as at a, by and ^, in the examples, 
wheie also is illustrated the use of accidentals in connection with the turn- 
sign. Sometimes, however, it comes at the beginning of a note, as at d^ in 
which case the turn-sign stands directly over it. With dotted notes the turn 
comes' between the note and the dot, as shown at e and/I 






fT^ n i ^i^^"^^ ^ 




^^fU I ^ 7^ 





These two embellishments are precisely alike, except that one is made 
with the note below the principal, and the other with the note above. The 
first is distinguished by the vertical stroke through the sign, as at a, below. 
The other, also called Mordent by some, and Prall Trill or " Bounding Trill " 
by others, lacks the vertical stroke through the sign, and is made with the 
note above. The same embellishment is sometimes written out in small 
notes, as at e. The Prall Trill should be accented on the first note, as at d. 
In all cases the embellishment is to be played as rapidly as possible. 




^^^^^^ \ 1_ 




d According to Mason, e 

/ with double notea 




The trill consists of a rapid vibration or alternation of a principal note 
and the next above in the same key. A vocal trill should begin somewhat 
deliberately, but immediately become rapid, as shown at a below. It con- 
cludes with a turn, which, however, may sometimes be omitted in chain trills. 
On the pianoforte a long trill, accompanied by a melody in the same hand, 
may omit the auxiliary note at the moment of sounding the melody, in order 
to facilitate the passage, as shown at d. It is of the greatest importance that 
the notes of the trill should be of equal power. At the start the auxiliary may 
be accented. Trills should vibrate at a uniform speed, after the motion is 
once established, and in some definite ratio to the time of the passage. 

The trill begins with the principal note, and not with the auxiliary, 
although the contrary has been taught by eminent masters, and is sometimes 
required by a grace note, as at b and c below. 














H 1— t— f- 

' ^' ' 'M i ! I I i i I H I ■ 


i A. 




= X 

Presto tr,,^ 


^.t. e.^.^.^ 

i-i U - g 4 

f: - ♦ 





Modern pianofortes sometimes have two and sometimes three pedals. 
That upon the right is the Damper pedal. (There is no such thing as a loud 

It is indicated by the abbreviation Ped.^ and the termination of its use by 
Sic or •^. 

In some old masic (printed between 1830 and 1850) the use of the pedal is 
indicated by the character •^. This is now obsolete. 


Mr/ Arthur Foote has proposed the following mark, which indicates that 
the pedal is to be pressed at the beginning of the line and discontinued at the 
precise point where the line terminates : 

The left-hand pedal is called the Soft pedal^ and its office is to reduce the 
volume of sound. Upon upright pianos it does this by bringing the hkmmers 
nearer the strings. Upon grand pianos, by shifting the hammers so that they 
do not strike all the strings of the unison. Hence the origin of the term Una 
CordUy for indicating that the soft pedal should be pressed by the left foot. 
The term Tre Corda indicates its discontinuance. Occasionally these terms 
are abbreviated to U. C. and T. C, but as a rule they are written out in full. 

When there are three pedals thie middle one is generally a tone-sustaining 
pedal. This is a modification of the damper pedal, prolonging whatever tones 
are actually sounding at the moment when the tone-sustaining pedal is 
pressed. Meanwhile, others can be taken and left to any extent, the original 
tone or chord remaining sounding until the vibration of the strings dies 
away, or until the tone-sustaining pedal is dismissed. There is no mark as 
yet for this pedal. Its use is advisable in places where there are tones to be 
prolonged, but where confusion arises from the ordinary damper pedaL 


The Slur ^— . is a curved line drawn over or under several notes, indicat- 
ing that they are to be closely connected in performance ; or that they form a 
single idea, although the idea itself may contain several smaller ideas 

""y^^ Cross slur points indicate that the note under them belongs to 

two ideas, being the end of one and the beginning of the other. 
• • • • *- 

f f f f Dots, or pointed specs, over notes indicate Staccato quality. 

Tones so indicated are disconnected more or less according to the nature of 
the passage. In older music the dots were sometimes considered to indicate 
a duration equal to half the value of the notes; and the specs a duration equal 
to a quarter of the apparent value of the notes. In modern music no distinc- 
tion of this kind exists. 

T Y "f Short lines over notes indicate emphasis and individuality, 
occasionally a slight prolonging. 

f f f Short lines with a dot, or dots and slur together, indicate a 

Jess degree of staccato than the dots alone. Generally considered to equa> 
three fourths of the value of the notes. 


y Sometimes used to indicate the end of a formal phrase, in pieces edited 
for elementary instruction. It does not necessarily require separation be- 
tween the tones, but is intended solely as an aid to the eye in dividing the 
passage into its constituent parts. 

I I or I I These are called " reading marks," and indicate the bounda- 
ries of subordinate motives. No separation of tones is indicated by these 
marks. They are solely for aiding the eye. 

[/ -^ Placed over a bar indicates the strong accent of the great meter, 
consisting of three or two measures, according to the figure above the little 

'^ Rubato, sometimes employed to indicate a slight emphasis and pro- 
longing of the tone, particularly in suspensions. 

» Comma, sometimes indicates a breathing interruption in the flow of 
tone, similar to that made in melody by the singer taking breath. 
HS, Hauptsatz, Headpiece, or Principal Subject 
SS. Seitensatz, Sidepiece, or Second Subject 
SCHLS. Schlusssatz, Closingpiece, or Conclusion. 

ZIVS. Zwischensatz, Betweenpiece, or Connecting Part, or Interlude. 
MS, ?^ittelsatz, Middlepiece, or Middle Subject Often found in the 
sonatas of Mozart directly after the double bar in the principal 


Gradual increase of intensity. 

Gradual diminution of intensity. 

Swell ; increase and diminish. 

As soft as possible. 

As loud as possible. 

"With sudden force. 

Sforzando. With sudden force. 

Rinforzando. Several tones in succession very forcible. 

One tone, or chord, forte, all the rest piano. 

Legato. All the tones connected. 

Every tone emphasized, individualized, and slightly separated. 

Every tone strongly individualized. 

Sometimes used as breathing mark in solfeggi, and in music 

for wood wind. 
Tenuto. Hold the tone its full value. 

• • • 


MU^CAt dlGNd. 













-I !- 

H — I F i < — ^ 

* Note. — This mark is ambiguous. Rubinstein uses it as a broken trem- 
olo, as at tty but generally it is intended as here given. The context will gen- 
erally determine. 

sign of repetition 
of the preceding 




Dotted Bars. 
Signs of Repetition. 

sign of repetition 
of the following 

Sign of repetition 
of the preceding 
and following 


•_ _ • 

2.1 . * 
S.I I 5 







Da Capo Signs. 
Signs of Repetition 








Sign indicating the close of a 

Repeat, or the end of a 



Sign of Repeat 


iJijEior :: 








3 ^ — r 




A note with two stems belongs to different voices. 


Example. Meaning. 





Meaning : 

Chords played Arpeggiando. 




»— I Down bow. 

^ up bow. 

H,B, Half bow. 

Sh. Si. Short strokes 

IV, h, Wnoifc t>oU' 

G, B, Whole length of bow. 

M. B, Middle of bow. 

Fr, At the nut 

Sp, At the point 

• • Short bowing. 

- - - — Long bowing. 


j Down Plectrum. 
f Up Plectrum. 


Open tube. 

X, 2. 3. Numbers of the valves. 

9 p Demi staccato. (Made by tonguing) as if in pronouncing the 

i I < letter D. 



V Placed above the staff to indicate that the left-hand stick is raised 
And below the staff to show that the right-hand stick is raised. 
I Used to indicate a tap, or a tap beat. 

6 To denote that both sticks drop on the drum-head at the same time. 


Signs employed in Guitar 
music \q indicate the 

Left hand. 

Open string, 


First string, 1 


Second string, 2 


Third string, 3 

Right hand, 

First string, 


Second string, 


Third string, 


Thumb, »«( 


Open hole. Q 

Closed hole. % 

Pinched, or pamv ^osed hole % 




Pl£^re, a musical idea of recognizable peculiarities. In order to embody an 
idea a tone-succession must possess the following elements : i, a definite 
motion and compass in rhythm, extending from some one point in meas- 
ure to the corresponding point in the next pulsation, measure, or the next 
measure but one ; 2, a melodic figure with a point of accent or emphasis ; 
and 3, a chord-foundation suggested or expressed. In developing a mu* 
sical idea into larger forms a composer takes one of two courses : Either 
he retains the rhjrthm of the motive and modifies the harmony and melody 
(thematic development), or he retains the harmony and the essential 
features of the melody and modifies the rhythm (variation). 

riotive, a musical idea, taken as a germ or pattern for development The 
natural compass of a motive is one measure, which may be from any point 
within the measure to the corresponding point in the next A Motive 
may be a fraction of a measure ; or it may run to two measures. 

Phrase, a musical s)rmmetry, consisting of two motives, or one motive repeated 
or sequenced. The natural compass of a Phrase is two measures. But it 
may extend only to one measure, or be carried to four, or under certain 
circumstances to a larger number of measures. 

Section, a musical symmetry, composed of two phrases. Its natural compass 
is four measures, but it may be carried to eight. Sections are of two 
general types : Antecedents, which propose a subject, and Consequents, 
which answer and complete an Antecedent. These divisions correspond 
to subjects and predicates in logic. 

Period* a completed musical idea, consisting of two sections which answer 
each other. A Period is like a stanza. Its four phrases may rhyme with 
each other in almost any manner the composer pleases. Periods arising 
from motives of a part of. a measure might not exceed four measures in 
compass ; and those arising from motives of two measures would naturally 
reach sixteen measures. Still further variations occur in period-forms 
through the repetition of some one phrase, or motive, the avoidance or 



postponement of a cadence, and the like. Periods are to be distinguished 
also with reference to their character as dependent and independent. A 
dependent period requires something else to finish it ; or devote? itself to 
finishing something already proposed. Hence a dependent period is 
either a Consequent of some former antecedent, or the Antecedent of a 
consequent to occur later. The external indication of dependence in 
period-forms is the cadence, which, if upon the tonic of the original key, 
indicates that the period is closed in that direction, at least. If also the 
period begins in its principal key, it may be taken as independent But 
if it begins in some key or chord other than the tonic, there is something 
implied before it, which may be found in the previous period, or may be 
merely mental with the composer. Of the latter kind the beginning o(^ 
the Beethoven sonata, opus iii, may be taken as type. 
Period -Group, a succession of periods, which may be developed from the 
same motives, or may serve as connecting links in a larger work. In th* 
former case the group assumes an independent form, and the Song-form 
is the result. In the latter case we have modulating periods, passages^ 
and the like. 


Unitary Forms, containing but one single melodic subject. The simplest 
tjrpe of unitary form is the One-period Song-form, of which the ordinary 
church tune affords a convenient example. The Two-period Song-form 
consists of two periods, of which the second is the consequent and com- 
plement of the first. The Three-period Song-form consists of three 
periods, in which the second period is usually in a different key, while 
the third period is nearly or quite the same as the first. Here we have in 
miniature a rondo, in which an original subject is brought back again 
after a digression. The Song-form is the general foundation of all dances, 
and most popular music, and it furnishes the principal subjects of the 
slow movements in the classic authors. 

Tke Fugue is a unitary form entirely developed out of a single melodic 
subject, but its compass is so much extended by the harmonic and con- 
trapuntal transformation of the original subject that the piece, as a whole, 
often reaches proportions almost symphonic^ as in the great organ fugues 
of Bach. 

Variations are also unitary forms, in that they treat of the same mel- 
ody all through. The original theme in this case is the form, usually a 
song-form of one or two or three periods. The variations in succession 
illustrate contrasted manners of treatment, and in their relative order 
they finally combine to constitute a large form, somewhat suggestive of 
a rondo or sonata. 


An Etude is a thematic composition designed to illustrate some diffi- 
culty or artistic eflFect. Occasionally it is of binary order, but generally 
it is unitary, having but a single subject. The etudes of Chopin illus- 
trate artistic studies in musical effect; and those of Cramer and Cle- 
ment! those designed for technical purposes. 

Canon is a musical form in which one or more voices follow after a 
leading voice, called the antecedent, singing precisely the same melody. A 
round is a common example of this form. The canons of Schumann are 
also good examples. 

Canonic Imitation is imitation in the manner of canon, and this art 
underlies all modem thematic development. 
tdlnary Forms are those in which there are two contrasting melodic subjects, 
each of which may be, and generally is, a complete song-form of one, two 
or three periods. The first subject is called the Principal, and when it is 
repeated it is always in the same key, and generally nearly or quite un- 
changed, although in some instances it is shortened. The second subject 
is called Second, and is in a related key to the principal key of the piece. 
Opinions and practices differ with reference to the relation which should 
prevail between a Principal and Second, as to tonality. In general, how- 
ever, in the older practice the Second of a major Principal was in the 
dominant ; and the Second of a minor Principal was in the relative major. 
Chopin made a very bold departure from this practice when, in his E 
minor concerto, after a Principal in B minor he introduced a second in B 
major. The effect is very pleasing. 

A Trio is a second subject somewhat milder than the Principal with 
which it is associated. According to classical practice the trio of a 
major Principal was in the subdominant, or in the relative minor. These 
rules are no longer obligatory. 

Many slow movements of the sonatas and symphonies of Beethoven are 
binary forms, with a certain amount of passage or modulating work be- 
tween the Principal and Second. Such movements are concluded with a 
Coda, or conclusion, and appi-oach the form of the rondo. 

A Rondo is a musical form in which a Principal is relieved by a Second 
and perhaps a Third, the Principal returning from three to five times, 
with the introduction of more or less connecting matter. This form is 
more generally a ternary order, wherefore it will be more fully discussed 
in the next paragraph. 

Toccata is a style rather than a form. A Toccata is generally a sort of 
etude, characterized by rapid motion and brilliancy of effect. Toccatas 
are generally unitary as to form, but occasionally binary. 
Ternary Forms are those in which, besides a Principal and Second, there is 
also a Third. When three subjects have to be related in this manner, the 
Second was originally in the dominant or the principal key, or in some 
key upon tV <lominant side ; while the Third was in the subdominant or 


in some key upon that side. These rules are no longer followed exactly. 
The composer is free to follow his fancy, and to place his new subject in 
any possible key which he conceives best suited to bring out its nature^ 
when taken in connection with the matter and tonality of the accompany 
ing subjects. 

The most characteristic of the ternary forms is the Rondo^ which is de- 
fined above. Rondo means rounds and the frequent return of the Princi- 
pal is the characteristic trait of this form. The Rondo is primarily lyric 
in its spirit, and by preference is of a semi-jovial character, wherefore it 
is never applied to serious purposes ; or, if its essential round principle 
is availed of in more serious forms, the jovial rondo spirit is carefully 
eliminated. The Berlin theorist, Adolph Bernhardt Marx, was the first 
to apply the term rondo to slow movements. He called the Adagio of 
Sonata Pathetique a rondo, which in the return of the Principal it is ; but 
not in spirit of the movement. 

The Sonata-Piece is the most conspicuous example of the ternary 
form. A sonata-piece consists essentially of a Principal, some connect- 
ing matter, a Second, and a Conclusion. Here there is a repetition, 
after which comes a middle part, called an Elaboration, devoted to free 
fantasia upon the principal themes of the work ; after the Elaboration, the 
first part (Principal, Second, and Conclusion) returns entire, except that 
the Second is always in the principal key of the work, and the Conclusion 
is somewhat extended, though this latter is not obligatory. In the older 
sonata pieces the Principal and the Second are so much more important 
than the Conclusion that the careless observer may not be inclined to 
attach much importance to them. The Conclusion, however, is an essen- 
tial part of this form. The Sonata-Piece is the tj^pe of all serious instru- 
mental composition. It forms the principal movement or movements in 
sonatas and symphonies (including all chamber quartettes and larger 
works), and many overtures and other works also form themselves upon 
its general principles. 
Complex Forms are forms consisting of two, three, four, or even five, shorter 
forms, each of which is an independent piece ; but all are associated into 
one Complex form through affinity of tonality, and consecutive qualities 
of spirit and meaning ; or for the sake of contrast. The principal types 
of Complex forms are Sonata, Suite, Opera, Oratorio, and all forms in 
which a consecutive musical idea is carried on by means of completed 
pieces in succession. In all these very large forms, like Opera, for instance, 
the work is grouped into smaller unities by its division into acts, and 
each act is generally ended by an elaborate finale, which often reaches great 
development. As, for instance, the third finale in Mozart's " Marriage 
of Figaro," and the third finale in Wagner's " Meistersinger." 

Sonata, The sonata is the most important of all the complex forms ; it 
is the form of all pieces of that name, as well as of the Symphony, Con- 


certo, Trio, Quartette, Quintet, and neariy all varieties of chamber music. 
A Sonata consists of from three to four movements. At least one of these 
movements is a sonata movement (Sonata-piece, Sonaia-satz) of the form 
already described in the ternary forms. The first movement usually 
belongs to this form, and many times the last. Occasionally the same 
form, somewhat shortened, is employed for the second movement. The 
first movement of the sonata is generally (almost invariably) thematic. 
The second movement is generally in some kind of slow movement, 
lyric and ideal in character. If there are four movements, the third is 
either a minuet with trio, or a Scherzo with trio (Song-form with trio). 
The closing movement is either a Rondo or else a Finale, the latter being 
a sonata-piece. Many sonatas of Beethoven deviate somewhat from this 
order, such as that in A-flat, opus 26, which begins with an Air and Varia- 
tions, has a funeral march for second movement, the only sonata-piece 
being the Finale. The so-called " Moonlight" sonata, opus 27, No. 2, has 
the slow movement first. The second is a Scherzo, and the Finale is a 
sonata-piece. The great sonata in C minor, opus iii, begins with a vigor- 
ous introduction, leading into a strong sonata-piece, and there is only one 
other movement, which is an Arietta with variations. 

The Symphony is carried out in precisely the same manner as the 
sonata, except that the development is longer. The Concerto has gen- 
erally only three movements, the short Scherzo being omitted. In some 
modern concertos all four movements are condensed into one, or rather 
the whole is made continuous. 

CofKlitioned Pomis are those in which the form is conditioned by extra 
musical considerations. The prominent types are the Recitative, wher^ 
textual declamation is the primary condition, and emotional coloring the 
secondary, the purely musical remaining subordinate to both these ; all 
types of Song and Aria, where the delivery of a text and the intensifica- 
tion of a dramatic moment are the main objects sought. Sometimes these 
qualities are so accomplished that the musical effect as such is heigh.'' 
. ened ; examples of this are afforded by Schubert's " Erl-King," " Margaret 
at the Spinning Wheel," " To be sung on the waters," etc. All forms of 
the conditioned character conform to the general principles of pure form, 
to as complete an extent as they are able without sacrificing the imme- 
diate end sought in their own creation. 

Note I • The principles of form, whether large or small, are the same. Unity, 
symmetry and contrast are the elements which have to be combined. 

^k)te a. The above classification of form exhausts the subject, and affcrds 
place for every variety of form which can be created. 

(For further development of the subject of Musical Form, see " Primer 
of Musical Forms," by the senior editor of the present work.) 




a IS always like ft In faifier, 

e has (1) the sound of S in pen, and (2) the 
sound of a in fate. 

i is pronounced like e in me, and in short syl- 
lables, I in pin. 

J, at the beginning of a syllable, is like y in 
you. At the end of a word it is like § in be. 

o has the sound of 6 in tone. 

u has always the sound of oo in cooL 


b, d, f, 1, n, p, q, v, are the same as in Eng- 

€, before a, o, and u, has the sound of k ; be- 
fore e, i, and y it has the sound of tsh, or that 
of ch in the word cJieek. When doubled (cc) 
and followed by e, i, or y, the first is pro- 
nounced like t, and the second takes its 
usual sound. 

ch» before e or i. has the :K>und of k. 

g, before a, o, or u, is hard, as in go; before e 
or i, it has the sound of j or soft g, as in 
gem. When doubled and followed by e or i, 
it has the sound of dj, or like d^ In lodge. 

gh, followed by e or i, is pronounced like g 
in go, 

gl, followed by i, preceding another vowel, 
^ pronounced like U in miUion, 

gn, followed by a, e, i, o, or u, is like nl in*JUe 
English word minion. 

srua. srue, s:ui are pronounced gwft. gw&, gw^. 

sria, srio, sriu are pronounced dJifi, djid, djioo, 
in one syllable, giving the i a very faint 
sound, difiering almost imperceptibly from 
the effect of the same combination with tho 
i omitted. 

5 has (1) the hard sound as in iia, and (2) the 
soft sound as in ease ; usually the latter 
when occurring between two vowels. 

jc, before e or i, is like sh in sJiall; before a, 
o, or u, it has the sound of sk. 

jch is always like sk, or sch in school. 

5cia, scio, sciu are pronounced sh&, sh5, shoo. 

r, at the beginning of words, is like the Eng' 
lish, but at the end of words or syllables, or 
when combined with another consonant, 
it should have a rolling sound. 

w and X are not found in Italian, except io 
foreign words. 

z has usually the sound of ts ; it is sometimer 
pronounced like dz. 

Italian words are pronounced erxactly aji 
written, there being no silent letter, except h. 
The vowels always preserve their proper 
sounds, forming no diphthongs and bning un- 
influenced by the consonants with which they 
may be combined. 

In words of two or more syUaMes there lj 
usually a slight emphasis placed on the penult 
or antepenult, but rarely on the last sifUAble. 






a has the sound of S as in far. 

Ml is like ou in fumae. 

al occurs but rarely, and has the sound ol I as 
in pine. 

oe or ft when long is like & in mate; when 
short it IS like 6 In met, 

neu or Ku is like oy in 5ov. 

e has (1) the sound of d as in help, and (2) the 
sound of a lu lujie. 

el has always the sound of 1 in pine. 

eu is like oi in loiter. 

i has the sound of 1 as in pin. 

le takes the sound of S as in tree, 

o has the sound of o as in i(me. 

oe or has nearly the sound of S as in/sS. 

It has the sound of oo as in moon. 

tte or ti has the sound of the French u. 

y is used only in foreign words, where it does 
not differ from 1 in pin. 


1» and d are pronounced as in English. 

c is only used in foreign words. Before e, 1, 
and y it is pronounced like ts ; before other 
vowels and consonants it is like k. 

ch has nothing corresponding to it in Eng- 
lish. It is a guttural sound, produced by 
pronouncing ahk, but taking care not to 
close the vocal organs in sounding k. At 
the beginning of words ch is like k. 

Is pronounced like ks or z. 

f , 1, m, p, t and z are the same as In Bnglish. 

% has the hard sound as in go. In some parts 
of Germany the unaccented final ig is soft- 
ened into something like ikh. « 

h at the beginning of words is aspirated ; be> 
tween two vowels the aspiration is very 
weak, and before a consonant or at the end 
of words it is mute; but in this case it 
makes the preceding vowel long. 

J is equivalent to the English y in you, and is 
always followed by a vowel. 

k is like the English k, but is never mute 
before n. 

iiK sounds like ng in length; but incomiK>und 
words where the first ends in n and the last 
begins with g, they are separated, and both 
pronounced distinctly. 

q is always joined with u, and together they 
are pronounced, like kw. 

ph has the sound of f . 

pf unites the two letters in one sound uttered 
with compressed lips. 

r has a stronger sound than in English, and 
is the same at the beginning, middle, or 
end of a word. 

5 is like the English s. It is sounded at the 
end of words, and between two vowels it 
frequently takes the sound of z. 

sch is like the English sh in ship. 

th takes always the sound of t ; h being silenU 
It has never the sound of th in thee. 

tz intensifies the sound of z. 

y is pronounced like f. 

w following a vowel answers to the English v- 

z is pronounced like ts in ndt. 




• hta two'sounds ; ft as in fiuus, and & as in bar. 

Al is Uke & infaU. 

aa *a similar to o in English. 

e l8 (1) Uke e in met ; (2) like & in faUe; (3) sim- 
ilar to (i in hud, the latter chiefly in mono- 
syllables, as le, de, etc. It is frequently si- 
lent at the end of words. 

el is nearly like a in/ate, 

eu resembles tl in ivb, 

i has the sound (1) of 1 in pin, (2) of 5 in me. 

Ii has nearly the sound of ia in medial. 

le is like ee in bee. 

o is pronounced like 6 in rob, and like 6 in 

a has no equivalent in English, but resembles 
the sound of e in dew. By prolonging the 
sound of e, taking care not to introduce the 
sound of v), we get an approximate sound of 
the French u, or U as it will be marked in 
this work. 

y , when initial, or coming between two con- 
sonants, or standing as a syllable by itself, 
is the same as the French i (I in ill) ; but be- 
tween two vowels it is equivalent to double 
French i(1I), the first forming a diphthong 
with the preceding one and the second with 
the one following. 


Final consonants are almost always silent, 
except c, f, 1, n, and r, which are generally 

b, at the beginning and in the middle of 
words, is the same as in English. 

c has (1) the sound of k before a, o, or u ; (2) 
when written with the pedilla, or before e 
or i, it has the sound of s. c final is sounded 
unless preceded by n. 

ch is pronounced like sh in she. hx voids de* 
rived from the Greek, ch iv pronounce^ 

d is the same as in English, it is silent at th« 
end of words. 

f is like the English ; when final it is usually 
' sounded. 

gt before a, o, or u, is hard, as in go ; but be* 
fore e, i, or y it has the sound of z in the £ng< 
lish word azure. In the combination gue. 
or gui, the u is silent, but the g takes itb 
hard sound. 

gn is pronounced like iki in union. 

h is mute or slightly tiSpirated. 

J is pronounced like z in azure. 

k has the same souKd as in English. 

i has (1) the same sound as in English, and C2> 
the liquid sound, as in million. 

m and n, when not nasal, have the same 
sound as in English ; if preceded by a vowel 
in the same syllable, they are always nasal 
unless immediately followed by a vowel in 
the next syllable. 

am, an, em, en a^e pronounced somewhat 
like an in ijani. 

im, in, ym, aim, ain, eim, ein are pro- 
nouuced like an in anger. 

cm and ow are iiJce on in song. 

um and un are pronounced like un in torung. 

p is generally the same as in English. It is 
sometimes silent, and always when at the 
eud of a word. 

q is usually followed by u, in which case they 
are together sounded like the letter k. 

r is given more roughly than in English. It 
is often silent when preceded by the vowel e. 

s has generally the same sound as in English ; 
between two vowels it has generally the 
same sound as in the English word rose. 

se is the same as in English, s final is gener' 
ally silent 



t has its hard English sound, but in tial, tiel, 
and tion it has the sound of s. 

th is always the same as t alone, t final is 
usually cdlent 

V is like the English, only a little softer. 

w is found only in foreign words, and is pro- 
nounced like V. 

X, initial, is pronounced like gz ; it occurs hut 
in few words. 

ex, at the beginning of words, is sounded like 
egz. In other places, and between two 
Yowels, it is pronounced like ks. 

z is like s in «on«. 

Final consonants, which would otherwise 
be silent, are frequently sounded by carrying 
them over to the next word, when oommeno- 
ing with a vowel. 

Note. — ^While the French language does not properly have syllabic 
emphasis, the rate of speaking is very fast, and the practical result is a*: 
emphasis upon the last syllable of words. This rule is almost universal, iu 
some cases we have marked it, in others not 



.me of a musical pUch produced by 
o ta 4!0 vlbratlouB per (econd, aurt 

mat^jr the laner. Also the Duue 

Bfuting the pi 
duciDgA; - 

is atij'uBicd 

TfTa int. 

r-dMree repre- 

d- Atibr. ioi ALIO i^Tioiaf. 
rf (Ui), il. By, for, to, at, In, eta. 
A In alt. The A placed upon the flrat upper 

added Hue. 
A In altlaslmo. An octave above A lu alt. 
A ballaU a bU-li'ti), It. 


■tyle of 1 
(a-Mnh^dSablj Ft. Without re 

slmul; with self-abaadi 
A luttuta (il b&t-too'lA), IL 

Ir lu lime. 
Abb. Abbr. tor AbbanameDto. 
Abbirlare (ab-bi^di'te), II. Take care: pa; 

Mbnalhnuul (Sb-bin-da-nB'il), It. Without 

reatciilut! with paBSionale I '- 

aeutly-, , 




Bpoudlagl/i wllb aelf-abaQdc 

idono(ftb-ban'de'u{>),A. With paalon- 

Mo dl mano .Ib-bb-sS-men'tA de 

„. _.. The down beat, or deaceut of 

the band Id bentiuit time. 


eati (ib-b«1-11-m 

r,«it . 

.bclllE^ a plain mel- 

(ab-b«l-il-ro«n'to), /(. A grace 

Abbellire (ilb-bel-l«'r«),,lt. To embellish with 


Ion marks. 

thiTfTt-aecoiuliioteH; wbenapplledto 

of the quarter or halfntile, signify aa mAuy 
repeilHoQg of the ahortet uoie thus liidf- 
caled as are equal to the longer note 

repreBenled. Thus, Sq is equiTaleut to 

' ££9* 

sometimes of 


3. Wbetl (he long nol«9 are omitted, tl 
oblique BtTokea, disllngulehliig eightli, »i 

to denote a repetition of sucU shorl ui 
Thua, " 3 indicate a cepetltlon of 
eighths, sixteenths, thlrty.aeconds, leapec- 

4. A short horizontal line, 




or a waving line is nsed to express the repe- 
tition, or a continuation of the influence, of 
the preceding character. Thus, 

5. A combination of rests so written as to 
denote a long period of si 




lence. These rests iudi 
cate a period of eleven 
measures' silenne. 

6. Figures, when placed upon the staff, or 
over a measure iu which rests 8 ' 

are written, serve to indicate 
the number of whole rests or 
measures of silence. 

Abendmusik (a-bSnd-moo-sekO, Oer. Evening 
music; music of a soft aud quiet character. 

A bene placito {& b&'uS pla-tshS'td), It, At 

Abgestossen (ab-gh6-st6s's'n), ^s^ \ «* .«««t^ 
or Abstossen tab-stos's'n), ^^' | Staccato. 

Abnehmend (ab-n&'mSnd), Oer. Fading away ; 

Absatz (Sb-sfitz), Oer, Cadence. 

Absolute music. Music developed freely, ac- 
cording to its ideal, merely as music. In 
contradistinction to vocal music, which is 
restricted by the words; program music, de- 
voted t<) a series of incidents ; and dance mu- 
sic, restricted to the steps of the dance. In 
short, high art music, loyal to the highest 

Absteigende Tonarten (ftb-stl-gendS ton-ar- 
t'u), Ger, Descending scales or keys. 

AbtSnen (ab-t^h'n^n), Oer, To deviate from 
the right tone. 

Abub (a-boob), Heb. A flute, or hautboy. 

Abwechseind (ab-vSk's'lnd), Oer. Alternat- 
ing ; changing. In organ-playing, alternate- 
ly, with dmerent manuals; in choir-sing- 
ing, antiphonally ; in dance music, chimge 
of movements. 

Abvssinian flute. An instrument resem- 
bling the German flute, but with mouth- 
piece like the clarinet, and played upon 
from the end like an oboe. 

Academie de Musique (&-k&-d^mS dtih moo- 
seek'), Fr. An academy of music, consist- 
ing of professors and scholars ; a society for 
promoting musical culture. 

Academie Royale de JVlusique, Fr. The name 
given to the opera-house in Paris. 

Academie spirituelle (a-k&-d^m§ spl-il-too- 
€1'), Fr. A performance or concert of sa- 
cred music. 

A cappella (& kap-p$ia&), „ ) In the church 
or. Alia cappella. J or chapel style. 

Without instrumental accompaniment. 

A capriccio (& k&-pil'tsbld). It. In a ca^ 
pricious style ; according to the taste of the 
performer. Especially in the matter of time 
and phrasing. More commonly the former. 

Acatalectic (a-k£-tll-iek'tlc). Or. A verse 
having the co^npleve number of syllables 
without superfluity or deficiency. 

Acathistus (&-kft-thYs-too6), Or. A hymn of 
praise sung in the ancient Greek Church 
in honor of the Virgin. 

Academla (a-kfi-d^mS'sl), R. An academy. 
The word also means a concert. 

Accarezzevole (&k•kfi-re^tsa'v^-le), II. Bland 
ishing; in a persuasive and caressing ^^an* 

It. Caressingly; coaxingly. 

Accel, (at-tshei), » ) Abbreviation! >f 

Acceldo. (St-tshfil-dd), ■'^- / Accelerando. 

Accelerando (&t-tshei-^rfin'dd). It. Accel Vf* 
aiing the time; gradually increasing ( lie 
velocity of the movement. An acceleran lo 
generally occurs when approaching a cli- 
max. The disturbance thus produced in 
the long rhythms is generally compensated 
by corresponding retards at the climax. 

Acceieratamente (Ht-tshei-^-riUta-men'te), II. 

Accelerato (&t-tshei-d-r&'td), i2. Accelerated; 
increasing in rapidity. 

Accent. 1. Stress, or emphasis, (a) tipon a 
certain division of measure ; (6) a tone in a 
figure; (c) a chord in an harmonic phrase, 
and the mark or marks by means Oi which 
such stress is indicated. Measure accent 
falls upon the beginning of the first beat; 
and in measures having more than three 
beats, upon the first beat of each aliquot 
part likewise. {See Measure.) Besides the ac- 
cent upon the beat (the bar indicating the 
place of the strong accent to be upon the 
next time-place following} there are subor- 
dinate graaesof what mignt be called " mo- 
lecular" accentuation, upon the beginning 
of divided beats, and upon the beginning m 
each aliquot part of a beat when the subdi- 
vision extends to quarter-pulse division. 

2. The accentuation of a melodic phrase 
is primarily determined by the measure, but 
the occurrence of dissonance adds fresh 
element, every dissonance occurring ux>oi^ 
the beginning of a beat, or upon the begin- 
ning of a half beat (in quarter-pulse subdi' 
vision), receiving an accent of its own, partly 
due to its rhythmic place, but intensified 
for the sake of the dissonance. So also dis- 
sonant chords, such as appoggiaturas, bus* 
Sensions, etc., are accented, what is called 
yncopation is an accent breaking into the 
natural order of the measure, (see Synco- 

8. Also the name applied to the marks In- 
dicating accent. The chief of these are the 
horizontal short angle > , and the abbre- 
viation 8f. or ^z. In old music (from Mosart 
and before) the expression /p. often occnn 

ftorm, Aadd,h<Ue,iiend,eeve,liU^lirie,6old,6odd,oornoon,tLlnatiXFr,90und,kh, nhnoMll 





Indicating that one tone is loud and all the 
following soft. (See Forzando, also ^or- 
zando.) The short vercical accent standing 
upon its base (a) is not properly an accent, 
but a mark of tenuto iq. v.), but in some 
French and Belgian music it is occasionally 
employed where the horizontal mark is in- 

4. Accent is the life of music, and is of 
multitudinous variety of shading and in- 
Accento (ilt-tshSn'td), II. Accent or emphasis 
laid upon certain notes. 

A^ccenti (&t-tsh6n'te), It. 1 a p«enta 
Accent (&k-sftnh). i^r. i Accenra. 

Accentuare (at-tsh6n-too il'rfi), H. To accen- 
tuate ; to mark with an accent. 

Accentuation. The act of accenting ; the giv- 
ing to the several notes of a piece their 
proper emphasis or expression ; the art of 
placing accents. 

Accentuato (&t-t8hen-too-a'to), It. Distinctly 
and strongly accented. 

Accentuiren (fik-tsCn-too-e'r'n), Oer. To ac- 

Accentus (sLk-sSn'toos), Lot. Accent. " Un- 
der the name Accentus were classed those 
portions of the ritual song (of the Roman 
Catholic Church) chanted or intoned by the 
officiating priest, the deacon, subdeacon, or 
other sacred ministers at the altar ; in con- 
tradistinction to Coneentus, which referred 
to all that should be sung by the assistants 
or by a special trained choir." (Rev. F. H. 
Haberl.) See the next article. 

\ccentu5 ecclesiastici, Lot. Ecclesiastical ac- 
cents are melodic forms used in the Roman 
Catholic Church in chanting, or rather re- 
citing, the collects, epistles, gospels, etc. 
These melodic inflections which varv the 
monotone recitation, correspond with the 
comma, colon, semicolon, period, mark of 
interrogation , etc. See the preceding article. 
These variations were of seven kinds, called 
the immutabilis, wi* diw, gravis, anUtiHf itunie- 
ratus, inferrogafus, and fiimlis, each of Tvhich 
was practically an upward or downward 
inflection extending to a particular interval, 
namely: immtUnbUis, monotone, medius, a 
minor third, sol me; grnvis, a fifth, sol do; 
aeiUud, sol mi me sol; woderntus, sol la sol ; 
interrogaius, sol fa fa sol ; finalis, sol la sol fa 
m^ re— thus closing on the ecclesiastical 
Dorian key. 

Accessory notes. Those notes situated one 
degree above and one degree below the 
principal note of a turn. 

Accessory parts. Accompaniments. 

Accessory tones. Harmonics. Tones faintly 
heard when the principal tone dies away. 

Accessory voices. Accompanying voices. 

Acciaccare (at-tshl-ak-k&'rS), It. A broken 
and unexpected way of striking a chord. 

Acciaccato (at-tshl-ak-k&'to), It. Violently. 

\B^m,h add, a ate, d end, e eve,l iU, I t«2«,o old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, tl Fr.foutid, kh Oer. eh. jihnamL 


Acciaccatura (&t-t8hI-ftk-k&-too'r&), It. A spe- 
cies of arpeggio; an accessory note placed 
before the principal note, the accens being 
on the principal note. Practi(»lly about the 
same as an appoggiatura. 

Accident! (at-tshl-dfin'tfi), 12.) .^^4^^„..,. 
Accidents (ak-sl-d&nh). Pr. [Accidentals. 

Accidentals. 1. The name applied to sharps, 
flats, naturals, double sharps, and double 
flats occurring in written music elsewhere 
than in the signature. (9ee ifignature.) The 
name accidental appertains to the charac- 
ters only, and not to the tones they help to 
indicate; many of the tones written by the 
help of these unforeseen characters being 
merely the natural diatonic tones of the 
key into which the passage may have mo- 
mentarily digressed. [See Modulation.) More- 
over, minor Icevs universally require an ac- 
cidental for the leading tone— always a 
sharp or a natural. 

Accidentals effect the staff-d^^'ces to 
which they are applied throughout the 
measure in which tney occur ; and in strict 
practice no farther. But there have been 
theorists holding that in certain cases (as 
when the last tone of the measure is writ- 
ten with an accidental, and this tone is tied 
over into the next measure) the accidental 
is continued until some other tone inter- 
venes in the same voice. In consequence of 
this questionable exception the great ma- 
jority of composers introduce a natural be- 
fore again using a staff-degree recently af- 
fected by an accidental, even when it occurs 
in a later measure, but in immediate con- 
nection. This practice is precautionary, on- 
ly. It would be simpler to make the rule 
inflexible that the influence of the acci- 
dental ceases with the measure in which it 

Unlike chromatic signs in the signatures, 
accidentals do not affect equivalent degrees, 
but only those to which they are actually 

2. This term has also been applied with- 
out exception to all chromatic signs origi- 
nally applied, and to those signs revoking 
preceding signs— namely, both to those in 
the signature and those occurring in the 
course of a piece. The origin of all these 
signs are the " round B " (^ rotundum) and 
" square B " {B quadrcUum), by which in the 
middle agesB-flat was distinguished from B- 
natural. By and by the two forms of the 
letter B became common signs of elevation 
and depression, being applied not only to B, 
but also to other notes. Tn e square B assum- 
ed various shapes, two of them like our sharp 
and natural; but no distinction was made 
between them till towards the end of the 
seventeenth century— a flat not only flat- 
tened a natural note, but also revoked a 
preceding sharp; a sharp not only sharp- 
ened a natural note, but also revoked a pre- 
ceding flat. Double sharps and flats did 
not come into use till about 1700. In 
earlier times, more especially before 1600, 




compoiera left It very much to the per- 
formers to find out what accidentals were 
required. For a long time, if there was any 
signature at all, it consisted of a flat only. 
Before the seventeenth century it was not 
customary to put more than one flat or one 
sharp in the signature. Even as late as the 
first half of the eighteenth century we meet 
with various anomalies. Bach, Handel, and 
their contemporaries, for instance, furnish 
examples of placing one flat and one sharp 
less in the signature than the key required, 
accidentals being used in the course of the 
piece instead of the sharp or fiat in the sig- 
nature. In short, our present system of 
using sharps, flats, and naturals was not 
fixed till the second half of the eighteenth 

Accolade (ak-k6-iadO, Fr, The brace which 
connects two, three, or more stayes to- 

Accomo } -A-bbreviations of Accompaniment. 

Accom. ad lib. An abbreviation of Accompa- 
niment ad libitum. 

Accommodare (&k-kdm-m6-d&'re). It. To tune 
an instrument. 

Accompagnamento (&k-kdm-pan-y&-men'td), 
It. Accompaniment; the ngured bass or 

Accompagnare (&k-kdm-p&-n&'r€). It. To ac- 
company ; to play from the figured bass. 

Accompagnato (&k-kdm-pft-n&'td), It. Accom- 

Accompagni (ak-kdmh-p&nh-yft), Fr. Accom- 

Accompagnement (&kkdmh-pfinh-y^manh), 
Fr. An accompaniment. 

Accompagner (ak-komh-p&nh-yS,), Fr. To ac- 

Accompaniment. A part added to a solo or 
other priucipal part, to enhance and enrich 
ItseflTect. Vocal or instrumental parts in a 
composition which do not include the prin- 
cipal melody but fill up the harmony, sus- 
tain the rhythm, and, oy embellishments, 
heighten tha general effect. 

Accompaniment ad libitum. Use the accom- 
paniment or not, at pleasure. 

Accompaniment obligato. The accompani- 
ment must be used. 

Accompanist. The person playing the ac- 
com pauiment. 

Accomp. oblto. An abbreviation of accompa- 
uimeuto obligato. 

Accoppiato (ak-kdp-pl-&'td). It. Bound, tied; 
joined together. 

Accorciare (ak-kor-tshl-a'rS), lU To contract, 
to abridge. 

Accord (&k-kdr), Fr. A chord ; a concord ; 

Accordamento (&k-kdr-d^men't6). It. Accord 
of parts ; unison. 

Accordando (&k-kdr-d&n'd5), lU Tuning. 

Accordant (&k*kdr-d&nh), Fr, In concord, in 

Accordare (&k-kdr-d&'re), H. To tune, to 
. cause to accord. Many derivatives occur. 

Accordato (&k-k6r-d&'t6). It. Accorded, in 

Accordatore (ftk-kor-da-td^rC), lU One who 
tunes instruments. 

Accordatura (&k-k6r-d&-too'r&), It, System of 

Accordeon. A simple musical instrument, Oh 
oblung form, invented by Damian, of Vi- 
enna, In 1829. The tone is produced bv the 
inspiratioii and respiration of a pair of bel- 
lows acting upon metallic reeds or tongues.. 
(Free reed.) 

The first instruments had only four but- 
tons, or keys, each of which acted on two 
reeds, making the compass one octave of 
diatonic scale, bvt with a separate arrange- 
ment, by which thost; notes might be accom- 
panied with a tonic and dominant harmo- 
ny. At first it was used only as a toy, but 
the introduction of a chromatic scale made 
the accordeon more capable of producing a 
varied melody and harmony, although the 
awkwardness of the form was always a hin- 
drance to its use. The German accordeon, 
or concertina (q.v.), of hexagonal form, 
made the principle of the accordeon more 
acceptable. The English concertina (g.v.) 
and the harmonium {q.v.) are superior in- 
struments constructed upon similar princi- 

Accorder (ak-kor-dft), Fr. To tune an instru- 
ment; to sing or play in tune. 

Accordeur (Hk-kor-dtlrO, Fr. One who tunes 
an instrument. 

Accord! (S.k-kdr'dS), It. Play again as before. 

According. An harmonious blending of dlf* 
ferent parts. 

Accordlren (ak-k6r-d6'r'n), Qer, To accord. 

Accordo consono (ak-kdr'dd kdn'sd-n6), It. X 

Accordo dLssono (ak-kdr'dd dis'sd-nd), It. A 

Accordoir (ak-k5ivdwS.')' Fr. A tuning-]M|( 

Accresciuto (ak-kr&-sh!oo'td). It. Increased 
superfluous, augmented in respect to Intel 

Acceleratamente (&t-tshei-e-ra-ta-mSn't^ JL 
Speedily, swiftly. 

A cemb. An abbreviation of A cembalo. 

A cembalo (& tsh€m'b&ld). It. For the h«trp- 

sichord or cembalo. 

Acetabulum (a-ts^ta'boo-loom), Lot. An an- 
cient instrument of music. 

Achromatic music. Simple music in which 
modulations seldom occur, and few aoci' 
dental fiats and sharps are used. 

A qriKf & add, ft a2«, 6 end, e eve, I ill, i isle,6 old,6 odd, oo moon, tXbut,1i F^-foundf kh 0^, cA» n)x tmol 




Acht (S.kht), Ger. Eight 

Achtel (ftkh't'lj, Oer. Eighth, quaver or 
ei)«bth Dote- 

Achtelnote (akh't'l-no'tfi), ber. A quaver, an 
eigbih uote. 

Achtelpause (akh't'i-pou's^), Oer. A quaver 
or eiguth-uote rest. 

Achtfusston (£Lkht-foos-tdn), Oer. Eight-foot 
tone. A tone which sounds as written, in 
contradistinction from a sixteen-foot tone, 
which sounds an octave lower; or a four- 
foot tone, sounding an octave higher than 

Achtstimmig (akht'stXm-mlg), Ger. For eight 

A cinque (& tshln-kw^), It, or (& s&nhk), Fr. 
For live voices or instruments. 

Acolytes. Persons, usually boys, employed 
in the musical services of the Catholic 
Church, or as assistants to the priest at the 

Acolythi ra-ko-le'thX), Or. Acolytes. 

Acolythia (a-ko-lfi'thl-a), Or. The order of 
service observed in the Greek Church. 

Acousmate (&-koo6-m&tJ, Fr. The sound of 
instruments or voices heard in the air. 

Acoustics. The science which treats of the 
nature and properties of sounds. 

Acoustique (a-koos-tek), Fr. Acoustics. 

Acte (ftkt), Fr. An act ; a part of an opera. 

Acte de cadence (&kt dCLh ka-danhs), Fr. A 
cadence ; a final part. 

Acteur (&k-ttir'), JPr. An actor; an operatic 

Action. The mechanism of a keyboard in- 
strument, by means of which the performer 
produces tones. Hence includes the keys, 
connecting levers, and everything else be- 
tween the fingers of the performer and the 
actual opening of the pipe or reed, or the 
vibration of the strings. In an organ-action 
the principal pHrts are the keys, trackers, 
rollers, pull-downs, and valves. In the 
pianoforte, the keys, jacks, under hammers 
and hammers, dampers. 

Acts. Parts of an opera or theatrical enter- 

Acuite '&k-weetO, Fr. Acuteness. 

Acustica (&-kooz'tI-ka), It. Acoustics; the 
doctrine of sounds. 

Acustilc (&-koos'tlk), Oer. Acoustics. 

Acustiscli (&-koos'tl8h), Oer. Acoustic. 

Acuta (&-koo't&), It. Acute, shrill; also, a 
shrill-toned organ-stop of two-foot pitch. 

Acufe. High, shrill, sharp as to pitch. 

Acuteness. Refers to the pitch of sounds. 
The greater the number of vibrations, the 
higher or more acute does the sound be- 

Ad {M), Lot. At, to, for, by. 
Adoig. An abbreviation of Adagio. 

Adsii^ietto (ft-da'J1-«trtO), It. Slow, but not 
quite so slow as adagio. 

Adoirio (&-d&'jl-6), It. A alovr rate of move- 
ment, slower than andante, but not so slow 
as lento, grave, or largo. Often employed 
as the name of a movement in a symphony 
or sonata. 

Adasrio assai (a-dft'jl-o as-s&'S}, It. Very slow 
and with much expression. 

Adagio cantabile e sostenuto (&-d&'jI-d k&n- 
ta'bl-16 a sos-t^noo'to), It. Slow, in a sing- 
ing style and sustained. 

Adagio con gravita (tL-da'jl-O k6n gr&'vl-t&} B. 
81ow, with gravity and majesty. 

Adagio motto (a-da'jl-d mdrt6), It. Very slow 
and expressive. 

Adagio non troppo (&-d&'jI-d ndn trdp'pd), It. 
Not too slow. 

Adagio patetico (&-da'jI-d p&-te^tl-kd), II. 
Slowly and pathetically. 

Adagio pesante (§rda'jl-6 pS-z&n'tS), It. Slow- 
ly and heavily. 

Adagio poi allegro (a-da'jl-d p&-e &l-lA'grC), It, 
Slow, then quick. 

Adagio quasi una fantasia (&-d&'jI-d kwft-8d 
oo na fan-ta-B6'a;, It. An adagio similar to 
a fantasia. 

Adagio rellgioso (&-d&'jI-d rS-lI-jI-d'sd), n. 
Slowly, and in a devotional manner. 

Adagissimo (a-d^-jls^sl-md). It. Extremely 


Adaptation. A union of sentiment between 
ihe words and the music. 

Adattare (a-dat-t&'r(}), It. Adapted. 

Adattazione (a-d£Lt-tg,-tsI-o'n€), It, Adapta- 

Ad captandum (&6 cap-t&n'doom), Lai. In a 
light and brilliant style. 

Added lines. Short lines, either above or 
below the staff; ledger lines. 

Added sixth. A sixth added to a fundamen- 
tal chord. 

Additato (&d-dl-ta't6). It. Fingered. 

Additional keys. Those keys of a pianoforte 
which extend above F in Alt. 

Additional accompaniments. Aocompani- 
menis or parts added to a choral work by a 
later hand than that of the composer, in 
order to bring the instrumentation more 
nearly to the later standard of fullness and 
sonority; or to introduce instruments of 
later invention. Parts of this have 
been added to " The Messiah " by Mocart, 
Robert Franz, and others. 

Addolorato i&d dd-ld-ra't5). It. With sad and 
melancholy expression. 

Addottrinante (&d-ddt-trg-nan'te), It, Teach- 
er, professor. 

A dcmi-Jeu (&dfi-ml-zhtl), ^ With half 

A demi-voix (ft d6-ml-vw&), ^' ) ^^ voice or 
tone. See Mezza Voce. 

ftorm, &add, %aU,(iend,^eoe, liU, \iaU,6old, 6 odd, oomoon, 11.lnU, ii Fr, tound, kh Oer, eh, niuuMOk 




Adept. A thorough composer, performer, or 

k deux (ft dtih), Fr. For two voices or Instru- 

A deux temiM (ft dtlh t&nh), Fr. In two 
time ; two equal notes in a measure. 

Adlaponon (firdl-ft-p6-ndn), Gr. A species of 

Idauoforte with six octaves: invented in 
820 by Lahuster, a watchmaker of Vienna. 
The tone was produced from metal bars. 
In a later adaptation of the same idea, called 
the Adiauhonet the tones were produced 
from tuning-forks. Both these forms were 
of permanent tune 

Adiratamente (ft-dl-rft-tft-m^n'te), n \ Angrily, 
Adirato (ft-dl-rft'to), ^^' j sternly. 

A dirittura (a dl-rlt-too'rft), It. Directiy; 

Adjuvant (ftd'yoo-vftnt), Oer. The deputy 
master of the choristers; assistant to an 

Ad lib. An abbreviation of Ad libitum. 

Ad libitum (ad Ub-I-toom), Lot. At will, at 
pleasure ; changing the time of a particular 
passage at the discretion of the performer. 

Adonis (a-dS'nl-ft), Ger. A solemn feast of 
the ancients at which hymns and odes were 

Adonic verae. A verse consisting of one 
long, two short, and two long syllables. 

Adornamente (&-ddr-n&-m3n't€), It. Gaily, 
neatly, elegantly. 

Adomamenti (ft-dCr-nft-mSn'tl), It. Embel- 

Adomamento (ft-ddr-n&-men'tO), It. An or- 
nament, an embellishment. 

Adoucir (ft-doo-sSr), Fr. To soften, to flatten. 

A due, or, A a (ft doo'S), It. For two voices 
or instruments ; a duet. 

A due clarini (ft do&6 klft-rg'nl), It. For two 

A due corde (ft doo'C kdr'dS), It. Upon two 

A due cori (ft doo^^ kd'rg), It. For two choirs. 

A deux mains (ft dth m&nh), Fr. ) For two 
A due mani (ft doo'S mft-n€), It. / hands. 

A due soprani (a doo'd sd-pr&'nS), It. For two 

A due stromenti (ft doo'd str6-men'tl), It. 
For two instruments. 

A due voce (ft do&H vd'tshS), It. For two 

A-dur (ft-door), Oer. The key of A major. 

iCdoplione. A musical instrument invented 
in the eighteenth century. 

JBollmn. One of the ancient Greek modes 
answering to the diatonic succession, la si 
do re mi fa sol ia; referring to the winds; 
played upon by the wind. 

iColion, tlie. An automatic instrument of 
the reed organ class, with many sets of reeds, 
and mechanism enabling it to perform over- 
tures and much pretentious music. 

iColian harp. An instrument invented bv 
' Kircher about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. The tones are produced by the 
strings being so arranged that the air causes 
vibration among them when it passes 

The box of the .^k)lian harp should ix, 
long enough to exactly fit the windo\( 
where it is proposed to place it, and aboul 
five or six inches deep. There should be &\ 
least six strings of silk or gut, tuned in 
unitton, passing over bridges about thre« 
fourths of an inch high, near each end. Un^ 
der the influence of the wind the Atringc 
vibrate in sweetly harmonious chords, 
changing with every variation in the cur- 
rent of the wind. Oi course all the tones 
produced are necessarily partial tones of the 
vibrating string; but the varying intensity 
of the wind makes so many changes in the 
combinations of tones produced as to give 
at times much the effect of mysterious in- 

iCoiian lyre. The ^olian harp. 

iCoiian mute. A combination of the ^olian 
pitch-pipe and the mute for the violin. 

iCoiian pianoforte. A pianoforte with reed 
attachment, invented and manufactured by 
the firm of T. Gilbert & Co., Boston, about 
1850. The piano, of the small pattern of 
square then universally manufactured, was 
provided with a set of tree reeds and a bel' 
lows operated by a pedal at the right of the 
regular pedals of .the piano. The reed fn< 
strument was of the old-fashioned "melo< 
deon " pattern, the reeds being practically 
unvoiced, and the bellows of the pressure 
variety. The design of the addition was 
that of giving the pian'> a sustaining power, 
which up to that timu had not been secured. 
The effect of the two tones in combination 
was agreeable in passages where eostenuto 
was desired. But the instrument had onl/ 
a temporary currency in consequence of thi> 
practical impossibility of keeping the strings 
in tune wirh the reeds. 

iColodicon (a-d-ld'dl-kdn), Or. A keyed in- 
strument, the tone of which resembles that 
of the organ, and is produced by steel 
springs, which are put in vibration by 
means of bellows. 

iCoiodion (a-d-lo'dl-on). Or. An seolodicon 

Aeolsharfe (a'ols-h&r'fe), Ger. An .Sk>lidn 

iColus modus. The ^olian, or fifth. .Vu- 
then tic mode of the Greeks, nearly allied to 
the Phrygian mode. The scale is the same 
as the old scale of A minor without any 
accidentals. (See Greek Modes.) 

iCotana (a-6-tft'nft). Or. A very small musical 
instrument made of several short metallio 






reeds fastened in a mune and played upon 
by the breath or the performer. Perhaps 
the ancestor of the modem " jew's-harp." 

Aeaual (frikwiU' ^ . <?er.,from Lot, OeneralW ap- 
plied to organ-stops, in which use it signi- 
fies "8 ft." 

Aeolsklavler (&-5l8-kl&-yeer'), Qer, iColian pi- 
ano. An obsolete keyboard wind iastru- 
ment, invented in 1825 by Schortmann, of 
Buttlestedt. It had reeds of wood instead 
of metal, by the vibration of which a soft, 
pleasing tone was produced. 

i45qui50iuu&s (ft-aul-sd'nans), Lot. A unison ; 
of the same or like sound, 

iCquisonus. Sounding in unison ; concord- 

Mre recurve (&-r6 r6-coor'v6). Lot. A military 
wind instrument resembling a trumpet; 
the bucena. 

«4Brophone (S'rd-fdn). A French reed instru- 
ment of the melodeon class. 

>Csthetics (Ss-thetlks) , Or. The principles or 
laws of the beautiful. The chief writers 
upon this department of philosophy have 
been Germans, the foremost beiug Winkel- 
maun. Herder, and Hegel. The latter made 
the most ambitious attempt to discover the 
nrlnciplefi of the musically beautiful. A- 
mong recent writers, Schopenhauer is to be 
mentioned as having gone into this subject 
more deeply and in a more succesfifiii man- 
ner than any of the others. 

Atusaerste Stimmen (ois's^rs-tS stlm'mSn), The extreme parts. 

>Cvla (&'vl-&), Jt, An abbreviation of the 
word Alleluia. 

Affablle (&f-fil'b!-ie), iZ. In a courteous and 
pleasing mauuer. 

AlfablliU (&f-ffirb^I-ta), „ ) With ease 

Affabilmente (&f-&-bIl mSn't^), ^^' f and ele- 
gance; with freedom; in a pleasing and 
agreeable manner. 

Affanato (&f-f8rn&'td), II. Sad, mournful, dis- 

Affanoso (ftf-fd-nd'sd). It. With mournful ex- 

Affectation. An attempt to assume or exhibit 
what is not natural or real. 

AffecUrt (&f-fek-tlrtO, Oer. With affectation. 

Affectueux (ftf-fSk-ta-Hh), Fr. Affectionate. 

Alfet. An abbreviation of Affettuoso. 

Affettatamente {&t-t6t-tSriJSirm&n't&), It. Very 

Alfettazione (ftf-fSt-tartsl-d^nS), It, An artifi- 
cial style. 

Alfettivo (&f-fet-te^rO), It. Affecting, pathetic. 

Affetto {M-f&tftS), IL Feeling, tenderness, 

Affettuoaamente (&f-fet-too-d-zft-men'te), It. 
With tenderness and feeling. 

AffettuosUsimo (&f-fet-too-6-BfiB'8l-mO), It, 
With pathos; with tender expTeasion. Su- 
perlative of Affettuoso. 

Affettuoso (fif-fet-too-d^zd). JR. With tender 
feeling or emotion. 

Affettuoso di molto (aT-f^t-too-e/zd d« m&VW), 
It. With much feeling. 

Affiche de comMie (ftf-flsh dtlh kd-md-dd),J'r. 
A playbill. 

Affilas {or mus) il tuono faf fSl&s Si too-d'nd), 
It. To sustain a sound with steadiness. 

Affinity. A quality possessed by those chords 
that admit of an easy and natural progres- 
sion from one to the other. 

Afflitto (af-fl6t'to), 7, > Sorrowfully. 

Afflizione (af-flg-tsl-o'jig}, -"* j with mournful 

Affrelo. An abbreviahon of Affrettando. 

Affrettando(af-fret-tau'dd), *. ) Hurrying, 
Affrettate (af-fretria't^) "' J quiclcening, 

accelerating the time. 
Affrettoso (^f-frfit-td^zd), It. Quick, accelerat- 
ed, hurried. 

A fofa (& f6-fS)t Par. A t*ortuguese dance re- 
sembling the*faudango. 

After note. A small note occurring on an un- 
accented part of the -wnttM. PwfomMd. 
and takini 



its time from the note pi 
preceding it. 

After notes, double. 

Two alter uotes tak- 
ing ttieir time from 
the preceding note. 

Agevole (ft-j&'vd-ie), 

POf fuf RI^U* 


Agevolmente(&-j^vdl-men'te), ^' \ 
with agility. 

Agevolezza (firj&^vd-ietftsEl), JR. Lightness, 
ease, agility. 

Agsiustamente (fid-Joo6-t&-men tS), It. In 
strict time. . 

Agiplustare (lid-joos-t&'r^), 7> \ Adjusted, aiV 
Aggiustato (ad-joos-ta'to), ^^* j ranged, 


Aggraver la fugue (&g-Rr&-vfi U ffig), Fr, To 
augment the subject of fugue. 

Agilita (a-j^ll-t&), It. Lightness. agiUty. 

Agilita, con. It. With agility, with light- 
ness, with rapidity 

Agiimente (Srjgl-men'te), R. Nimbly gay. 
Agiren (Srghe'r'n), Qer. To act. to mimic 

Agitamento (ft-jl-tfirmen'td), It. Agitation, 
restlessness, motion. 

Agitato (&-jI-ta'td), R. Agitated, hurried, 


AgiUto allegro ^jl-t&'to aM&'grO), R. An 
allegro which is not steadily held, but is 
nervous, unsteady, and unreposeful. 

Agitato con passione (&-jl-t&'td kOn pAs-tf- 
o'uS), R. Passionately agitated. 

Agite (a-zhet), f r. Agitated. 





Aflli (ftVyS), It. pi. See AUa. 

Aniu5 Dei (ftg'iioos d&-€), Lai. "Lamb of 
ijtod." Last movement in the Majss. 

Agpge (a-go'ghe). Or. Used by the ancient 
Greeks to signify meJodlc motion of differ- 
ent kinds necessary to musical expression. 
In modem use restricted to accent and ex- 
pression. (Not sanctioned by authoritative 

Agose rhvthmioi (ft-gd^ghS ilth-ml-k&), Cfr. 
Khythmical movement 

Affogik (H-gd'ghlk), Get, The art of express- 
ive nuance (variety) in tenipo. (Ruoato, 
^ accelerando, etc.) 

d chorar (ktir), Fr, For the entire 

i grmna 

A grrand orchestre (dr-kSstr), Fr. For the 
full or complete orchestra. 

Agrem^nts (&-gr&-m&nh), Fr. pL Embellish- 
ments, ornaments. 

Ai (firg), It. To the ; in the style of. 

AiflTC (figr), Fr, Harsh, sharp. 

Aigrement (&-gr-m&nh), Fr. Sharply, harshly. 

Aigu (ft-gtl), Fr, Acute, high, sharp, shrill. 

Air. A short song, melody, or tune with or 
without words. A series of tones bearing a 
certain relation to each other by their sym- 
metrv and regularity, producing a unity of 
effect, which 18 called " a tune.*'^ 

Air k boire (Sir a bwilr), Fr. A drinking-song. 

Air k reprisas (fir u rSh-pr&s), Fr, A catch. 

Air chantant (&r Fhanh-tanh), Fr, An air in 
graceful, melodious style. 

Air d6tach6 (fir dfi-tfi-shft), Fr. A single air 
or melody extracted from an opera or larger 

/At ecossals (fir fi-c^sfi), Fr. A Scotch air. 

/Jr Irlondais (fir 6r-lfinh-dfi), Fr. Irish air. 

Air Italien (fir I-tfi-lI-anh), Fr. An Italian air. 

Air rapide (fir rfi-p€d), Fr. A flourish. 

Airs des bateliers v^n^tiens (fir d€ bfi-t^lSr 
v^nfi-d^nh), Fr. Melodies sung by the 
Venetian gondoliers and boatmen. 

Airs fran^ais (fir frfinh-sfi), Fr. French airs. 

Air rusaea (fir r&s), Fr. Russian airs. 

Airs tendres (fir t&nh-dr), Fr. Amatory airs ; 
love songs. 

Air varii (fir vfi-rl-fi), Fr. Air with variations ; 
an air embellished and ornamented. 

Ais (fiis), Ger. The note A#. 

Ais-dur (fiis-door), Oer. The key of A^ major. 
This key is not in use, being reprosented by 
B[> major. 

Al5-i.Joli (fiis-mOU), Oer. The key of A$ mi- 
nor. Not in use, being represented by B^^ 

Ais^ (fi zfi), Fr. Glad, joyful ; also, easy, fac- 
ile, convenient. 

AMaeat (ftrsfi-m&nh), Fr, Easily, freely. 

AJakii-lceman (fi-yfik-lS kft-mfin), Tur. A Turk' 
Ish instrument resembling the violin. 

Akicord (fik-kordO, Oer. See Accordt 

Akromat (a-krO-m&tO, Oer, A musician a 

Akromatisch (fi-kr&-mfi'tlsh), Oer, BeeAchnh 

Akustik (fi-koos'tlk), Oer. See AeotuHes, 

AI (al), It. To the ; in the style of. 

A I'abandon (fi la-banh-ddnh), Fr. Without 
restraint ; with passionate expression. 

A la chasse (a Ifi shfiss), Fr, In hunting style. 

A la fran^aise (& 1ft frftuh-sfiOi ^r. In the 
French style. 

A ia arrecque (& Ifi grek), Fr, In the Greek 


A ia mesure (a 1ft mft-ztlr), Fr. In time ; syn* 
ouymous with A tempo. 

A la mliitaire (fi 1ft mU-I-tfirO, Fr, In military 
or march style. 

A I 'antique (a lanh-tek), Fr, Antique, in the 
style of the ancients. 

Alamoth (fi'ia-mot), Heb, This word occurs 
in Psalm Ixviii. 25. '< First go the shanm 
(singers), then follow the neainim (kinnors), 
in the midst are alamoth (damsels playing 
on the timbrels) ' ' Gesenius and others un- 
derstand the word to signify treble music, 
•• vox Clara et acuta, quasi virginum." But, 
on the other hand, in I. Chron. xv. 20, the 
names of men are given as players of " ne- 
bels on alamoth.' It is one of the many 
obscure musical terms which are met with 
in the Bible. It, however, seems to have 
been associated with nebeia, much as the 
expression sheminith is with kinrtora, and 
may, therefore, be supposed to refer to the 
pitch or method of playing on those instru- 

A la polacca (ft 1ft pd-lftk' kft). It, In the style of 
the iK>lacca. 

Alarum, Ail' arml, It. A call to arms. 

" Almruma sounded and ordnance shot off." 

— Shaktp emf 

Originally a general shout; afterwards, » 
recognized signal by trumpets and drums. 

A la savoyarde (fi 1ft sa-vwfi-yftrd), Fr. In the 
style of the airs of Savoy. 

Albada (fil-ba'dfi), Sp. A morning serenade. 

Ail>erti bass. A bass consisting of arpeggios 
or broken harmony, e. g.: 


So called after its reputed inventor, Dome- 
nico Alberti, \/ho died in 1739. 

Aibogue (al-bd-gfiO, 8p. An Instrument be- 
longing to the flute species. 






Alcaics. Several kinds of vene, so called 
from Alcacus, a lyric poet and their in- 

Alemanian. Pertaining to Aleman, a lyric 

Alemanbui verse. A verse consisting of six 
auapests or their equivalents, with the ex- 
ception of the last two syUables, which are 

Aleluya (A-ie-loo'yft), 8p. Hallelujah. 

Alemana (&-ld-m&'n&)» Bp, An old Spanish 

Alexandrian verse. A verse consisting of 
twelve syllables, or twelve and thirteen al- 

At fine {SI f&uQ), R. To the end. 

Al fine e pol la coda (al fS'ne & pd-S m kO'dft), 
It, "After playine to where the fine is 
marked, go on to the coda." 

Aliquot tones. Accessory or secondary 
HOunds; tones indistinctly heard, which 
are always produced with the principal 
tone, at harmonic intervals above it. See 
Partial Tone*. The flageolet tones of the 

A ritaliinne (& ll-tft-ll-&nh), Pr, In the Ital- 
ian style. 

A llvre on vert (ft Ifr-vr oo-vftr), Fr, At the 
opening of the book. To play a piece at 
first sight. 

Al(81),.. \ 

=:a il, "up to;" e.g.,ac- 
cd. al presto, increase the 
speed up to presto. Also, 
in the style or manner of. 

Air (^11). 
Alia ^&1-1&), ji 
Alle (&M6), ^^' 
Agli ^al-y6). 

Alia breve (aM& brS'v6), It. A quick species 

of measure, marked ^ equivalent to 2-2. 

two counts in a measure. This measure is 
to be distinguished from 4-4 measure, 

marked £[ which has four beats and is 

generally slower. Each contains the value 
of a breve— equal to two semibreves, or four 
minims. Modem composers often sub- 
divide these measures into two parts, each 
containing two halves, and this is called 
Alia Cappella time to distinguish it from 
the Alia Breve, from which it is derived. 

AUacocda (ftVU kit'tshl-^),. It, In the style 
of hunting music 

Alia camera (&1'1& ka'me-r&), R. In the style 
. of chamber music. 

Ana cappella (&vm k&p-p€Vlft), It. In the 
chiircn or sacred style ; derived from Alia 
Breve style, the bar being subdivided. See 
AUa breve. 

Alia dirltta (&in& dl-rlt'til), II, In direct as- 
oeiidiug or descending style. With the 
right hand. 

Alia ironcese (&l'm frftn-teh&-z€), „ \ In the 
Alia fronzese (&1'1& fr&n-ts&-zS), ^^' / 


AUa hanacca (Ullft hSrn&k'k&), B. A kind of 
dance resemollng the polonaise. 

Alia madre (&l'm m&'dr^), It. To the Virgin 
Marjr. tsongs and hymns addressed to the 
Virgin Mary. 

Alia manlera turka (&ia& mfirnl-&'ra tooz^kft), 
It. in the Turkish style. 

AUa marcia (&i'UL mar'tshfa), n. In the style 
of a march. 

Alia mente (Al'lft mftn'M), It. Extempora> 

neons. (V. OuntrajmrUo aUa mente,) 

AUa milltare (&l'la ml'U-ta're), It. In the mil- 
itary style. 

AUa moderna (&ri& mo-der^nft), li. In the 
modern style. 

AUa moresco (ftlOa mo-r&'kd), It. In the 
Moorish style. 

AUa Palestrina (&l'lfi pa-lSs-trg'na). It. In the 
style of Palestrina; in the ecclesiastical 


AUa polacca (ftl'la po-lak'ka) , It. In the time 
and style of a polonaise or Polish dance. 

AUa quivU (al'la kwln-ta), It, At, or in, the 


AUargando (£ll-l&r-ehan'd5). It. Gradually 
slower and louder; in broader style; 

AUa ri versa (al'la re-v3r's&), iZ. In an oppo- 
site direction. 

AUa rovescio (al'la rd-v6'sh6), It. In a reverse 
or contrary movement. 

AUa russe (ai'la roos-s6). It, In Russian style. 

AUa scozzese {&VI&, skd-tsa'zfi). It. In Scotch 

AUa siclliana (al'la se-tshl-ll-a'na), It. In the 
style of the Sicilian shepherd's dance. 

AUa stretta (aVm stret't&). It. Increasinsr the 
time ; accelerating the movement. In close, 
compressed style. 

Alia tedesca (&ria te-dez^kfl). It. In the Ger- 
man style. 

Alia turka (arm toor'ka), It, In the Turkish 
or Oriental style. 

AUa unlsono (arm oo-nS'sd-nd), R, See AW 

Alia veneziana (arm v3-n^t8l-&'n&), It. In 
tiie Venetian utyle. 

AUa zingara (M'm tsSn'g&-rft), It, In the style 
of gipsy sougs. 

Alia zoppa (aria tsdp'pa), R. In a constrained 
and limping style. 

Allaaza, It. A sign which, when placed above 
the staff. Indicates that with each note 
played, a note a third higher must be 
played, and when placed below the staff, a 
n6te a third lower. 

Alia 6ta. A siern, which, when placed above 
the staff, indicates that with each note 
played, a note a sixth higher must be 
played, and when placed below the staff, a 
note a sixth lower. 

Aomifftadd, &aZe, liend,eeve,liUf I isJe, do2d, 6odd,oomo<mftLbiU,ilFr,t(Auui, kh Oer.e/k nhnoMi^ 





Air antlca (&l-]&n-tSQc&), It, In the ancient 

Air espagnuola (&l-l^-p&n-yoo-^1&), It. In 
the Spanish style. 

All' improviso (&l-l«m-pT6-Y^zd), » > With- 
Air improvitta (&l-ldm-prd-vte'tll), ^^' } out 
previoiu study ; extemporaneously. 

Air inglese (&l-lSn-gl&'ze), It. In the English 

All' ttaliana (U-lS-tilrll-a'na), It. In the Ital- 
ian style. 

Air onsareje (fil-16n-gfirra'ze), It. In the Hun- 
garian style. 

All' otUva (ftl-ldt-t&'Ta), n. At the octave. 
(1) A direction to play an octave higher or 
lower. In the former case the words are 
placed above the note or notes ; in the lat- 
ter case below them. The word bassa 
("low"— at the low octave) is sometimes 
added. Instead of aU' ottava the abbrevia- 
tions ott'Soa and Sva are often used. (2) This 
expression is also used in scores to indicate 
that one instrument has to play with an- 
other in octaves. 

Air otUva alU (&Mdt-t&-v& &l-t&), It. In the 
octave above. 

Air OtUva baaM (&l-l6t-t&-v& b&8-s&), It. In 
the octave below. 

Air unisono (ftl-loo-nS'sd-nd), It In unison ; 
a succession of unisons or octaves. 

Air 8va. An abbreviation of AU' ottava. 

Alle (&l-ie), It To the ; in the style of. 

Alle (&iae), Gfr. All; aUe Instrumente, all 
the instruments; the whole orchestra. 


^ ^, _ , Joyfully, 


Alleffrante (&l-l&-griln'te), it Joyous, mirth- 

Allesratlvo (&l-l^grBrt«'vo), It. Gladdening, 
cheering, blithe. 

Alleflrrettino (al-l&'gret-te'nd), It. A diminu« 
tive of Allegretto, and rather slower. 

Allegretto (ftl-ld-gref t<3) , It. Rather light and 
cheerful, but not as quick as allegro. 

Allegretto acherzando (&l-l^gref to sk^r-tsan'- 
ddj, It. Moderately playful and lively. 

Allegrezza (ftl-ld-grefz&), „ \ Joy, gladness, 
Allegria (ai-le-griyk), -'*•; chi " ■ 


Allegramente (&i-l«-gr&-men'te), 12. ) 
AlKgrement (ftl-lfirgre-manh), iv. / 


Allegrezza, con, II. With cheerfulness, Joy, 

Allegri dl bravura (Al-l^grS dS br&'voo'rft). 
It. Compositions written in a brilliant and 
effective style. 

Allegrisslmamente (&l-16^-sl-mfirmen'te}. It. 
Very Joyfully ; with great animation. 

AUegrissimo (&l-16-grls'sl-md). It. Extremely 
quick and lively ; the superlative of Alle- 

AIMgro (&llft'gr5), Fr. and It. Quick, lively ; 
a rapid, vivacious movement, the opposite 
to the pathetic, but it is frequently modi- 
fied by the addition of other words that 
change its expression. 

Allegro agiUto (al-l&'gTd&-jI-Ul-tO}, It. Quick, 
with anxiety and agitation. 

Allegro appasaionato (&l-l&'grd &p-p&9-6l-5-na'« 
toj, It. Quick aud passiouate. 

Allegro assai (al-la'gro as-sa'e>, It, Very quick. 

Allegro briilante (&l-la'gT6 brei-lan't^), It. Be- 
quTring a brilliant style of execution. 

Allegro comodo (al-l&'grd ko'md-dd). It. With 
a convenient d^ree of quick uess, " conveu' 
ience"here determined according to the 
best effect of the passage, in its details and 
spirit, aud not with reference to the con< 
venience of the performer. 

Allegro con brio (&1-I&'gr6 k6n brd'd), H. 
Quick, with brilliancy. 

Allegro con brioao (al-la'grO kdn bre-d'zd), It 
Joyful aud bold. 

Allegro con fuoco (&l-la'gr6 k6n foo-d^d), It. 
Quick, with fire and animation. 

AU^ro con moitUaimo moto (&l-l&'grd kdn 
mol-t^si-mo mo'to). It. A very quick alle- 
gro ; as fast as possible. 

Allegro con moto, It. Quick, with more than 
the usual degree of movement. 

Allegro con apirito (al-l&'gr6kdnsp^rl-td), R. 
Quick, with much spirit. 

Allegro dl bravura (&l-l&'gro dd bift-voo^ra). 
It. Quick, with brilliant and spirited exe- 

Allegro di molto (&l-lfi'gr6 dS mOl'td), It. Ex- 
ceedingly quick and animated. 

AllejBrro fuocoao (ftl-l&'grO foo-d-ko^zd), It. 
With a great deal of fire and animation. 

Allegro furioao (&l-lfi'gr6 foo-rl-d'zd), It. 
Quick, with fury and impetuosity. 

AUegfO gajo (al-lA'gro g&'yd). It. In a gay and 
spiritea style. 

Allegro giusto (&l-l&'grd loos'to), n. Quick, 
with exactness ; in steady and precise time. 

Allegro magrazioao (&l-lfi'gr6 in& gra-tsl-d'zd). 
It. Quick, but gracefully. 

Allegro ma non presto (ftl-l&'gr6 m& n6n 
pr&-td). It. Quick, but not too fast. 

Allegro ma non tanto (ftl-lfi'grd m& ndn t&n- 
t6). It. Quick, but not too much so. 

Allegro ma non troppo (al-lfi'gr6 m& ndn trdp- 
pd). It. Quick and lively, but not too fast. 

Allegro moderato (al-lfi'gr6 m6-d6-rft'td), H. 
Moderately quick. 

Allegro molto (&M&'gtd mdl-td). It. Very 
quick and animated. 

Allegro non molto (&1-I&'gr5 n6n mol'to), IL 
Not very fast. 

Allegro uon troppo (&1-I&'gr6 ndn trdp'pA), JZ. 
Quick, non too fast. 

Ji«rm, i odd, & ale, « end, 6 00^ I iB, I iite, 6 oM, 6 odd, 00 moon, tt 5ii<. ^ J^. fovfKt, Ui Oer. efc, 





Alleirro risoluto (al-l&'gr5 rg-zd-loo't6), 
Quick, vf ith vigor and decision. 

Allesrro veloce (al-la'gr6 vfi-16'tsh6), Jl. Quick, 
Willi exireme velocity. 

Allegro vivace (al-la'gro vg-va'tshe), It, With 
vivacity, very rapidly. 

Allegro vivo (aMa'gro v^vd), It. With great 

hie and rapidity. 
Allegrusio 'al-ld-groo'xd-d), A. Oood-humor- 

ed, bpnghtly. 

Allein (aMInO» Oer, Alone, Bingle. 

Alleinsang (al-Un'sang), Oer. A solo, 

AlleinsMnger (al-Un's&ng-^r), Ger. A solo- 

Alleinspieler (al-Un'spe-l^r), Oer. One who 
plays a solo. 

Alleluia (al-ie-loo-ya), Fr Praisb the Lord ; 

AUeluJah (aMg-loo-va), HA. An ascription of 
praise; Hallelujah. 

Allemande (ftU-manhd), Fr A German air. 
Also an obsolete dance form in common 
measure, beginning upon the last beat. The 
measure was slow, and the steps were made 
in a rapid, sliding manner, as in the modern 
waltz, but there was no turning, only a p^ 
culiar entwining and unloosening of the 
arms of the dancers in the various steps. It 
is said by some that the Allemande whs in- 
vented in the lesser provinces of Germany 
or Switzerland, but its antiquity is un- 
known. Scarlatti, Corelli, liach. Handel, 
and other composers of the period they rep- 
resent, incorjporated the measure ol this 
dance in their suites, sonatas, and lessons, 
in which it was written in common time of 
four crotchets in a measure. But many 
peasant dances of this name are in 3-4 or 3-8 

Allentamento(al-l€n-t§.-mSn'td), » \ Relaxa- 
AllenUto (al-16n-ta't6) , ^^- / tion,giv- 

ing way, slackening of the speed. 

AUentando (ai-16n-tS.n'dd), It. Decreasing the 
movement until the close. 

Allied tones. Accessory tones, 

AUmiUich (al'ma-llkh), Ger. Little by little. 

Ai' loco (ai-lo'ko), It. To the previous place ; 
a term of reference. 

Allonger (ftl-16nh-zha), Fr. To lengthen, pro- 
long, delay. 

Allonger I'archet (&l-ldnh-zha lar-sha), Fr. 
. To lengthen or prolong the stroke of the bow 
in violin music. 

Alma (al-ma), Ara. The name given in the 
Orient to singing and dancing girls, who are 
hired to furnish amusement at public enter- 
tainments and to sing dirges at funerals, etc. 

^iHJfi"' I The name of an old slow dance 
Almand. ) *^* * dignified character. 

Almanes, pi. See Alman. 

Alma RedemptorU (&l-ma re-dem-tO-ils), LaL 
A hymn to the Virgin. 

Almees (al-m&s) , Ara. Arabian dancing girls. 

Almehs (almas), Tur. Turkish singing and 
dancing girls. 

Alpenhorn (&l-p'n-hdrn), Ger. The Alpine or 
CO whom. 

Al piacere (&1 pS-a-tsh&'re), iZ. At pleasaro. 
See A piacere, 

Al piu (al pe'oo). The most. 

Alphabet. The seven letters used in music, 
A, B, C, D, £, F, G. When more are requir- 
ed, either ascending or descending, the let- 
ters are repeated in the same order. 

Alpine horn. An instrument made of the 
bark of a tree, and used by the Alpine shep- 
herds for conveying sounds a long distance. 

Al rigore di tempo (al re-go'rS de tSm'pd), H. 
In very rigorous and strict time. 

Al rigore del tempo (&1 re-sro^rS dSl t^m'pd). It. 
In very rigorous and strict time 

Al ri verso (&1 re-v^r^sd), It Reverse, back- 
ward motion. 

A la russe (a la rtiss) , Fr. In the Russian style. 

Al seg. An abbreviation of Al segno. 

Al segno (&1 s&n'yd). It. To the sign ; mean- 
ing that the performer must return to the 
sign -iS: in a previous part or the piece and 
play from that place to the word )lnf , or 
the mark /tn over a double bar. The sign 
itself # is sometimes used in place of tne 
direction ai seg-no. 

Alt (alt), It. High. This term Is applied to 
the notes which lie between f on the fifth 
line of treble staff and g on the fourth 
added line below. 

AlU (&rta). It. High, or higher; Ottava alia, 
an octave higher. 

Alta (al'ta), Sp, A dance formerly used in 

Alta-viola'(&rt&-ve-daa), iZ. A counter tenor 


Altclarinet (^ItOcm-rl-netO. Ger. A large clari- 
net, a fifth deeper than the ordinary clari- 

ALttdesco (al t6-d^kd), It. In the German 

Altera prima donna (al'tS-rft j>T&m& ddn'na). 
It. One of two principal female singers. 

Alteratio (al-t^ ra'tsi-o), Lai.) Changed, aug- 
Altfcrato (ai-t£ ra'to), /'.. > men ted. In 
Altere (al-iC-ra'}, Fr. ) composition it 

meaus doubling the value of a note. 

Altered notes. Notes changed by accidentals. 

Altfernamente (al-tSr-nll-m^n'tS), IL Alter- 
uuliug, by turns. 

Alternando (&l-ter-n&n'dd). It, See AUema- 

Alternations. Melodies composed for bells. 






Altemativo (&l-tSr-D&-t^Td), It., A moyement 
alternating with another. A sort of trio, 
of less importance than the movement with 
which it alternates. 

Altgeige (ftlfghl-ghfi), Qer. The viola, or ten- 
or violin. 

Alt horn. A cornet in E-flat. 

Alti (&l'te), It. High ; the plural of alto. 

Aftieramente (ai-tS^r-a-mto't«), It. With 
grandeur; haughtily. 

Altisoiiante (al-tI-s6-nan'tS), It. Loud-sound- 

Altisono (&l-t^s6-nd), M. Sonorous. 

Alti^nous. High-sounding. A term for- 
merly used to denote the highest part in- 
tended for the natural adult male voice. 

Altl5o (al-te'zd), It. An abbreviation of Altis- 

AltUsiiiio (&l-tls'sl-m6), It. The highest; ex- 
tremely high as to pitch. It U applied to 
all the high treble notes which are more 
than an octave above F, on the fifth line of 
the treble staff. 

Altlst. An alto singer. 

AltistaCaltes'ta), 72. ) One who has an alto 
Attiste l&l-test), Fr. ) voice. 

Alto ftl'td), It. High. (1) One of the four 
chief classes of the human voice ; the deeper 
of the two classes of the female voice, which 
in £uglaiid is more commonly called con- 
tralto. There are to be distinguished three 
different i^inds of alto voices: those ol 
women, boys, and men. Amuue the latter 
are again to be distinguished tnose of the 
eaatrcui and of the atti ncUurali, tenori acuti, 
or fcUseUi. The last-mentioaed male altos, 
in KuKland also called counter tenors., maice 
use of a developed /atee^to (head voice). The 
English music written for this kind oi voice 
demands a compahs from g to cf'. The alti 
naturdli, who, till the introduction of the 
eattraii, sang in the churches of Italy and 
elsewhere the soprano and alto parts, are 
said to have sung up to a". For the compass 
of the female alto see Contralto. (2) Alto is 
also one of the names of the stringed iustru- 
ments, which is a little lander and a fifth 
lower in pitch than an ordinary viQlin. 
Viola, Tenor, Bind Bratsche are synonyms. The 
three upper strings of the viola correspond 
with the three lowest of the violin. The 

aiestion very naturally arises why the term 
to (high) should be applied to the lowest 
voices and a low-pitched instrument. The 
reason is probably to be found in the fact 
that this part was forirerly sung by very 
high male voices, and tLe notes represent- 
ing its usual range were written .by means 
of the C clef, which brought them upon the 
highest lines of the staff and upon adxled 
lines above. 

Alto basso (&l-td b&e^sd), It. A primitive in- 
strument formerly in use in northern Italy, 
consistingof a wooden box, over which were 
stretched a few gut strings, which the per- 

former struck with a stick held in his left. 
hand, while he played on a flageolet held in 
his right hand. 

Alto clef. The C clef on the third line, which 
makes the note on that line c'. It Is used for 
the alto voice, viola, etc. 

-R — ^ — 



Alto concertina. A concertina having the 
compabs of a viola. 

Alto flauto i&\-lo fl&'Oo'td), It. An alto flute . 
used ill bands. 

Alt' otUva (&l-ldt-t&'v&). It. The same notes 
an octave 13 igher. 

Alto primo (ai-to pre'md),7£. The highest alto. 

Alto secondo (al-to s&-kdn'dd). It. The lowest 

Alto tenore (Hl-td te-nd're). It. The highest 

Alto trombone. A trombone with the nota- 
tion on the alto clef. Its compass is from 
the small c or e to the one-lined a or two- 
lined c. 

Alto viola (&l-td ve-dOa), It. The viola, or 
tenor violin. 

Alto violino (al to ve-d-le'no). It. Small tenor 
violin on which the alto may be played. 

Altposaune (alt-pd-sou'n€), jQar. Alto trom- 


Altri (al'tre), It. Others. 

Altro mode lal'trd md'dd). It. Another mode 
or manner. 

Altsanger (alf sftng-€r), Oer. Alto singer, coun- 
ter tenor singer. 

Altschiassel (al * 'shlfis-s'l), Oer. The alto clef : 
ihe C clef ou the third line. 

Altus {&Vtoos),Lat. The alto or counter tenor. 

Altviole (alt'fl-6-16), Gar. The viola, or tenor 

Altzelchen (3,lt'tsI-k'n),Gter. See AUv^hliissel. 

Alzamento (&l-tsft-m€n'td). It. An elevating 
of the voice ; lifting up. 

Alzamento di mano (ftl-tsH-mfin'-td dS ru&'n6), 
It. To elevate the hand in beating t/me. 

Alzando (&l-ts&n'dd). It. Raising, lifting up. 

Al. zop. An abbreviation of Alia zoppa. 

Amabile (a-m&'bl-13), B. Amiable, gentle, 

Amabillta(a.mfirbI-lI-tfiO./^ Tenderness, afhi- 

AmablllU, con. With amiabUity. 

Amabilmente (firm&-bll-mfin'te). It. Amiably, 

A major. The major mode founded on it 

Amarezza (Srm&-ret'z&), It. Bitterness, sad^ 

&arm,iadd, &a<e, emd, €0M, liU, I isle, 6old, 6 odd, oo moon, Hbutf H Fr. tound, kh Qer. eh, nhnoM^ 





Amarezza. «on, 12. With bitterness ; with 

Amarissimamente (armfirilfl-sI-marmSn'tS), jf \ 
Amarissimo (ft-mA-rls'sI-mo), ^^' j 

Very bitterly, in a mournful, sad, and afflict- 
ed manner. 

Amaro (a-ma,'rd). It. Grief, bitterness, afflic- 

Amateur (&m-&-ttir), Fr. One who has taste 
and proficiency In music, but does not 
practice it as a profession. As compared 
with an artist, an amateur is one wiio has 
learnt nothing thoroughly. Distingjaisbed 
from Dilettanti, one who toys with art, and 
Cognoscenti, one who knows an art, but 
does not practice it. 

Aiuati. A name applied to violins made by 
the brothers Amati, in Italy, iu the middle 
of the seventeenth century. They are small- 
er than the ordinary violin, and distin- 
guished for their peculiar sweetnuss of tone. 

Ambitus (am'bl-toos), Lnt. Compass or range 
of sounds; also, the distance betweeu the 
highest and lowest sounds. 

Ambo (am'bo), lAit. The desk at which the 
canons were sung in the middle ages. 

Ambon (anh-bonh), Fr. The ambo. 

Ambrosian chant. A series of sacred melo- 
dies or chan^ collected and introduced into 
the Ch urch by St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, 
in the fourth century, and supposed to have 
been borrowed from the ancient Greek 

Ambrosianus cantus (am-bro-sl-a'noos k&n'- 
tuos), Lat. Amisrosiau chant. 

Ambubaje (am-boo-ba'v6)> Or. The name of a 
society oi strolling nute-players among the 
ancient Greeks. 

Ambulant (anh-bvl-lanh), Fr. Wandering;, an 
itinerant musician. 

Ame (am), Fr. The soundpost of a violin, 
viola, etc. 

Amen (a'mfin), Hie6. " So be it." A word used 
as a termination to psalms, hymns, and 
other sacred music. • 

Amen chorus. A chorus in which the word 
amen lurms the principal language. 

Ameno (a-ma'nO), It. Charming, pleasing, 

American finsfering:. That style of fingering 
in which the sigu x is used to indicate the 
thumb in piano-playing, in distinction from 
the German or foreign fingering, in which 
the thumb is called the first fingt-r. 

American organ. A reed instrument of the 
harmnuinm kind, dififtiring from harmoni- 
ums in the method of the bellows (which 
sucks the air through the reeds, instead of 
expelling it through them). Also diiteting 
in tone quality, which is broader and less 
thin and nasal— merits due in part to the 
suction-bellows, in part to superior voicing 
of the reeds, and in part to resonance added 

by the hollow spaces within the case. The 
American organ owes its suQtion- bellows 
to the late Jeremiah Carhart, and its name 
and resonant cases to Mason <& Hamlin. 
All makes of this instrument now, how- 
ever, partake of its characteristic excellen- 

A mezza aria (a mSt'sa &'rl-a), It. An air 
partly in the style of a recitative; between 
speaking and singing. 

A mezza voce (a m€t's& vd'tsh€\ » ) In a 

A mezza di voce la m€t's& de rd'tshe), /soft, 
subdued tone; with half the power of the 
voice. The term is also applied to instru- 
mental music. 

A mezza manico (a mSt'sa ma-nd'ko^ It. In 
violin-playing, the placing the hand near 
the middle oi the neck. 

A-moll (a-moU), Qer. The key of A minor. 

A molto corl (a mol'to ko'rg), It. Full cho- 
ruses ; a collection of choruses. 

A monocorde (a mdnh-o-kord), Fr. On one 
string only. 

Amore (a-mo'r^), It. Tenderness, affection, 

Amore, con, It. With tenderness and affec- 

A moresco (a md-r€s'kd). It. In the Moorish 
style ; iu the style of a moresco or Moorish 

Amore vole (a-mo-ra'vo-le), It. Tenderly, gen- 
ii: . lovingly. 

Amore volmente (a-m6-r6-v61-m6n't6). It. 
With extreme tenaerness. 

Amorosamente (a-md-rd-za-m^n't€). It. In a 
tender and aifectionate style. 

Amoroso (armo-ro'zo). It. See Amorosaihente. 

Amphibrach (am'fl-brakh), Oer. A musical 
foot, comprising one snort, one lon^, and 
one short note or syllable, accented and 
marked thus,--'—''-' 

Amphimacer (3,m'fI-ma-t8Sr), Or. A musical 
foot, comprising one long, one short, and 
one long note or syllable, accented and 
marked thus, — w _' 

Amphlon (am'fl-dn), Gr. The most ancient 
Greek musician. He played upon the lyre. 

Ampollosamente (am-pdl-lo-zsirmSn'tS), jf \ 
Ampolloso (jim-pol-lo'zo), * j 

iu a bombastic and pompous manner. 

Ampoule (anh-poo-la), i^. High-flown, bom> 

Amusement (S.-miiz-manh), Fr. A light and 
pleasing composition introduced as an exer- 
cise iu a course of piano studies. 

Anabasis (£l-na'ba-sls), Gr. A succession of 
ascending tones. 

Anacreontic (a-na-kre-dn'tik), Gr. In theBac- 
chauaiiuu or drinking style. 

Anafil (a-ua-fel'), «?p. A musical pipe used by 
the Moors. 

&arm, ft cidd, ft ale, S end, $ epe, liUA isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H btU, u Fr. sound, kh Qer. ch, nh nasal, 





Anafllero (&-nA-f^d-ro}, Sp, A player on the 

Anasroza (&-n&-g&'thft), Sp, A bird-call. 

Anakara (&-ii&-ka'r&), Jl. The kettledrum. 

Anakaritta (&-n&-k&-rl8'tfi), It. A tympanist, 
or kettledrum-player. 

Anakrusis (i-nft-kroo'sls). The up stroke in 
conducting or beating time. 

Analyzatlon. The resolution of a musical 
composition into the elements which com- 
pose it, for the sake of ascertaining its con- 

Anapest (ll'na-p^t), Or. A metrical foot, con- 
tainiug two short notes or syllables, and a 
long one, accented and marked thus, w w— / 

^^ I J or two unaccented tones followed 

by an accented tone, thus, J J | J 

Anche (&nhsh), Fr. The reed, or mouthpiece, 
of the oboe, bassoon, clarionet, etc.; also 
the various reed-stops in an organ. 

Anche d*orsrue (anhsh d' drg) , Fr. A reed-stop 
of an organ. 

Ancia (iin-tshg'&) , It. A reed . 

Ancient flute. An instrument of the oboe 
kind, composed of two tubes, with a mouth- 

{>iece attached, then called doubte-fiute. It 
s not certain whether both tubes were 
sounded together, but probably not 

Ancora (&n-k(yra). It. Once more, repeat 
again ; also, yet, still, etc. 

Ancor pin mosso (&n-kdr pe-oo mos'sO), It. 
Still more motion, quicker. 

Andacht (an'dakht), Ger. Devotion. 

Andlichtiff (an'd&kh-tlg), Ger. Devotional. 

Andamento (an-da-m€n'to), It. A rather slow 
movement ; also, an accessory idea or epi- 
sode introduced into a fugue to produce va- 

Andante (an-d&n't€). It. A movement in mod- 
erate time, but flowing steadily, easily, 
nacefuUy. This term is often modified. 
Doth as to time and style, by the addition 
of other words ; as. 

Andante affettuoM (Hn-d&n'tfi af-fSt-too-d'zd), 
It. Moderately, and with much pathos. 

indante amablle (&n-dan'te fi-ma'bM«), It. 
An andante expressive of affection. 

Andante cantabile (&a-d&n'tS cUn-ta'bl-ie), II. 
Andante, and in a singing and melodious 

Andante con mote (&n-d&n't6 kon md'td). It. 
Moving easily, with motion or agitation; 
rather lively. 

Andante ffrazioso (&n-dan't6 gr&tsl-d'zd). It. 
Moderately slow in time, and in graceful, 
easy style. 

Andante larffo /&n-d&n'te l&r'gd), It. Slow, 
broad, distinct, and exact. 

Andante maestoso (an-dftn'tS mft-€8-t</20). It. 
Moving rather slowly and in majestic style 

Andante ma non troppo, e con tristezza (&n- 
d&n'tS m& Ddn trdp'po, a kon tres-tet'sft). It, 
Not too slow, and with pathos. 

Andante non troppo. Moving slowly, but nol 
too much so. 

Andante pastorale (an-dan^g pas-td-r&'lfi), r 
Moderately slow and in simple, pastoral 

Andante plu tosto allegretto (an-d&n'tS pe'o^ 
tos-to al l&-gret'td). It, Andante, or almost 

Andante quasi allegretto. It. An andant« 
nearly as rapid as allegretto. 

Andantemente (an-dau-t6-men't£), H. Sa« 

Andantino (an-dan-te'nd). It. Diminutive of 
andante. Opinions are divided as to whether 
it denotes a slower or faster movement thai(> 
andante. But the general idea makes an • 
dantino a little faster than andante, shad- 
ing toward allegretto. Italian lexicogra' 
phers take the latter view, but non-Italiai i 
composers do not seem so unanimous. 

Andantino sostenuto e slmplicemente, Ik 
canto e poco plu forte (&n-aan-te'nd sds-td- 
noo'to a 8lm-pie-t8h^m€n'to, §1 kan-to a pO* 
kd pe'oo for'te). In a sustained and simple 
manner, with the melody a little louder than 
the other tones. 

Andno. An abbreviation of Andantino. 

Andar diritto (ftn-dar' dl-rSt'to), It. To ijo 
strdight on. 

Andare a tempo (an-da'rd & tSm'pd), It. Tc 
play or sing in time. 

Anelantemente (Il-n€-llln-t6-men'te), It. AnX' 
iously, ardently. 

Anelanza(a-n€-lan't8a), n \ Shortness of 
Anelito (a-ne-le-to) ^^- j breath. 

Anemochord. A species of .Sk>lian harp. 

Anemometer. A windgauge, or machine for 
weighing the wind in an organ. 

Anfang (an'fang), Ger. Beginning. 

Anfinger (an'f€ng-€r), Ger. A b^^inner. 

Anfangsfniinde(an-fangs-gran'd€), Oer. BU' 
dimeuis, elements, principles. 

Anfangsritornell (an'^ngs-re-tdr-n^lO, Ger. 
Introductory symphony to an air. 

Anfiihrer (an'fii-rer), Ger. A conductor, di- 
rector, leader. 

Angeben (&n'g&-b'n), Ger. To give a sound; 
to uttor a tone ; den Ton angeben, to give 
out the tone. 

Angelica (an-ga11-k&), Ger. \ An organ-stop; 
Ang^lique (aiin-zh&-lgk), Fr. j alsoanangelot. 
Angelot. An old musical instrument, some- 
what similar to the lute. 

Angelus (an'gS-loos), IaU. "The Angel of 
the Lord." The angelic annunciation. 
Also, the prayer-time of the AngeluSt name- 
ly, morning, noon and evening. 

Harm, & add, & ale, 6end. e eve, liU,l -Me, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, <i Fr, Bound, kh Ger, ch. nh noKA, 





Annmessen (aii'j;h<&-mte'8'n), Qtr. Ck>nfonii- 
able, suitable, fit. 

Angenehm (En^gh^namO, Qer, Agreeable, 
pleasing, sweet. 

Angkloung (&iik-loong), Jav. A rude instru- 
ment of tne Javanese, made of different 
lengths of bamboo fastened to a strip of 
wood. A sort of xylophone. 

Anirlaitfe (iinh-gl&z), Fr. \ In the English 
Angiico (an'gle-kd), /^ j style; a tune adapt- 
ed for ail English air or country dance. 

Ansore (an-gO're), R, Distress, anguish, pas- 
sion, grief. 

Angoscevole (ftn-gd-shfi^vd-ie), R. Sad, sor- 

Angoscia (an-go'shft), „ I . 

Angoaciamente (an^J6-Bha-m6n't«), ^«-;Anx 
lety, anguiHh, grieiT 

Angosriosamente (an-go-sh6-za-m€n'tS}, It. 
Apprehensively, anxiously, sorrowfully. 

AngoACioso (an-gd-shd'zd), B. Afflicted, dis- 

Angstlich (Angstllkh), Qer. Uneasy, timid, 

Anhaltend (an'h&l-tend), Qtr. Ck>ntinuous, 
constant, holding out. 

Anhaltende Cadenz (anOial-ten-de left-dents'), 
Qer. A pedal note or organ point ; a pro- 
tracted cadence. 

Anhanf: (an'hang), Qer. A postscript, an ap- 
pendix, a coda. 

Anima (&'nl-ma), R. Soul, feeling ,* animated, 

Aniuato (&-nI-m&'td), R. Animated; with 
life and spirit 

Animazlone (&-nI-m&-t8l-d'n€), R Animation. 

Anim^ (&nh-I-ni&),^. \ Animated, lively, 
Animo (a'nl-md), R. j spirited. 

Animo, con, R. With boldness. 

Anlmo corde (&'nl-md kdr'dC), Lot. An in- 
strument invented in 1789 by Jacob Schnell, 
of Paris. The tone is produced by wind 
passing over the strings. 

4nimosameiite (SruI-md-zft-men'tS), R Bold- 
ly ; resolui^ly. 

4iiimo5o (ft-nl-md'zd), R In an animated 
manner; lively, energetic. 

Ankli^ng (ftnlding), Qer. Accord, harmony, 

Anlage (an'lft-ghe), Qer. The plan or outline 
of a composition. 

Anlaufen (&n'lou-fn), Qer. To increase in 
sound, to swell. 

Anieitung (an'U-toong), Qer. An introduc- 
tion, a preface. 

Anmuth (ftn'moot), Qer. Sweetness, grace. 

Anmuthig (&n'moo-tIg), Qer. Agreeable, pleas- 
ant, sweet. 

Anonner (&n-n6nh-n&), Fr. 
blunder or stammer. 

To hesitate. 

Anpfeifen (&n'pf[-rn), Qer. To whistle at; to 
hiss at. . 

Ansatz (&n'sats}, Qer. The position of the 
vocal parts (glottis, etc.) in singing. The 
embouchure of a wind instrument. 

Anschlag (an'shlag), Oer. Touch; manner 
of striking the keys. 2. Obsolete term for 
a peculiar Kind of appoggiatura. 

Anspielen (an'spS-rn), Qer. To play first. 

Anstlmmung (an'stlm-moong), Qer. Intona- 
tioili, tuning. 

Answer. A term used in fugue. 

Anteludium (&n-te-loo'di-oom). Lot. A pre- 
lude, or introduction. , 

Antecedent. The subject of a fugue or of a 
point of imitation. 

Anthem. A vocal composition in the sacred 
stvle, set to words generally taken from the 
Bible. There are anthems with and without 
accompaniment. The forms In which this 
kind of composition presents itself are very 
varied. " There are five species of anthems," 
says Dr. Busby. " (1) The Verse and Chorm 
anthem, consisting of verse and chorus, but 
beginning in verse ; (2) the Verse anthem, 
containing verse and chorus, but beginning 
in verse: (8) the FvU anthem, consisting 
wholly of chorus ; (4) the Solo anthem, con- 
sisting of solos ana choruses, but without 
verse; and (5) the Instrumental anthem." 
Verses are those portions of an anthem that 
are meant to be performed by a single voice 
to each part. 

Anthema. An ancient Greek dance with song. 

Anthem, choral. An anthem in a slow, meas- 
ured style, after the manner of a choral. 

Anthem, full. An anthem consisting wholly 
of chorus. 

Anthem , solo. An anthem consisting of solos 
and choruses. 

Anthologie (&n-td-16-gheeO, Fr. and Qer. An- 
thology, a collection of choice compositions. 
Lit.," a gathering of flowers." 

Anthologium (ftn-thd-ld'gl-oom), Or. The 
name of a book in which are collected the 
hymns, prayers, and lections of the Greek 

AnthropoglossA (&n-thrd-pd-glds'8&), Qr. The 
vox humana, an organ-stop somewhat re- 
sembling the human voice. 

Antibacchius (&n'tX-b&k-kI-oo8). A musical 
foot of three syllables, the first two long or 
accented and the last short or unaccented, 
thus, >—. 

Antica (an-telcft), R Ancient. 

Anticipamento (ftn-te-tshi-pft-mfin'td), R An< 

Anticipation. The taking of a note or chord 
before its natural and expected place. 

feorni, Aodd, acUe, ^CTid, Seve, Itil, I M«,d old, 6 odd. oo moon, 1i Out, ti Fr.iowndt kh Qer. eh. nhnoso^. 




AnticiiMtion. The introduction of a note pre- 
yiouH to the entrance of the harmony to 
which it belongs. The anticipations are in- 
dicated in the illustrations by *. 



'f P ''f 





AnticipNBzione (an-te-tshl-par^-d^nS), It. 

Antico (an-te'kd), IL Ancient. 

Antlco. air (an-te'ko, aU'), It In the ancient 

Antienne (g.n-12-^nO, Fr. An anthem. 
Antifona (an-tif o-nSl), R. and Sp. An anthem . • 

AntMonal (an-tl fo-n&l), Ap. )A book of 
Antifonario (an-ti-lo-u&'ri-o), It. j anthems ; 
an anthem-singer. 

Antifonero (an-tl-fo-na'ro), Sp. A precentor. 

Antiphon . The chant or alternate singing in 
churches and cathedrals. 

Antiphona (an-tlfd-na), Or. An anthem. 

Antiphonaire (anh-te-fo-nar'), Fr. A book of 
anthems, responses, etc. 

Antiphonarium (an'tI-fd-na.'ri-oom), Gr. The 
collection of antipbous used in the Catho- 
lic Church ; they are sung responsively by 
the priest and congregation. 

Antiphonary. Book of anthems, responses, 
etc., in the Catholic Church. 

Antlphone (Sln-t!f-6-n€}, Gr. The response 
made by one part of the choir to another, or 
by the congregation to the priest in the Ko- 
man Catholic service ; also, alternate sing- 

Antiphonon (Hn-tifo-non), Or. In ancient 
Greek music, accompaniment in the octave. 

Antiphony . The response of one choir to an- 
other when an anthem or psalm is suns: by 
two choirs; alternate singing or chanting. 

Antl4trofa(an-ti-strd'fg,), Sp. An ancient Span- 
ish dance. 

Antistrophe. \ The second couplet of each 
Antistrophy. j period in the ancient Greek 
odes suuif in parts ; that part of a song or 
dance which was performed by turning 
from left to right, in opposition to the 
strophe, which turns from right to left. 

Antithesis. Counter subject. In fugues this 
term is applied to the answer; it generally 
signifies contrast. 

A parte (S. par-t6), M. On the side of. 

A parte equate (a pg,r-te a-kwa'lg). It. A term 
applied to a musical performance where the 
voices or instruments sustain an equally 
prominent part; where two or more per- 
formers sustain parts of equal difficulty. 

A passo a passo (& pas-so & pgs-sd). It. Step by 
step; regularly. 

Apertus (&-p€r'toos), Lot. Open ; as, open dia- 
pason, open canon, etc. 

Apfelreffal (ap'ffil-re-g&l), Oer. Apple-regiater, 
a reed-stop in old organs ; no longer in use 

Aphonie (ft-f6-nS), Fr. Aphony, want of voio» 

Aphonous. Being destitute of voice. 

Aphony. Dumbness, loss of voice. 

A placere (a pe-a-tsha'r^. It At pleasui«. 

A piacimento (a pe-A-tRhe-mfin'to), R. At the 
pleasure or taste of the performer. 

A jpiena orchestra (& pe-a'n& Or-kfe'tril), iL 
For full orchestra. 

A plomb (a plomh), Fr. Firm, in exact time, 
with precision. 

A poco (a p6Tt6), It. By degrees, gradually. 

A poco a poco (& pdl^d & po'kd). It. By little 
and little. 

A poco piu lento (a po'ko pe'oo ISn-td), It. A 
little slower. 

A peco piu mosso (& pdl^O p€'oo mte«6), iZ, 
A little quicker. 

Apollo, or, ApoUon. An instrument of the 
lute class, with twenty strings, invented la 
1678 by Prompt, a musician of Paris- 

Apoilino (&-p61-le'n6), Or. An harmonic in' 
vention or contrivance combining the dif- 
ferent qualities and powers of several kinds 
of instruments, aud capable of playing 
them separately or all together. 

Apollo. In ancient mythology, the god of 
music, and said to be the inventor of the 

Apollo l^rra. An instrument shaped like a 
lyre, with a brass mouthpiece like a horn ; 
now obsolete. 

Apollonicon. An organ, invented by John 
Henry Voller in 1800. It had immense self- 
acting machinery, bringing the whole power 
of the instrument into (>peration at once, 

Eroducing the effect of a full orchestra. It 
ad six keyboards, and could be played 
upon by six performers at the same time, 
was exhibitea in London. 

Apotome fa'p6-t6-m6), Or. That portion of 
a major tone that remains alter deducting 
from it an interval less, by a comma, than 
a major semitone; 

Appassionatamente (&p-pSs-d-6-D4-t&- ~\ 

meii't€), / 

Appassionatamente (llp-i>as-d-6-ni^t&- V It. 

mCn'to), i 

Appassionato (&p-pfi8-£d[-6-nfi'td), J 

Passionately, wiw intense emotion and feel' 


Appeau (&p-pd). J^. Tones which resemble 
tne singing of birds. 

Appel (&p-p61), Fr. Call of the drum. 

Appenato (ap-p€-n&'td), It. Grieved, distress 
ed ; an expression of suffering and melan-* 

Applaudissement (Ep-pld-dess-mOnh), Fr. \ 
Applause (&p-pl&-oo^), It. ) 


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Applicatnr (ftp-pU-kA-toorO, Oer, The art of 

AppofffliMiido (ap-pdd-j&n'do), „ (Leaning 
AppoflrRUito (&p-p6d-ja'td), ^^ / upon, 
dwelt upon, drawn out. 

Appogs^latura (&p-pdd-j&-too'rfi), It. Leaning 
note, grac-e note, note of embellishment. 
An accessory tone, or grace note, situated 
one degree from the principal tone. The 
appoggiatura is sometimes written as a 
grace note, and sometimes Ih written out in 
full. It is struck upon the beat, in the time 
of its own principal tone, and is longer or 
shorter according to the nature of the pass- 
age. See Introduction, page 14. 

Apponriatora, compound. An appoggiatura, 
consisting of two or more grace notes or 
notes of embellishment. 

Apponiatara, inferior. An appoggiatura 
Biiuated one degree below its principal note. 

Appoggiatara, superior. An appoggiatura 
situated one degree above its principal note. 

Appoffffiature (ftp-pOd-jfi-too're), IL See Ap- 

Apprestare (ap-pr6s-ifi.'r?\ It. To prepare, or 
put ill a condition to be played. 

Appretiren (ftp-pr^te'-r'n;, Qer, To set in or- 

X premiere vue (& pr6-ml-&r ytl), Fr. \ At first 
A prima vista (a pre'm& vez'tS.), lU j sight. 

Apre (ftpr), Fr, Harsh. 

Aprement (api-mdnh), Fv. Harshly. 

Apret^ (ap-re-ta), Fr. Harshness. 

A minta d' arco (ft poon'ta dar'kd), It. With 
the point of the bow. 

A punto (ft poon'to), It. Punctually, exactly, 

X quatre mains (ft k&tr mftnh), Fr. \ For 
A quattro mani (a kwat'tro mft'nS), It. ) four 
hands. For two performers on one piano- 

A quattro, or, a 4, JZ. For four voices or in- 
struments; a quartette. 

A quattro parti (ft kwftt'tr6par-te), It. In four 

A quatre voix (ft kfttr vwft), Fr. \ For 

A quattro voci (a kwat'tr6 vo'tshe), /i(. j four 

A quatre seuls (ft kfttr stti), Fr. \ For four 
A quattro soli (ft kwftt'tro s6-le), R. j solo 

voices or instruments. 


A quattro tempo staccati e vivace (ft kwftt'trd 
. tSm'pdstftk-ka'tea ve-vft'tsh£), /^ The meas- 
ure in four time to be taken with spirit and 
Ar(ftr), Por. Air. 

Arbttrii (ftr-Wt'rI-e), Lot. Certain points or 
embellishments which a singer introduces 
or improvises at pleasure while singing an 
aria or tune. 

Arbitrio rftr-be'trI-6), lU At the will or pleas- 
ure of the performer. 

Arc (ftrk), R. ' The bow ; an abbreviation of 

Areata (ftr-kft'tft), It, Manner of bowing. 

Arcato (ar-k&'to), R. Bowed, played with the 

Arche (ftr'khe), Qer. The sounding-board of 
an organ. 

Arcicembalo (ftr-tshl-tsh^m'bft-lo), It. A cem- 
balo, or harpsichord, invented in the six- 
teenth century, having au enharmonic 
scale. Little is known about it. 

Archegfliare (ftr-kad-jft're), It. To use the 
bow, to fiddle. 

Archet (ar-sha), Fr. \ . ^^n^ v^„ 

Archettino (ftr-k6t-te'n6), j^. | AvioUn-bow. 

Archetto (ar-kfit'to), w I a nf+i^v^™. 

Arciceiio (ar-tshi-tshem), ^^' / ^ "**^® ^^• 

Archiiuth (ar-she-liit), Fr. ) r,^ i^hua^ 
Arciliuto (ar-tshel-yoo'to), It. ] Bee^rcyuM«. 

Archiute. A theorbo or lute with two nuts 
and Rets of strings, one for the bass. The 
strings of the theorbo were single, but in 
the archiute the bass strinm were doubled 
with au octave and the small strings with a 

Arco (ftr'ko). It. With the bow (after pizzLoato). 

Ardente (ftr-dto'tS), It, With fire, glowing, 

Ardentemente (ftr-dfin-t6-m6n't6), 22. Ardent' 
ly, vehemently. 

Ardentissimo (ar-d€n-tls'sl-m6), It, Very ar- 

Arditamente (ftr-de-tft-mSn te), It, Boldly, 
witu ardor. 

Arditezza (ftr-di-tSfsft), It. Boldness. 

Ardlto (fir-de'to), It. Bold, with energy. 

Ardito di molto (ar-de'td de mol'to), It, Pas- • 
siouatcly, with much force. 

Aretlnian syiiables. The syllableli ut, re, me, 
fa, sol, la, introduced by Guide d' Arez2so for 
his system of hexachords, or six notes. 

Argentin (ftr-zhftn-tftn), Fr. Silver-toned. 

Arghool (ftr-ghool), Tur. A musical instru- 
ment of the TurJ^, of the flute species. 

Aria ja'ri-ft). It. An air ; a song ; a vocal com- 
position for a single voice, with instrumen- 
tal accompaniment. The aria, such as we 
find it in the opera, oratorio, cantata, etc., 
in the structure of which itforms one of the 
most important elements, was developed in 
the seventeenth centurv. Of the varieties, 
of the aria form none is historically more 
noteworthy than the aria with da oapo— that 
is, a composition consibtingof a more or less 
extended first part, a shorter second part, 
and a repetition of the firni part. For along 
period it was the prevaleut type. Most of 
the other varieties of the aria form s]>raTig 
out of this one. For instance, that in which 
a free, modified repetition took the place of 

ftomi, ftocld, ft aU,iiend, S ew, XiZ2, Ii82e, 5 old, 6 oddfOOmoon, iilmt,}lFr, aound, kh Qer, ch^ nhiMuaL 

4 m 




the da capo; or that in which the repetition 
was fdtogether dispenied with ; or that in 
which the center oi gravity was to be foun4 
in the second part, and so forth. Arias, 
however, have often been written in the 
rondo form, and also in what we may call 
the abridged sonata form. Since Mozart, 
the great masters have departed more and 
more from the conventional pattern, and 
have taken for their guides, as regards form 
as well as sentiment, the character and 
mood of the person for whom, and the na- 
ture of the situation for which, the aria is 
intended. See Air. 

Aria buffa (&'ri-& boof m), IL A comic or hu- 
morous air. 

Aria canUbile (a'ri-& k&n-ta'bMfi), II. An air 
iu a graceful and melodious style. 

AriaGoncertoU(&'ri-&kdn-tsher-t&'t&) It. An 
air, with, orchestral accompanintents, in a 
concertante style ; a concerted air. 

Aria concertante, Jl. An aria with oMigato 
inscrumeutal accompaniment— t. e., an aria 
in which one or more instruments vie with 
the voice. 

Aria d' abllita (&'ri[-& d&bel-U-t&O. Jt. A dif- 
ficult air, requiring great skill and musical 
ability in the singer. 

Aria di bravora (a'ri-a dS bril-voo'ra), It. A 
florid air in bola, marked style, and permit- 
ting great freedom of execution. 

Aria di cantabile, H. See Aria carUabUe. 

Aria fugata (a'rI-& foo-gik't&), It. An air ac- 
companied in the fugue style. 

Aria d' ostinazione (&'rl-ft dds-tT-na-tsX-d'nS), 
r^ An arid all parts of which are essential- 
ly counterpoints to the same bass figure 
(called batso oslinalo) repeated over and over. 

4ria parlante (a'ri-& p&r-l&n'te), It. An air in 
the declamatory btyle ; a recitative a tempo. 

Aria tedesca (a'rl-& td-desHca), It. An air in 
the German style. 

Aria und Chor (&'rl-& oond kdr), Qer. Air and 

Arte (a'ri-a), B. pi. \ . ._ ^. ^^- 
Arien(fi'n-«n), Gcr.pi. / Airs or songs. 

Arie affgiunte (a-rl-& iid-loon'te), It. Airs 
added to or introduced into an opera or 
other large work. 

Arietta {ft-rl-€ftft). i?- 1 a ghort air or m«»lodv 
Ariette («rri-€t), Fr. j melody. 

Arietta alia veneslana (&-rl-«t't& &n& vS-na- 
tHl-&'u&), It. A short air in the style of the 
Venetian barcarolles. 

Arlettlna (H-rl-^t-te'na), IL A short air or 

A rigore del tempo (& rC-gd^rS del t€m'pd), B. 
In strict time. 

Arlgot (an-g6), JV. A fife. 

Arlosa (ft-rl-d^zS,), It. In the movement of an 
aiia, or tune. 

Ariose cantate (ft-il-d'ze k&n-t&'t6). It. Ain 
in a style between a song and recitative, in« 
troducing frequent changes in time and 

Arioso (ar-I-d'zd), It. In style of an air ; me- 
lodious. Historically considered, the aria 
marks a single moment in the course of a 
dramatic action. The text often consists oi 
but a few words, many times repeated (as 
we find in Handel's oratorios, etc.), and the 
musical development is the main thing. 
The opposite oi aria is recitative (q. v.), in 
which toe declamation of the syllables is the 
main thing, colored, perhaps, by means of 
clever orohestration. The arioso stands be- 
tween these extremes^ In modem practice 
it has had a great development, especially 
at the hands of Wagner. A n arioso declaims 
the text about as carefully as a recitative ; it 
accentuates the emotional moment of the 
drama about as consistently as the aria ; but 
it is of a more flexible character, and, being 
less bound by conditions of symmetry, is 
free to follow the delicate emotional transit 
tions or shadings of the text in a way im- 
practicable fur an aria in classical form. 
The problem of the composer in composing 
an arioso foran Importantmomentof a work 
is to indulge himself in iree fantasy to the 
extreme extent needed for Iramatically rep- 
resenting the text, and at the same time not 
depart from symmetry, or, at least, a quasi 
symmetry, and a unity of key satisfactory to 
tLe musical ear. 

Arm. A small piece of iron at the end of the 
roller of an organ. 

Armer la clef (£lr-m&' 1& kl&). Fr. The signa- 
ture ; or, the flats and sharps placed imme- 
diately alter the clef. 

Armonegglare (&r-m6-n€d-j&'re),i2. To sound 
iu harmony. 

Armonla (ar-md'nX-ft), It. Harmony, concord. 
Armonlaco (ar-m5-nX-&'k6), It. Harmonized. 

Armdniale (&r-m6-nl-&1€), It. Harmonious, 

Armoniato (&r-m6-nl-&'td), E. See Armonlaco, 

Armonica (ftr-md^nlkA), R. The earliest form 
of the accordion; a collection of musical 
glasses, so arranged as to produce exquisite 

Armonica iniida (ftr-md'nl-ldl gw§-d&), It. A 
guide to harmony. 

ArmonicI (Hr-md-nS'tshl), It. Harmonic. 

Armonico (&r md'nI-kO), /f. Harmonious. 

Armeniosamente (&r-md'nl-d-z&-men'te), iZ. 

Armonioso (ir-md-nl-d'zO), It. Ck)noordant, 

Armure (&r-mClr), Fr. The signature of the 

Arpa d' eolo (^r^pft dft-dlO), It. An Solias 

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Arpa doppia (ar^pft ddi/pI-&), iZ. The double- 
action harp ; it meant formorly a harp with 
two strings to each note. 

A small harp or 

Aipanetta (ar-p&-n^t'tfi), j, \ 
Arplnella (ar-pi-nei'la), ^^' j 

Arpeg. An abbreviation of Arpeggio. 

Ar^gement (llr-p&zh-m&nh), Fr. An arpeg- 
Arpenl (ar-pfid'je), II. Arpeggios. 

Arpenrlxnento (ftr-pM-ja-mSn'to), It. In the 
style of the harp ; arpeggio. 

Arpeniando (&r-ped-j&n'd6), jt \ Music 
Arpegaiato (ar-pM-ja't^), ^^' [played ar- 
peggio, in imitation oi the harp ; harp mu- 

Arpegnrlaiv (&r-pM-j&'re), lU To play upon 

Arpesariatura (&r-pM-ja-too'r&), It. Playing 
arpe^o, or in the style of the harp. 

Arpegiario (&r-pM-jdO» It. Playing the notes 
of a chord quick- wrftiMi. puyed. 
ly, oue after an- 
other, in the 
harp style, thus, 

Arpenrio accompaiiiment. An accompani- 
ment which consists chiefly of chords 
played in arpeggio style. 

Arranir } -A-bbreviations of Arrangement. 

Arrangement. The selection and adaptation 
of a composition or parts of a composition 
to instruments for which it was not origi- 
nally designed, or for some other use for 
which it was not at first written. 

Arranger (ar-rfinh-zha), Fr. \ To ar- 

Arrangiren (ar-ranh-ghe'r'n), Ger, /range mu- 
sic for particular voices or instruments ; to 
arrange orchestral music for the pianoforte. 

Arsis C&r'sls), Or. 'if^e up stroke of the hand 
in beating time. 

Ars musica (irs moo'id-k&), Lai. The art of 

Art (art), Qer. Species, kind, quality. 

Art de Tarchet (&rt dtlh lar-sha), Fr. The 
art of bowing. 

Articolare (&r-ti-kd-Ul're), It. \ To pronounce 
Articttler (&r-tl-k{)-Ia), /r. /the words dis- 
tinctly ; to articulate each note. 

Articulate. To utter distinct separate tones ; 
to sing with a distinct and clear enuncia- 

Articulation. A distinct and clear utterance ; 
a clear and exact rendering of every sylla- 
ble and tone. 

Articolato (&r-tl-k6-m'td),/f. ArticuUted, dis- 
tinctly enunciated. 

Articolazione (ar-tl-kd-lft'tsl-d'ne). It. Exact 
and distinct pronunciation. 

AftUculiren (&r-tIk-oo-le'r'n), Qer. To articu- 

Artista (&r-tls't&), /<. ) An artist; one who 
Artiste (&r-tlst')i Fr. /excels in theoompoGL 
tion or performance of music. 

As (as), Qer. The note A|?. 

Asas (as-as), Qer. A-double-flat. 

Ascoltatore (as-kdl-t&-t(yre), It. An auditor, 
a hearer. 

As-dur (&3-door), Qer. The keyof A.^ major. 

Aslieor (a'sbS-dr), Hdb. A ten-stringed instru- 
ment of the Hebrews. 

As-moll (fts-moU), Qer, The keyof At? minor. 

Asperges me (^s-pftr^gte m&), Lai. The open- 
ing of the Mass in the Catholic service. 

Aspirare (as-pl-ra're). It. To breathe loudly ; 
to use too much breath in singing. 

A8prezza(a8-pret't8&),/^ Roughness, dryness, 

Aasai (as-sa'e), It. Very, extremely, in a high 
degree. In composition with other terms it 
intensifies everything, as. Allegro assai, 
Very all^ro, etc. 

Assai piu (Ss-sa'e pe'oo). It. Much more. 

Assemblage (Ss-sanh-bl&zh), Fr. Double- 
tongueing on the fiute; executing rapid 
I>as8ages on wind instruments. 

Assez (fts-sa), Fr. Enough, sufficiently. 

Assez lent (fts-sa l&nh), Fr, Bather slowly. 

Assoluto (as-s6-loo'td), It, Absolute, free, 
alone, one voice. 

Assonant. Having a resemblance of sounds. 

Assonante (as-sd-nan't€), Jf. Harmonious, con- 

Assonanz (&s-s6-n&ntsO. Qer. \ Similarity, or 
Assonanza (as-s6-nan'tsft). It / consonance of 

Assourdir (fls-soor-derO* Fr. To muffle, to 
deafen, to stun. 

Assourdissant (fts-soor-dls-s&nh), Fr. Deafen- 
ing, stunning. 

A suo arbltrlo (a 80o'6 &r-bX'tri-d), 

A suo bene placito (a soo'd b&-ne pUi'- » 

tshi-to), -"• 

A suo comedo (& soo^d kd^md-dd). 

At pleasure, at will, at the Inclination or 

discretion of the performer; synonymous 

with Ad libitum. 

A suo bene placlmento (a soo'd ba-n€ plfi'tsh!- 
mSn'td), n. An old term, signifying At the 
will or pleasure of the performer. 

Atabal. A kind of tabour used by the Moors 
A temp. ^' } Abbreviations of A tempo. 

A tempo (& tSm'pd), R. In time. A term 
used to denote that, after some deviation or 
relaxation of the time, the performers must 
return to the original movement. 

A tempo comedo (a tSm'p6 kd-mo-dd). It. In 
convenient time; an easy, moderate time. 

A tempo deir allegro (& tem'pd dSl lal-l&'gr6), 
R. In allegro time. 






A tempo d! gavotUk (& tSm^po de ga-T6t'ta), R, 
In the time of a gavot ; moderately quick. 

A tempo ipiusto (& tSm'pd joos'td), It In just, 
strict, exact time. 

A tempo ordinarlo (& tSm'pd or-dl-na'rl-o), Jl, 
In ordinary, moderate time. 

A tempo rubato (a tdm'po roo-ba'to), It. Ir- 
regular time; deviation in time so as to 
give more expression, but so that the time 
of each bar is not altered on the. whole. 
See Bubato. 

Athem (a't€m), Oer. Breath, breathing, respi- 

Athemholen (Srtem-hol'n), Oer. To breathe, 
to respire. 

Athemzus (&-t€m-tsoog), Oer. Act of respira- 
tion, breathing. 

Athmen (at'mfin), Oer. To blow softly. 

A ton basse (H t6nh b&ss), Fr. In a low tone 
of voice. 

A tre, or, a 3 ( a tra), It. For three voices or 
instruments ; a trio, or terzetto. 

A tre corde {& tra kSr'dd), It, For three 
strings; with three strings. Discontinue 
the soft pedal. 

A tre mani (a tra ma'nl), II. For three hands. 

A tre parti (a tra par'd), It. In three parts. 

A tre soli (a tra so'li), It. For three solo 

A tre soprani (& tra so-pra'ni), It. For three 
soprano voices. 

A tre voci (a tra vd'tshi), M. For three voices. 

Atrll (a-trei'), Sp. A missal-stand. 

A trois, or, a 3 (a trwS,), Fr. For three voices 
or instruments. 

A trois mains (a trwa mftnh), Fr. For three 

A trois parties {& trwa par-te), Fr. In three 

A trois voix (a trwa vwa), Fr. For three 

Attacca (at-tak'ka), „ i At- 

Attaccasubito(at-tak'ka80ont)I-t6), -**• i tack 
or commence the next movement immedi- 
Attacca V allegro (at-taklca lai-la'grd), J<. Ctom- 
mence the allegro immediately. 

Attaccare (at-tak-ka'r6), It. > To attack or com- 
Attaquer (at-ta-ka), Fr. j mence the per- 

Attendant keys. Those keys having most 
soundH in common with any given key ; the 
relative ke s. In C major the attendant 
keys are its relative minor A, the dominant 
G, and its relative minor E, the subdomi- 
nant F aud its relative minor D. 

Atto (at'to), It. An act of an opera or play. 

Atto di cadenza (at'to de ka-d^n'tsa), It. The 
point in a piece where a cadence maybe in- 

Atto primo (a^t^ prS'md), S. The first act. 

Attore (at-t6'r6), It. An actor or singer in an 
opera or play. 

Attori (at-t^re). It. The principal actors or 
singers in an opera. 

Atto secondo (at'td s€-kdn'dd), It. The second 

Atto terzo (at-to ter'tsd), It. The third act. 

Attrice (at-tre'tshS), It. An actress or singer. 

Aubade (o-bad), Fr. A morning serenade. 

Audace (a-oo-da'tsh^). It. Bold, spirited, au- 

Auf (ouf), Oer. On, upon, in, at, etc. 

Aufbiasen (ouf bia-z'n), G^er. To sound a wind 

Auf dem Oberwerk (ouf dfim o'ber-wark), (?<r. 
Upon the upper work, or highest row of keys 
in organ-playing. Generally indicates the 
swell organ. 

Auffassung (ouf fas-soong), Oer. Conception, 
reading of a work. 

Auffiihrung: (ouffU-roong), Oer. Perform- 

Aufgeregt (oufgh€-reght), Oer. Excited, agi 

Aufgeweckt (oufgh6-w6kt), Oer. Sprightly, 
lively, cheerful. 

Aufgeweckthelt (oufgh6-w6kt'hIt),6?cr. Live* 
liness, cheerfulness. 

Aufhalten (ouf hai-t'n), Oer. To stop, to re- 
tard, to keep back. 

Aufhaitung (oufhal-toong), Oer. Keeping 
back ; a suspension. 

Aufiage (ouf ]a-gh€), Oer. Edition. 

Auf Idsunff (ouf l&-zoong) , Oer. The resolution 
of a discord. Also, a natural (t;). 

Aufs (oufs), Oer. To the, on the. 

Aufschias (oufshiag), 6r«r. Up beat ; the un- 
accented part of a bar. 

Aufstelgende Tonarten (oufstl-ghto-dS ton'^ 
ar-c'n;, Oer. pi. Ascending scales or keys. 

Aufstrich (oufstrikh), Oer. An up bow. 

Auftakt (ouf takt), Oer. The unaccented part 
of a bar ; especially the commencement of a 
piece, or division of a piece, when it does 
not open with a note on the first accented 
part of the bar, but on a later unaccented 

Auftritt (ouf trltt), Oer. A scene 

Aufzug (ouftzoog), Oer. Act of a play or 

Augmentatio (oug-mSn-ta'tsI-d), Lot. Aug- 

Augmentation. Applied to intervals which 
are chromatically enlarged beyond the com- 
pass of the corresponding perfect or major 
intervals. (2) In canon, the repetition of a 
subject in notes of greater value, as halves 
for quarters, etc. 

Augments (og-manh-taOi Fr. Augmented. 

ft am, ft add, & ote, 6 end, 6 cw, 1 itt, i i«te, 6 oW, 6 odd, oo wioon, tl bu<, <i JV. sound, kh G^^ 





Aufl^mentazionc (ong-mto-tft-tsI-^DS), II, In- 

Aagmented. An epithet applied to snch in- 
tervals as are more than a major or perfect. 

Augmented fifth. A fifth containing four 
whole tones, or steps. 

Auflrmented foorth. A fourth equal to three 
whole steps. 

Aiiffmented intervals. Those which include 
a semitone more a perfect fifth An«meiited fifth 
than major, or per- 

fect, intervals ; as, 


Auflrmented octave. An in terval equal to five 
whole tones, or steps, and two semitones, or 
half steps. 

Augmented second. An interval equal to 
one whole and one half step, equal to three 
half steps. 

Aunnented sixth. An interval equal to four 
whole tones, or steps, and one semitone, 
or half step. 

Augmented unison. A semitone, or half step. 

Augmento (a-ooff-mSn'td), It. Augmentation. 

Auletes (ou-l&'t&) , Or. A flute-player, a piper. 

Auletic. Pertaining to a pipe ; (little used). 

Au lever du rideau (o l€-v& dtlh r$-dd), JV. At 
the rising of the curtaiu. 

Aulo (a-ooHd), It. ) A species of ancient 
AuIo5(ou'id8), Gr. jfiute. 

Auiodia (ft-oo-ld'df-&). It. Singing, accom- 
panied by the flute. 

Aumentazlone (ll-oo-men-t&-t^-<yn6). It. Aug- 

A una corda {& oo'nft kdr^dfi), M. On one 

Aus (ous), Oer. From, out of. 

Attsarbeltung (oufi'ar-bl-toong), O'er. The last 
finish or elaboration of a composition. 

Ausdehnung (ou8'd&-noong),(?er. Expansion, 
extension, development. 

Ausdruck (ous'drook), Oer. Expression. 

Ausdrucksvoll (ous'drooks-foll), Oer. Ex- 

Ausfiihrung {ouafliX-TOong),Qer. Performance. 

Ausfttilung (ous'faMoong}, Oer. The filling 
up, the middle parts. 

Ausgabe (ous'g&-b€), Oer. Edition. 

Ausgang (ous'gfing), Oer. (}oing out, exit, 

Ausgehalten (ous'gh€-h&l-t'n), Oer. Soste- 

Ausgelgen (ous'ghi-g'n), Oer. To play to the 

AusgelaAsen (oas'gh&-llU3's'n),G'er. Wild, un- 

Ausgelaasenheit (ous'ghS-las'B'n-hlt), Oer. Ex- 
travagauce^ wantonness. 

Au5halten (ous'h&l-t'n), Oer. To hold on, to 
sustain a note. 

Aushaltung (ous'hftl-toong), Oer. The bus* 
tainlug of a note. 

Oer. A pause (/^). 

AttslOsung (ous'I^zoong), Oer. A mechan- 
ism which permits the hammer of the piano- 
forte to immediately drop away from the 
string w^ile the finger yet remains upon the 

Ausweichen (ous'wi-kh'n), Oer. To make a 
transition from one key to another. 

Ausweichung (ous'wi-khoong), Oer. A tran- 
sient modulation, or change of key. 

Autentico (&-oo-ten'tl-k6). It. Authentic. 

Auteur (d-tdr), Fr. An author, a composer. 

Authentic. A name given to those church 
modes whose melody was confined within 
the limits of the tonic, or final, and its oo* 

Authentic cadence. The old name for a per- 
fect cadence ; the harmony of the dominant 
followed by that o! the tonic, or the progres- 
sion of the dominant to the tonic. See Ca- 

Automatic musical instruments. Those 
which are played bv mechanism, such as 
the orchestrion, music-boxes, the 8eolian,etc 

Autor (ou-torO, Sp. ) An author, a oom- 
Autore (a-oo-t6'r6), It. } poser. 

Auxiliary notes. Tones not belonging to the 
chord, but accessory to it, standing one de- 
gree above or below the true harmonic tone. 
They are apjooggiaiuras on the beat, passing 
tones on the naif beat, anspensiona held over 
out of a previous chord, and changing notes. 
See Dissonances. 

Avant-scene (&-vanh-s&n), Fr. Before the 
opening of the opera or scene. 

Ave (a-v6), !«<. Haill 

Avec (a-v6k), JV. With. 

Avec allegresse (a-v^k &l-l&-gras), Fr. Lively, 

Avec ame ou gout (a-v€k am oo goo), JFV. 
With feeling or grace. 

Avec douleuc (a-v6k doo-ltlr), Fr. With grief, 
with sadness. 

Avec feu (a-v6k iH), Fr. With spirit. 

Avec force (a-v6k forss), Fr. With power. 

Avec gout (a-v6k goo), Fr, With taste. 

Avec grande expression (a-v^k granh dex- 
pra-ffl-6nh), Fr. With great expression. 

Avec lentenr (a-vSk lanh-tar), Fr. With slow- 
ness, lingering. 

Avec les pieds (a-vSk \6 pe-a), Fr. With the 
feet, in organ-playing. 

Avec liaison (a-vSJc ll-a-s6nh), Fr. With 

fit^rm, A cvdd, & die, € end^ e eve, liU,l isle, 6 4ld, 6 odd, oo moon, iX but, tl Fr, sourtdf kh Oer. cA, nh ncaal 





Avec moovement {Sl-y&l mooy-mOnli), Fr. 
With movement. 

Ave Maria (a'v6 ra&-re'ft}. Lot. " Hall Mary." 
A hymn or prayer to the Virgin Mary. 

Avena (ft-ya'n&), It, A reed, a pipe. 

A vicenda (a ve-tBhen'd&), It. Alternately, 
by turns. 

A vide (d. ved), Fr, Open. 

A viata (& vl'st&), II. At sight. 

A voce sola (& vd'tshS sO'lft), R, For one voice 

Avoir du retentisaement (&-vwftr dd r&-t&nh' 
t§8s-mdnh). Fr. To be repeated. 

Avoir le vois haut (a-vwslr' Itih vwa s6), Fr. 
To have a loud voice. 

A voix forte {& vw& fdrt), Fr. With a loud 

A volonU (& v6-16nh-ta), J^. At will, at 

A vue (a vfl), Fr. At sight. 

Azione sacra (a-tsl-d^nfi sa'kra), It. An ora- 
torio ; a sacred musical drama. 

B. The name of a pitch one whole step high- 
er than A. Also of the staff-degrees, repre- 
senting B and its octaves. In Germany the 
name B is applied to the pitch B flat, B-nat- 
ural being called H. This usage is gradu- 
ally becoming obsolete. 

(ba-za), Fr. A species of guitar. 

Babara (ba-ba'ra), Sp. A Spanish country 

Bacchanalian songs. Drinking songs ; songs 
pertaining to drunkenness and revelry. 

Bacchia. A Kamschatka dance in 2-4 time. 

Bacchius (bak'kl-oos), Or. A musical foot, 
consisting of one short, unaccented, and 
two long, accented notes or syllables, 
marked w . 

Baccliuslied(bakh'oo8-ied),Gfer. A Bacchana- 
lian sung. 

Bacciocolo (b&t-tshI-6-k61d), It. A musical 
instrument of the guitar kind, common iu 
some parts of Tuscany. 

Bachelor of Music. The first musical degree 
taken at the English universities. It is not 
conferred by German or continental uni- 

Badinage (ba-dI-nazh),jPr. Playfulness, sport- 

Bagatelle (bag-&-tein, Fr. A trifle, a toy, a 
short, easy piece of music. 

Bagpipe, or, bagpipes. An ancient wind in- 
strument, still in use in many countries, 
consisting of a leathern bag (into which the 
wind is conveyed through a tube, one end 
of which the plaver holds in his mouth), 
and from two to five pipes (on tbe shortest 
of them, the cAan^, wbich has several fin- 
ger-holes, the performer plays the tune ; the 
others, the drone, produce each only one 
note, which they sustain throughout). The 
form and structure of this instrument vary 
in different countries, and even in one and 
the same country. Bagpipes with more 
than one drone pipe have the smaller drone 

pipes generally tuned a fifth or an octave, 
or one a fifth and another an octave, above 
the fundamental note produced bj the long- 
est pipe, two of the smaller pipes being 
often tuned in unison. 

A drumstick, 


Baguette (ba-ghfit'), Fr. 

Baguettes de tambour (ba-gh€t 
boor), /v. Drumsticks. 

Balle (ba-eie), Sp. The national dances of 


Baisser (bas-sa), Fr. To lower or flatten the 
pitch or tone. 

Baisser le rideau (b&s-sa liXh re-do), Fr. To 
drop the curtain. 

Balalaiica (ba-la-lalca), Rm. a rude, guitar- 
like instrument of the Ukreine. It has three 

Balanc6 (ba-ianh-sa), Fr. A step, or figure, 
in dancing. 

Balancement (bai-anhs'manh), J^r. Quivering 
motion, a tremolo. Corresponding to the 
Bdmng, a trembling of tbe finger, which 
was communicated to the strings of the vio- 
lin or clavier. 

Balcken, or, Balken (bai'k'n), Oer. The bass 
bar placed under the fourth string in a 

Baldamente (bai-da-mSn't^), It. Boldly. 

Baldanza (bai-dan'tsa), „ \ Audacity, bold- 
Baldezza (bal-det'sa), ^^' fness. 

Balg (baigh), Ger. The bellows of the organ. 

Bilgtreter (baig'trfi-tfir), Oer. Organ-blower, 
or belluws-treader, in old German organs. 

Balgzug (baig'tsoog), Oer. In an organ, the 

Balken (bai'k*n), Oer. See Balcken. 

Ballabile (bai-ia'bX-ie), It. In the style of a 

Ballad. This word is derived from haUata 
(dancing-song), which in its turn is derived 
irom baUnre (to dance). The popular mean- 
ing of IxUZad, iu English, is " a simple song ;" 






the specific and more widely accepted mean- 
ing 18 " a lyrico-narratiTe poem, or the mu- 
sic to such a poem *' Ballads have been 
composed for a single voice (which is the 
most reasonable course), for several voices, 
for chorus with and without accompani- 
ment, and also for single instruments with 
and without accompaniment, and for or- 

Ballade (b&Mft'de), Oar. \ A dance, dancing ; 

BallaU (b&l-la't&), It. / also a baUad. 

Balladenin855ig (b&M& d'n-mas-8lgh),Gf«r. Af- 
ter the manner of a ballad. 

BalladensAnger (b&l-l&d'n'sftng-«r). Ger. A 

Balladist. A writer of ballads. 

Ballad of Ballads. The designation given in 
an old version of the Bible to Solomon's 

Ballad opera. Light opera; an opera in 
which ballads and dances predominate. 

Balladry. The subject or style of ballads. 

Ballad-singer. One whose employment is to 
slug ballads. 

Ballad style. In the manner or style of a bal- 

Ballare (bfil-l&re), i2. To dance. 

Ballatella (bal-ia tern), « I a short hallAta 
BallatetU (bal-la-t6t't&), ''^- |Asnort oaiiata. 

Ballerina (b&Me-rS'n&), It. A dancing-mis- 
tress, a female dancer. 

Ballerino (h&l-IS-rS'nd), It. A dancing-mas- 
ter, a male dancer. 

Ballet (b&Ma), Fr. \ (1) An artistic, as 
BaUetto (bal-iet'td). It. /distinguished from a 
social dance, performed by several persons. 
(2) A kind of opera, in which there was 
not much of a plot, but a greal deal of 
dancing. (3) The representation of an ac- 
tion bv pantomime and dancing. (4) A 
sprightly kind of composition for several 
voices, which became popular at the end of 
the sixteenth centurv. As many of them 
had a Fa 2a burden, they were, in England, 
commonly called Fa las. 

Ballet-master. The person who superintends 
the rehearsals of tne ballet, and who fre- 
quently invents the fable and its details. 

Ballete. A ballet. 

Ballctti (b&l-iet't6). It. Dance airs. 

BaiV (X^lle), Dances. 

Ball! della stiria (b&lle deim strrI-&), It. pL 
Styrian dances, resembling waltzes. 

Ball' ungaresi (b&l'loon-g&r&'ze), It. pi. Hun- 
garian dance in 2-4 time, generally synco- 
pated, or accented on the weak part of the 

Ballo (b&llo), It. A dance, or dance tune. 

Ballonchio (bal-ldnld-d), /i(. An Italian coun- 
try dance. 

Band. A number of instrumental performers 
playing in concert on their respective in- 

Band, brass. A band where only brass in- 
struments are played. 

Band, chamber. A band whose perform' 
auces consist only of chamber music. 

Band, choral. Orchestral performers. 

Band , full. Where all the instruments proper 
to a baud are employed. 

Bandmaster. The .leader or conductor of a 

Bandola (ban-dd'l&), Sp. An instrument re- 
sembling a lute. 

Bandora (bS.n-dd'ra), „ \ ^^ ancient string- 
Bandore (baudo're), ' j ed instrument of 
the lute or zither species. 

Band, reed. A band with only reed instru- 

Band, regimental. A band belonging to a 
regiment; a military baud. 

Band, string. A band with only stringed 


Bandurria. (ban-door-rl'£), Sp. A species of 
Spanish guitar ; a bandora. 

Banjo. A long-necked stringed instrument, 
the body of which consists of a broad hoop 
with a skin stretched over it. The strings, 
from five co nine, are variously tuned. Oi 
great antiquity. 

BinkelsAnger. (b&n'k'l-sftng-^r), Ger. A bal- 

Bar. Lines drawn perpendicularly across 
the staff to show that the strong pulse im- 
mediately follows. Hence, the bar shows 
where the measure begins. The term bar 
is also inelegantly used in place of measure. 

Barbarism. In music it relates to false har- 
mouy or false modulation. 

Barblton (bUr'bl-tdn), Or. A name formerly 
applied to the viol and violin. 

Barbitos (b&r'bX-tds). Lot. An ancient instru- 
ment of the lyre species. 

Barcarola (bar-kfi-r5n&). It. \ A song or air 
Barcarolle (bclr-ka-rdlO, Fr. j sung by the Ve- 
netian gondoliers, or boatmen, while fol- 
lowing their avocations. 

Barcaruola (b&r'k&-roo-da&), It. The song of 
the gondolier. A barcarole. 

Bard. A poet and singer among the ancient 
Celts. The bard was a person of great im- 

Eortance, and received great attention from 
igh and low. 

Bardd alan (b&rd &-lftn). Wet. A professor of 

Bardone (b&rdo'nS), It. See Bourdon. 

Bar. A line drawn across the staff to show 
the place of the strong accent, which is 
always upon the time-space immediately 
following, and hence to show the division 
of measures. The measure itself, and the 
space between the bars, is sometimes called 






a bar. but improperly. The name bar means 
simply the line, and its office is to indicate 
the place of the strong accent. A very 
heavy mark called Double Bar is used in 
psalmody to indicate the end of phrases 
and lines of poetry, and in instrumental 
music sometimes to indicate the end of a 
strain. When accompanied by dots upon 
the left or right, the strain upon that side is 
to be repeated. Double bars sometimes 
serve to mark the measure, and sometimes 
are insertid in the middle of a measure. 
There is no rule upon • this subject. Bars 
did not come into more general use till 
about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. In scores they are to be met with 
centuries before that time, but for the most 
part only in theoretical books, as it was not 
then the custom to print compositions in 
score. With the rise of the monodic style 
in Italy, towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, bars came to the fore, as the publi- 
cations with a basso cmUiniio prove. The 
systems « f notation called Tablature have 
almost always made use of bars. 

Barem (ba-r6m'), Qer, A stopped regifiter, of 
soft 8 or 16 feet tone, in German organs. 

Barentanz (bar'Sn-tfintz), Oer. Bear dance. 
Imitating the primitive music of the peas- 
ant, with shrill piccolo and drum. 

Bari. An abbreviation of Baritone. 

Baribasso. A deep baritone voice. 

Bariolage (bar-I-d-l^zh), Fr. A passage for the 

violin, etc., in which the open strings are 

more especially used. 

Baritedor. The deeper sort of tenor voice. 
Bariton (ba-rl-t6nh'). Fr. \ (i) The 

Baritone (ba-re'to-no). It. > male 

Baritone, or, baryton, or. barytone.) voice 
which is higher in pitch than the bass and 
lower than the tenor, and participates to 
some extent in the character of both. Its 
usual compass is from a to f . (2) A brass 
instrument with valves, having a compass 
of three octaves, from b> to l/b, or from c to 
c". (3) The tnola di bordone (or bordone). a 
stringed instrument which went out of use 
in the second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It had six or seven catgut strings 
above the fingerboard, which were played 
with the bow, and from eight to twenty- 
seven wire strings below the fingerboard, 
which were plucked and sounded syny)a- 
thetically with the upper ones. (4) llie 
word barytone is often used as an epithet to 
indicate an instrument related to other in- 
struments as the barytone voice to other 

Baritone clef. The F clef on the third line of 

the stave, 

It is now no longer 


Baritone (ba-ri-td'no), It. Baritone. 

Barocco (ba.-r6k'k6), It. \ A term applied to 
Baroque (ba-rdk), Fr. /music in which the 
harmony is confused and abouudiug in un- 
natural modulations. 

BJlrpfelfe (bftr'pfi-f€), Oer. Bear pipe; an ob- 
solete reed-stop of soft intonation. 

Barra (bd-r^rfi). It. A bar line ; a bar. 

Barrasre (bftr-rfizh'), Fr. See Barri, 

Barre (bar), Fr. A bar in music. 

Barri (bar-ra). Fr. In guitar-playing, a tem- 
porary nut, formed by placing the forefinger 
of the left hand across some of the strings. 

Barred C. C with a bar across it ; one of th4 j 

marks of alia breve measure, thus, ^ 

Barre de luth (bar dtUi loot), Fr, The bridga 
of the lute. 

Barre de mesure (bar ddh m&-ziir), Fr. A bat . 

Barrer de r^p^itlon (bar dtlh ra-pa-tl-sl-ttnh),; 
Fr. A dotted double bar ; also, a thick liaj, 
used as an abbreviation to mark the repeti* 
tion of a group of notes. 

Barrel. The body of a bell. 

Barrel chime. The cylindrical portion of the 
mechanism sometimes used for the purp<»e 
of ringing a chime of bells. 

Barrel ors^an. An organ in which the key« 
which give the wind access to the pipes are 
acted upon bv pins (staples) fixed on a cyl- 
inder, which is made to revolve by turning 
a handle. This turning of the handle also 
sets the wind- producing mechanism in mo- 
tion. The same principle has also been ap' 
plied to small church organs, for the advan- 
tage of small parishes unable to hire an or- 
ganist. The cylinders, each pegged for a 
certain number of tunes, are bought and re- 
newed as wanted. 

Barrer. The act of employing the forefinger 
of the left hand as a nut in guitar-playing. 

Barrer, s^reat. The act of pressing all the 
strings of the guitar at the same time, with 
the forefinger of the left hand. 

Barrer, small. The act of pressing two or 
three strings of a guitar with the forefinger 
of the left hand. 

Barrure (bar-riir), Fr. The bar of a lute. etc. 

Baryphonus (ba-rl-f(ynooe). A man with a 
very deep or very coarse voice. 

Barz (barz), Wei. A poet-musician, a bard. 
Baa (bah), Fr. Low. 

Bas dessua (bah dtls-sS), Fr. A mezzo-so* 
prano, or secund-treble voice. 

Base. ) The lowest, or deepest, male voice ; 
Baas, j the lowest part in a musical composi- 

Basilica (ba-zell-ka), It. A cathedral. 

Bassa (bas'sa), It. Low, deep ; S^abassa, pb^y 
the notes an octave lower. 

Bass albertl. A bass formed by taking the 
notes of chords in arpeggios. 

Bassanello (baR-Ra-nei'16),/if. An obsolete mu- 
sical iubtrumeut. 

Bassa otUva ( b&s'sa 6t-ta'va), It. Play the pas- 
sage an octave lower than written. 

il^arm,^add, hale,&end, eeve, liU, li8U,6<M,6odd,oomo<m,iiLbut,iXFr,9(mnd,^,iihnaiaiL 





Bass beam. A thin strip of wood glaed in- 
side the viol, nearly under the h&bs string. 

Bassblftser (bfiss'bl&-z'r), Ger. A bassoonist. 

Bass chantante (has sh&nh-tanht), Fr. The 
vocal biiss. 

Bass clarinet. A clarinet an octave lower 
than the B-flat clarinet. 

Bass clef. The bass, or F clef, placed upqn 
the fourth line. 

Bass concertina. A concertina having the 
cumpaiis of a violoncello. 

Bass, continued, l^ass continued through 
the whole piece ; the figured baas. 

Basse (bfiss), Fr. The bass part. 

Basse eliantante (b&ss shanh-t&nht), Fr. Vo- 
cal bass, tikse Bona chantante. 

Basse chiffree (bass shef-fr), Fr. A figured 

Basse continue (ba.«is kdnh-te-nfi), Fr. Thor- 
ough bass. Figured bass. 

Basse contrainte (b&ss k6nh-trftnht), Fr. The 
coustiaiued, or ground bass. 

Basse centre (b9.<«s kOntr), Fr. Bass counter, 
double ba^s ; also, the deep bass voice, called 
by the Italians ba880 pro/ando. 

Basse de cromome (b&ss dtlh kro-morn) (also 
written cremorne), and Basse de iiautbois 

(bass dQh ho-bwA), Fr. Old Frencn names 
lor tbe bassoon, but also the names of the 
lowest members of the oboe and cromorne 

Basse ligur^e (bfiss fX-gQ-r&), Fr. The figured 

Basse londamentaie (bass f Onh-dH-m&nh-tal), 
Fr. The fundamental bass. 

Basse taille (^&«s tallyS), Fr. Baritone voice ; 
low teuor voice. 

Basset horn. A variously bent and construct- 
ed insirumetit of the clarinet family, no 
longer used by composers. It is said to have 
been Invented in 1770. Its compass extends 
from f to cf". 

Bassett. A little bass, generally somewhat 
higner than the usual bass. 

Bassetto (bfis-s^t'td), It. The little bass ; also 
an obsolete instrument with four strings; 
also an 8 or 16-feet reed-stop in an organ. 

Bass, figured. A baas figured, or accompa^ 
nied by numerals, denoting the harmony to 
be played by the otLer parts of the compo- 

Bass, first. High bass. 

BassflOte (bfissfle-te), (?«r. \ An old instru- 
Bass flute. j ment of the bas- 

soon ppecies ; also the name of an organ stop 
on the pedal, of 8-feet tone. 

Bass, fundamental. The bass which contains 
the roots of the chords only. This bass is 
not intended to be played, but serves as a 
test of the correctness of the harmony. 

Bassgeiflre (bflss'ghl-ghe), Oer. Bass viol; tbe 

Bass, siven. A bass to which harmony is to 
be placed. 

Bass, tiiflrh. A baritone, a voice midway be- 
tween bass and teuor. 

Bass horn. An instrument resembling the 
ophicleide, formerly much used in bands. 

Bassi (bfis'sS), It. A term implying the en- 
trance of the brass instruments. 

Bassist (bfis-slsf). Cfer.).^. 
Bassista (bas-blb'ta). It. / ^ bass-singer. 

Bass, low. Second bass. 

Basso (bas'so). It. The bass part. 

Basso buffo (bSs'sO boof f 6) , It. The principal 
bass-siuger in the comic opera. 

Basso cantante (bOs'^^d kS.n-t^n't€), It. The 
vocal bass part; also the principal baas- 
singer in an opera. 

Basso comico (b§.s's6 kd'ml-kd), It. A comic 
bass-singer in an opera. 

Basso concertante (bas'so kdn-tsh€r-tan-t€).i2. 
Tbe principal bass; also the lighter and 
more delicate parts performed by the violon- 
cello, or bassoon. 

Basso construtto (bas'sS kon-stroot'tS), It. 
. Oround baos, constrained btiss. 

Basso continuo (b&s'so kdn-t6'noo-d). It. The 
continued bdss ; a bass that is figured to in- 
dicate the harmony. 

Basso contra (bas'so kon-tra), » ) A double 
Basso contro (bas'so kdn'tro), '^* jba^s viol; 
the lowest or gravest part of a musical com- 

Bass Oder P Schlttssel (bSss o'dSr F shlOs's'l), 
(jtr. The bass, or F clef. 

Basso d* accompagnamen,to (bas'so d£ik-kdm- 
pa,n-ya-m«5u'u);. It. An accompanying bass. 

Basso f igurato (bas'sd f e-goo-ra'to). It, The fig- 
ured baas. 

Basso fondamentale (ba^^o fdn-da-m€n-tS,'l€), 
It. The fundamental bass. 

Basson (bas-sdnh), Fr. Bassoon. 

Basson quart (bas'sOnh k2.r), Fr. An instru- 
ment whuse tones are a fourth lower tnan 
the ordinary bassoon. 

Basson qulnte (bS^'sdnh k&nht), Fr. A small 
bassoon of the same compass as the ordinary 
bassoon, but the tones are a fifth higher. 

Basso numerato (bsus'so noo-mS-ra'to), R. Fig- 
ured bciss. 

Bassoon. A wind instrument with a double- 
reed mouthpiece, invented about 153i), and 
since then much improved. The Italian 
name, /agfotto (fagot, bundle of sticks), de- 
scribes somewhat its outward appearance. 
Its usual compass extends from b^b tob'b; . 
its extreme upper limit is e"|?. Music for 
the bassoon is written in the bass and tenor 
clefs, the latter clef being used for tue high- 
er notes. It is not very agreeable as a solo 
instrument, but indispensable in full or* 






cbestra. The lower tones are strong and 
rough, but the middle rich and pleasing. 

Bassoonist. A -perlormeT on the bassoon. 

Bassoon stop. A reed-stop in the Organ which 
imitates the tones of the bassoon. 

Basso ostinato (bfis'sd 5s-tl-n&'td), It. A con- 
stantly recurring bass theme, forming the 
foundation of a poljrphonio composition 
(chacouue, passacagiia, etc.). 

Basso prime (bfis'sd pre'mo), It. The first bass. 

Basso ripieno (b&s'sd rl-pl-&'nd), It. A bass 
part only intended to be played in the full 
or tutti passages. 

Basso rivoltato (b&s'sd rX-y61-t&'td), It. An in- 
verted bass. 

Basso secondo (bfis'sd s^kdn'dd)//^. The sec- 
ond baas. The lower bass. 

Basso tennto (bfis'sd tS-noo'td), It. Continued 


Basso vlolino {XAtfa6 y§-6-le'nd). It, A small 

Basspfeile (bfiss pfi-fS), Oer. Basspipe, bas- 

Basspommer (bfiss'pdm-m'r), Oer. The low- 
est member of the pommer family. See Pom- 

Bassposanne (hiss 'pd-zou-nS) , Oer. Bass trom- 
bone, sackbut. 

Basssaite (b&ss'Bi-te), Oer. Bass string. 

Bassscliliissel (bSss'shKiss-s'l), Oer. The bass 

Bass staff. The staff marked with the bass 


Bassstimme (bSss'stXm-me), Oer. Bass voice, 
bass pait. 

Bass string. The string of any instrument 
upon which the lowest note is sounded. 

Bass trombone. A trombone having a com- 
pass from thegreat c to the one-lined e, and 
noted in the F clef. 

Bass tulm (b&ss too-ba), Lai. See TubcL 

Bass viol. An old name for the viol da gam- 
ba, now often given to the violoncello. 

Bass viol, double. A stringed instrument, 
the largest and deepest toned of its class. 

Bass voice. The lowest or deepest of male 

Basszeiclien (bfiss'tsl-kh'n), Oer. The bass 


Basta (b&s'ta), „ ) Enough, su£Qcient; 

Bastante (bas-t&n'tS), -^ ' j proceed no further 
uulebS directed by the conductor. 

Bastardilla (bas-tar^gry&), Sp, A species of 

Batillus (b&-txnoos), Lot. An instrument 
used by the Armenians in their church ser- 
vice in the place of bells. A board struck 
with a hammer. 

Battement (b&t-mdnii'), Fr. \ An old name 
Battimento (b&t-tl-men'td), i2./for that kind 

of short shake written. Ptayed. 

called a beat. i " ^ n 

Battere (bftt'tS-r^), II. The down stroke in 
beating time. 

Batterie (bftt-tr6), Fr. The roll of the drum ; 
also, a particular way of pla3ring the guitat 
by striking the strings instead of pnllini 

Baton (bft-tonhO, «, ) 

Baton de mesnre (b&-tdnh'di^h mfi-sOr), ''^' } 

The stick used by the conductor in beating 


Battre (b&tr), fr. To beat. 

Battre la caisse (bfttr 1& k&88), £. t 

battre ie tambour (b&tr lOh t&mboor), ^^' f 
To beat the drums. 

Battre la mesure (bfttr U m^sdr'), Fr, 'Ko 
beat time; to mark the time by beating with 
the hand or with a stick. 

Bau (bou), Oer» The structure, the iabrio, the 
construction of musical instruments. 

B&ueriscli (by'Sr-ish), Oer. Rustic, coarse. 

Bauemfltfte(bou'em-fl^te), Oer. Rustic flute i 
a stoppt^ register in an organ. 

Bauemlied (bou'em-led), Oer. A rustic ballad. 

B cancellatum (B k&n-ts€1-l&'toom), Lot. The 
old name for a sharp (^). 

B, double. The b below G gamut ; the twelfth 
below the bass-clef note. 

B-dur (Ba-door), Oer. The key of B|r major. 

B durum (B doo'room). Lot. B hard or B ma^ 

Bearbeitet (b^&rn^I-tSt), Oer. Adapted, ar 

Bearbeitung (b&4Lr^I-toong), Oer. Adapta* 


Bearing notes. In tuning instruments those 
erroneous, or falsely tempered fifths, on 
which " the wolf " is said to be thrown. 

Bearpipe. See Bdrpfeije. 

Beat. The rise or fall of the hand or baton in 
marking the divisions of time in music. 
These motions, in the different varieties of 
measure, take the following directions: 
Double, down, up; Triple, down, left, up; 
Quadruple, down, left, right, up; BextuoU, 
down, duwn. left, right, up, up. An im- 
portant musical embellishment, consisting 
of the principal note and the note helow it, 
resembling a short trill ; also the pulsation 
arising f om the interferences of two series 
of vibrations slightly difiering in pitch. 
The number of beats per second will be 
equal to the number of vibrations in which 
one series exceeds the other. 

Beatings. Regular pulsations produced In an 
organ by pipes of the same key when they 
are not exactly in unison. 






BMitlns: time. Marking the diylBions of the 
bar hf means of the hand, foot, or baton. 

Beben (b&'b'n), Oer. To tremble, to shake, to 

Bebende Stlmme (bft^ben-d^ stlrn'm^), Qer. A 
trembling voice. 

Bebung (b&'boong), Oer. A shaking, a vibra- 
tion. On the clavier, a tremolo made by vi- 
brating the finger upon the key. (Imprac- 
ticable upon the pianoforte.) Also, a Ger- 
man organ-stop. 

Bee (b^), Fr, The mouthpiece of a clarinet. 

B^carre (b&-kftr), Fr. The mark called a nat- 
ural (20* 

Becco (bSk'kd), It. The mouthpiece of a clar- 
inet, flageolet, etc. 

Becco polacco (b&kQLd p6-lak'kd). It. A species 
of large bagpipe used in some parts of 
Becken (bCk'n), Oer. A cymbal. 

Bedeckt (be-d6kt), Oer. Covered, stopped. 
Said of strings, in contradistinction to leer, 
open. Also of stopped pipes. 

Bedon (b^d6nhO , Fr. An old name for a tab- 
ret, or drum. 

Be (ba), Qer. Flat, Bb. 

Beffrol (bef-frwftO. Fr. The frame that sup- 
ports the bell in a belfry: a belfry. The 

Begelsterung (bS-ghis'tfi-roong), Oer. Inspi- 
ration, animation, enthusiasm. 

Begl . An abbreviation of Begleitung. 

Begleiten (b«-gli't'n), Oer. To accompany. 

Begleitende Stimmen (be-gll tSn-dS stlm- 
m6n), Oer. pi. The accompanying parts. 

Begleitung (b^gli'toong), Oer. An accompa- 
!9eharrlich (be-harr^lkh), Oer. Perseveringly. 
Beherzt (b^h&rtsf ), Oer, Ck)urageous. 
BeUp. An abbreviation of Beispiel. 
Belspiel (bl'sp^), Oer. Example. 
Beisser (bis's'r), Oer. A mordent 
Beitttne (bl't£-n€), Oer. Accessory tones. 
Beizeichen (bl'tsl-kh'n), Oer. An accidental. 

Belfry. A tower in which a bell or bells are 

Belieben (bS-lS'b'n), Oer. Pleasure ; at pleas- 

Beliebig (be-lS'blg}, Oer. To one's liking, or 

B^IIere (b&-ll-&r'), Fr. The tongue ri a b'^ll. 

Bell. A vessel, or hollow body, of cast metal, 
used for making sounds. It consists of a 
barrel, or hollow body, enlarged or expand- 
ed at one end, an ear, or cannon, by which 
it is hung to a beam, and a clapper inside. 
(2) A hollow body of metal, perforated, and 
containing a solid ball to give sounds when 
shaken. (3) The wide, circular opening at 

the end of a trumpet, horn, and similar 

Bella (ben&), &IX. A beU. 

Bell-chamber. That portion of the tower of 
steeple in which the Dell hangs ; the belfry. 

Bell diapason (d!-&-p&'sOn). An organ diapa< 
son stop of clear and sonorous voice. 

Bellezza (bei-lSt'sa), It. Beauty of tone and 

Bellezza della voce (b«l-ief s^ d«ri& v(ytehe), 
It. ' Beauty or sweetness of voice. 

Bell gamba. A gamba stop in an organ, the 
top of each pipe spreading out like a bell. 

Bell harp. An old instrument, probably the 
lyra or citheraof the ancients. (2) A string- 
ed instrument, so named from its being 
swung like a bell when played. 

Beilicosamente (bSMl-kd-z&-men'te), „ ) In 
Bellico50 (bei-n-kd-zd), -"' / u 

martial and warlike style. 

Belllcum (b€Vll-koom), Lot, The sound of a 
trumpet calling to battle. 

Bell metronome. A metronome with a small 
bell that strikes at the beginning of each bar. 

Bellows. A pneumatic appendage for supply- 
ing organ-pipes with air. 

Bellows, exhaust. A kind of bellows used on 
organs and other reed instruments ; the air, 
when the chamber is exhausted, being 
drawn in through the reeds. 

Bell-ringers. Performers who, with bells of 
different sizes, ranging from smallest to larg- 
est, are able to produce very pleasing and 
effective music. 

Bell-scale. A diapason with which bell- 
founders measure the size, thickness, weight, 
and tone of their bells. 

Belly. The soundboard of an instrument, 
that part over which the strings are dis- 

Bel metallo dl voce (bSl mS-t&Vld d6 vd'tshS), 
It. A clear and brilliant voice. 

Bemerkbar (b^m&rk'bfir), Oer. Observable, 
marked ; to be played in a prominent man- 

B^mol (ba-m61), Fr. \ The mark called a 
Bemolle (b&-mdne), It. /flat {\f). 

Bemolise (ba-mo-lez) , Fr. Marked with a flat. 

Bemolis^e (b^md-lI-z&Oi Fr. A note preceded 
by a flat. 

Bemoliser (bC-mo-n-zfiO, Fr. \ To flat- 

Bemollizzare (b^mol'li-tsa'rS), It. ) ten notes; 

to lower the pitch by putting a flat before 


Benediclte (b€n-&41'tsl-te), Lot. A canticle 
used at morning prayer, in the church, af-. 
ter the first lesson. 

Benedictus ' b^n'^dic'toos), LcU. " Blessed is 

He that Cometh." Second part of the Sano- 

* tus, which forms the fourth part of the MasS: 

•b^TM, ftoOd, a 0^, e end, e eve, liU,l Ule,d old, 6odd, oo mo<m,ilbiU, iX Fr.tound, kh Oer. ch, nh nosok 




Bene placito (b&'n€ pla'tshl-td), It. At will, 
at pleasure, at liberty to retard the time and 
oraameut the passage. 

Benmarcato ibSnmslr-ksl'td), „ \ Well 

Bene marcato (bft-n^ mar-kft'to). / marked, 

iu a distinct and strongly accented manner. 

Ben marcato II canto (bSn mar-ka'td 11 k&n't6), 
It, Mark well the melody. 

Ben moderato (bSu mo-de-r&'td). It. Very mod- 
erate time. 

Ben pronunclato (b€n pro-noon-tsh&'td, „ \ 
Ben pronnnzlato (b€n pro-noon-tsl-a'td), -"^* / 
Pronounced clearly and distinctly. 

Bentenuto (b€n te-^oo td). It. Held on ; fully 

Be quadro (b& kw3.'drd), R. \ The mark called 
B^ quarre (b& ktlr-ra), ^. j a natural (jj). 

Bequem (b^-quam'), Oer. Convenient. 

Berceu5e (b€r-s\iss), Fr. A cradle-song. 

Bergamasca (b€r-ga-maA'k&), Ji(. A kind of 
rustic dance. 

Bergeret (b6r-j6-r6tO, It. An old term sign!- 
lyliig a song. 

Bergomask. A rustic dance. See Bergamasca. 

Berfl:rel|rcn (bftrg'ri-ghgn), Gcr. Alpine mel- 

Berlingozza (b€r-lin-gdt'sa), It. A country 

Berloque (b6r-16k), Fr. In military service, 
the drum calling to meals. 

Bes (b6s), Oer. The note B-double-flat, B|?b. . 

Besalten ( b^sl't' n), Oer. To string an instnt* 

Beschleunig^end (be-shloi'nl-g^nd), Oer. Has- 

Beschrelbung (be-shrin}Oong),G'«r. A descrip- 
tion. ) 

Befledern (bSf^'dem), Oer. To quill a harpsi- 

Beslngen (b^-sIng'Sn), Oer. To sing, to cele- 
brate in song. 

Bestlmmt (b€-stlmt), Oer. Distinct. 

Bestimmthelt (b^stlmt'hit), Oer. Precision, 


Betsrlocke (b6ht'gl6k-€), Oer. Prayer-bell. 

Betonend (be-to'nend), Q lAccentpd 
Betont (b6-t6nt), ^^- /Accentea. 

Betonung^ (bS-to'noong), Oer. Accentuation. 
BetriibnlssCbg-trtiVniss), Oer. Grief , sadness. 
Betrabt (b6-trilbt'), Otr. Afflicted, grieved. 
Bewegllch (b6-wa'glikh), Oer. Movable. 
Bewegt (b6-wagt), Oer. Moved, rather fast. 

, Bewegrung: (bfi-wft'goong), Oer. Motion, move- 

Beysplel (bi'spgl), Oer. An example. 

Bezeichnung (be-tslkh'noong), Oer. Mark, ac- 

Bezlfferte Bass (b^tslf f^r-te blus), c/er. 
figured bass. 

B-flat. The flat seventh of the key of C. 

Bianca (be-tln'k8,). It. A minim, or half 


BIchord (be'kdrd), Lot. A term applied to in. 
struments that have two strings to each note. 

Blen attaquer one note (bi-flnh S.t-t&k-^l tin 
not), Fr. To strike a note firmly. 

Blmmolle (bim-mdl'ie), It. The mark called 
a flat (b). 

B in alt (b§ In alt). It. The third in alt ; the 
tenth above the treble-clef note. 

B In altlsslmo (be In &l-te8'sl-md), It. The 
third note in altlssimo ; the octave above b 
in alt. 

Binary measure (bi-n&-ry). Common time of 
two in a bar. 

Bind. A tie uniting two notes on the same 
degree of the staff. 

BInde (bSn'de), Oer. A tie or bind. 

Binding notes. Notes held together by the 
tie or bind. 

Bindung: (bin'doong), Oer. Connection. 

Bindungszelchen (bIn'doong-tsi'kh'n),6i'er. A 
tie, or bind. 

Biquadro (be-kwa'dro), It. A natural (]])• 

Bird org^an. A small organ used in teaching 
birds to sing. 

BIme (ber'n^), Oer. The mouthpiece of the 

Bis(bl8),Za<. Twice; indicating that the pas- 
sage marked is to be repeated. 

Biscanto (bis-kan'to). It. A kind of duet; 
where two are singing. 

BIschero (bis'ke-ro), It. A peg of a violin, 
violoncello, or similar instrument ; the pin 
of any instrument. 

A semi-quaver, 
or sixteenth ft 
note. "* 

Bis diapason (bis dI-&-pa'sdn), Lot. A double 
octave, or fifteenth : a compass of two oc- 

Biseau (Di-zO0> ^f- I'he stopper of an oigan- 
pipe to make the tone sharper or flatter. 

Dfeainia (bl-se'ni-a), Lot. A term applied to a 
pianoforte passage where the Tiotes played 
by one hand are regularly repeated by the 

BIsinlum (bX-s^'ni-oom), Lot. A composition 
in two parts ; a duet, or two-part song. 

Bis nnca (bis oon'kll), Lot. An old name for 
a semiquaver. 

Biseer (bis-sS), Fr. To redemand. 

Bissex (bls-s€z0, Lot. A species oT guitar, 
with twelve strings. 

Bitterkelt (blt'tSr-kit), Oer. Bitterness. 

Blzzarramente (b€^8&^-r&-mto'te), It. Odcfly, 
in a whimsical style. 

BIscroma (bls-kro'mft) 
Biscrome (bls-krom 

ift). It.\' 
'). Fr. I 

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Bizzarria (bet-aar-rg'll), It. Written in a capii- 
cioas, fantastic style; sudden, unexpected 

Bizzarre (bet-sar'ro), It. Whimsical, odd, fan- 

Blanche (blansh), Fr. A minim, or half note. 

Blanche polnt6e (bl&nsh pwanb t&0» ^- p • 
A dotted half note. j 

Blasebalff (bla'se-balg), Qer. The bellows of 
an organ. 

Biasehom (bla'z€-horn), Oar. Bugle horn, 
hunter's horn. 

Biasemusik (bla'zS-moo'zek'), Ger. Music for 
wind instruments. 

Blasen (bla'z'n), Oer. To blow ; to sound. 

Blaser (bla'z'r), Oer. A blower; an instru- 
ment lor blowing. 

Biaslnstrnment (bla^n-stroo-m€ntO. Oer. A 
wind instrument. 

Blast. The sudden blowing of a trumpet or 
other instrument of a similar character. 

Blatant. Bleating, bellowing. 

Blatt (blatt). Oer. A leaf ; a reed. The single 
reed of the clarinet and of the basset horn. 

Bleahlnstrumente (blSkh ' In - stroo-mdn'tS), 
Oer. The brass instruments, as trumpets, 
trombones, etc. 

BlockflOte (blok'fl^tS), Oer. An organ-stop, 
composed of large scale-pipes, the tone of 
which is full and broad. 

Blower, orsan. One who works the bellows 
of an organ. 

Bluette. A short, brilliant piece. 

B-«iol (b&-mdl), Fr. The character called a 
flat (b). See Bemol. 

B-moU (b§-m61), Oer, The key of Bb minor. 

Board. A term applied to several different 
members among musical instruments, as, 
Fiugerboprd, upon which the fingers act ; 
Soundboard, which vibrates in the piano- 
forte, or upon which the pipes are placed in 
the organ ; Keyboard, the keys, etc. 

iSoKt'Songs. Gondolier-songs. 

Bocal (bq'kai), Fr. \ The mouthpiece of a 
Bocca (bdk'ka). It jhorn, trumpet, trombone, 
and similar instruments. 

Bocca ridente (bok'kg rl-d€n't€). It. ** Smiling 
mouth." A term in singing, applied to a 
peculiar opening of the mouth, approach- 
ing to a smile, believed to be conducive to 
the production of a pure tone. 

Bocchino (bok-ke'no), iZ. Mouthpiece of a 

Boclna (bo-the'na), 8p. A species of large 
trumpet; a bugle horn 

Bocina de cazador (bd-th^n& dS kH-tha-dor'), 
Sp. A huntsman's horn. 

Bockpfeife (bok'pfi-fS), Oer. A bagpipe. 

Bockstrliier (bdks'tTll-16r), Qer. A bad shake, 
with false intonation. 

Boden (bo'd'n), Oer, The back of a violin, vi- 
ola, etc. 

Boehm Pliite. A flute of improved mechan- 
ism, invented in 1834 by Theobald Boehm. 
The improvement consists of a series of 
keys bv means of which the fingering is 
simplified and the different tonalities are 
more nearly equal in facility. The jume 
system has also been applied to the oboes 
and clarinets. 

Bogen (bo'g'n;, Oer. The bow of a violin, etc. 

Bogenfiihrung: (boVn-fii-roong), Oer. The 
management of the bow ; the act of bowing. 

Bogenlnstrumente (bo'g'n-ln-stroo-men-ti), 
Oer. Bow instruments ; instruments played 
with a bow. 

Bogenstrich (bo'g'n-strikh), Oer. A stroke of 
the bow. 

Bolero (bo-l&'ro), Sp. A lively Spanish dance, 
in 3-4 time, with castanets. 

Bomb. A stroke upon a bell ; to sound. 

Bombarde (WSnh-bardQ, ^. ) A powerful 
Bombardo (bom-b&r'do). It. j reed-stop in an 
organ of 16-feet scale ; also an old wind in- 
strument of the hautboy species. 

Bombardon (bom-bar'ddn). Oer. A large ban 
wind instrumentof brass, with valves some- 
thing like the ophicleide. The bombardon 
was originally a very deep bassoon, now ob- 
solete. The name is also applied to an 
organ-stop, a 16-feet reed. 

Bombix (bom'blx), Or. An ancient Greek in- 
strument, formed of a long reed or tube. 

Bonang (bd-n&ngO, Jav. A Javanese instru- 
ment, consisting of a series of gongs placed 
in two lines on a frame. 

Bones. A name sometimes given to casta- 
nets; castanets made of bone. 

Bons temps de la mesure (bOnh t6nh dah 1& 
m^-sur'), Fr. The accented T>arts of a meas- 

Bora (bo'rel), Tur. A tin trumpet used by the 
Turkish military. 

Bordone (b6r-d6'n6). It. \ An organ-stop. 
Bourdon (boor-d6nh), Fr. /the pipes of which 
are stopped or covered, and pro<luce the 16- 
feet, and sometimes the 32-feet tone ; also a 
drone bass. A stopped diapason. 

Bordun. See Bourdon. 

Bordone false (bor-dd'nS fcll-zd), It. A term 
formerly used for harmony having a drone 
bass, or one of the other parts continuing in 
the same pitch. 

Bordun PI5te (bor'doon fid'tS), Oer. An organ- 
stop. See Bordone, 

Bourdon de cornemuse (boor-dOnh ddh k6rn- 
mtiz), Fr. The drone of a bagpipe. 

Bourdon de musette (boor-ddnh dtlh mii-z(it) 
Fr. The drone of a bagpipe. 

Boudoir piano (boo-dwar). An upright piano. 
Bouffe (boof), Fr. A buffoon. 

(onw, &add, &ale,iend,%eve,lUl,li$U,6oldt 6 odd, oomoon,ilbut, il Fr,90und, kh Oer. ch. nh noai^ 





fe^tarree (boor-rA),/V. A step in dancing. A 
lireif old French dance in 4-4 or 2-4 time. 
The Hecond and fourth quarters of the meas- 
ure divided. 

Boutade'(boo-tad)» Pr. An instrumental piece 
like a caprice or fantasia. (2) An old French 
dance. (3) A kind of short ballet, which 
was performed as if the performers set about 
it impromptu. 

Bow. An instrument consisting of an elastic 
wooden rod and a number of horsehairs 
stretched from the bent head to the movable 
nut. It is used iu playing on the violin and 
many other stringed instruments which are 
made to sound by friction, the bow being 
drawn over the strings and setting them in 
vibration. Its present length is from twenty- 
seven to thirty inches, but formerly it was 

Bowhair. Hair used in making the bows of 
violins, vioioncelloe, etc.; It is usually horse- 

Bowhand. The right hand ; the hand which 
holds the bow. 

BowiniT* 1*1^0 &rt of using the bow, playing 
with the bow. 

Bow Instruments. AH instruments whose 
tones are produced by the bow. 

Bovaudler (b0-y6-dl-&0> Fr. A maker of vio- 

Boy choir. A choir of boys, from eight to 
fourteen years of age. Such organisations 
are confined mostly to Bpiscopal and Catho- 
lic churches^ 

B quadratnni (ba kw&^dra'toom), r^^ ) An old 
B quadrum (ba kw&'droom), •i^<<^j name 
for the natural (20; formerly this was ap- 
plied to the note b. 

Brace. A character, curved or straight, used 
to connect the different staves. 

Brachygraphy, muAlcal. The art of writing 
music in shorthand, by means of signs, char- 
acters, etc 

Braccio (bT&'tshI-5), It. A term applied to the 
violin and other instruments of a similar 
character that are held up to the neck with 
the left hand and played with a bow. 

Branches. Those parts of a trum])et that con- 
duct the wind. 

Bran de Inglaterra (brftn d€ Sn-glft-ter'rft), fTp. 
An old Spanish dance. Evidently the Eng- 
lish Brawl. 

3ranie (brfinhl), Fr. A lively old dance, per- 
formed in a circle. 

Bransle (br&nhsl), Fr. An old dance, slow, 
and resembling the Alman. 

Brass hand. A number of periormers whose 
instruments are exclusively brass. 

Brass Instrument. Wind instruments made 
of brass, and used chiefly for field service. 

Bratsche (br&'tshS), Qer. The viola, or tenor 

Bratschen (br&'tshto), Ger, Violas. 

Bratschenspieler (br&'tshdn-sp^er), Qer. Vi- 
ollst ; one who plays on the viola. 

Bratschenstimme (brft'tshSn-stlm'mC), Oar, 
The viol part of any composition. 

Brautlied (brontled), Oer. A bridal hymn, a 

Brautmesse (brout^mte-sd), Oer. Music before 
the wedding ceremony ; the ceremony itself. 

Brava (br&'v&), fern. \ An exclamation 
Bravl (brft'vfi), pi. H. > of approval, often 
Bravo br&'vO), mew. ) used in theaters; 
excellent, very good, etc 

Bravisslma (bra-vls'ti-mg), fern. ) Exceed- 
Bravissimi (brSrVls'sI-m$), pi. It. [ inglv 
Bravlssimo (bHl-vIs'sI-md), mas. ) 
exceedingly well done. 


Bravour-arie (br&-voor'&'ri-€), Oer. An aria di 

Bravura (bra-voo'ril), It. Spirit, skill, requir- 
ing great dexterity and skill in execution. 

Bravura, con (br^-voo^rft kdn). It. With spirit 
and boldness of execution. 

Bravura mezza(bra-voo'r&met-6a).J2. A song 
requiring a moderate degree of skill. 

Brawl. ) A shaking or swinging motion, 
Brawle. J (2) An old round dance in which 
the performers Joined hands in a circle ; the 
balls were usually opened with it. 

Bray. The harsh sound of a trumpet or sim* 
ilar Instrument. 

Brazen Instruments. Brass instruments. 

Brazzo (brat'sd). It. Instruments played with 
a bow. 

Brett (brit), Oer. Broad. 

Breloque (brf-ldkO, Fr. In military service, 
the call of a drum for breakfast or dinner. 

Bretador (brfi-t&-ddr), Sp. A bird-call. 

Brettgelge (br€t'ghi-ghe), iUr. A small pocket 

Breve (bra'vfi), It. Short : formerly the breve 
was the shortest note. The notes then used 
were the large, the long, and the breve. The 
breve is now the longest note ; it is equal to 
two semibreves, or whole notes. (2) A dou- 
ble note. AUabreve, to the breve, i. e., a half- 
note to each beat. A rather quick move- 
ment, formerly much used in church music. 

Breve rest. A rest equal in duration to a 
breve, or double note. 

Brevlarlo (br6-vI-&'ri-6), It. A breviary. 

Breviary. A book containing the matins, 
lauds, and vespers of the Catholic Church. 

Brevls (bre'vis). Lot. A breve. 

Bridge. A piece of wood on which the strings 
of stringed instruments rest, and which i^ 
self rests on the resonance- box or resonance- 
board (soundbox or soundboard), to which 
it transmits the vibrations of the strings. 

Brief. An upright piece of wood, over which 
the strings of a bass viol are drawn. 

Brill. An abbreviation of Brillante. 

karm, aodci, HaJe, 4 end, ^eve, liU, I Me, 6 old, o odd, oo moon, abut, H Fr. sound, kh Oer. ch, nh nasal 





Briilante CDnMAn'te), It. \ Bright, spark- 
Brillante (bre-yaahtO, Fr. ; ling, briilUnt. 

Brillare (brIMa'r€), JZ. To play or sing in a 

brilliant style. 
Brillenbi5M(brIl-rnbA8-Be),G'er. L it. ,^* spec- 

tacle basses/' A kind 
of bass called thus on : 
account of its resem- 


blance to a pair of spectacles. 

Brimbator (biftnli-bft-lftO, -I^f. To ring. 

Brindlsi (brIn-dS'd), It A drinking-song. 

Brio (brS'd), B. Vigor, animation, spirit. 

Brloso (bil-d'zd), 12. Lively, yigorously, with 

Brij^ (bil-z&0> ^' Split ; broken into an ar- 

Broach. An old musical instrument, played 
by turning a handle. 

Broderies (brd-d4-rS0> ^' Ornaments, em- 

Broken cadence. Bee IrUerrwpted cadence. 

Broken chords. Chords whose notes are not 
taken simultaneously, but in a broken and 
interrupted manner. 

Brokking. An old term, signifying quaver- 

B rotandani(bfi r5-toon'doom),Xa<. The char- 
acter called a flat (b) ; formerly this was ap- 
plied only to the note b. 

Bruit (bni-60) Fr, Noise, rattle, clatter. 

Brummeljen (broom'ml-z'n), Qer. A jew's- 

Brammen (broom'mSn'), Or. To hum, to drum. 

Brummton (broom'ton), Qer. A humming 

Bmjqaement (brflsk-m6nh), Fr. Brusque, 
rough, rude. 

B-sharp. The sharp seventh of the diatonic 
scale of C ; in keyed iustruments the same 
as C-natural. 

Bnccina (boof tshl-na), It. An ancient wind 
instrument of the trumpet species. 

Buccinid (book'8l-nftl),:Xa<. Sounding like a 
horn or trumpet. 

Buccinateur (bilk-sX-na-tt&r'), J^'r. A trumpeter. 

Bucclno (book'd-nd),Xa^. To sound a trumpet. 

Buccinum (book'sl-noom), Lai. A trumpet. 

Buccolica (book-kyii-kfi), It. ) pa-toral eann 
Bucolic (boo-k6'lIk), Lat. [ of^er^ ^ 
Bucoilque (ba-k6-lek'), Fr. j ^' ^«'^- 

Buff a (boorf&), n \ Comic, humorous, in the 
Buffo (boof fd), ) comic style ; also a singer 
who takes comic parts in the opera. 

BuffacaricaU(booff&k&-rI-kii'tft), „ > . 
Buffo carlcato (boof to k&-rl-k&'tdi,'''* J ^ 
comic character in Italian opera. 

Buffet organ. A very small organ. 

Buffo burlesco (boof fd boor-lSsOLd), n. A bu^ 
fo-singer and caricaturist. 

Buffone (boof-fd-n^), R. Comic singer in an 

Buffonescamente (boof-fd-nfis-kft-mto'te), It. 
In a burlesque and comical manner. 

Buffo opera (boofid o'p^ra), It. A comic 
upera, a burletta. 

Bugle. A hunting-horn. (2) An instrument 
of copper or brass, similar to the French 
horn, out higher and more piercing. There 
are different kinds, one furnished with keys, 
and another kind with pistons or cylinders. 

Bugle horn. A hunting-horn. 

Bunge (boon'ghe), Oer. A drum ; a kettle- 

Bungen (boon'ghen), Oer. To drum. 

Buon (boo-dn), It. Good. 

Buonaccordo (boo-5-n&k'kdr'dd). It. An in- 
strument resembling a pianoforte, but small- 
er, to accommodate children. 

Buona nota (boo-d-n& n&tA), It. Accented 

Buona mano (boo-d'n& m&'nd), It. A good 
hand, a brilliant performer. 

Buon gusto (boo-5n goos'td), It. Good taste; 
reflnement of style. 

Burden. A regular return of the theme in a 
song at the close of each verse ; the chorus. 

Burla (boor'la), 

Burlando (boor-l&n'dd), „ 

Burlesco (boor-lfis-ko), ''*• 

Burlescamente ( boor-lfo-k&-m€n- te) , 
Facetious, droll, comical ; in a playful man- 

Burlesque ipuslc. A musical composition or 
performance, in which light and trifling 
matters are treated with great Kravity and 
solemnity, and serious matters turned into 

Burletta (boor-16ft&). It. A comic operetta; 
a light musical and dramatic piece, some- 
what in the nature of the English farce. 

Burasca (boor-rgsncS,), It. A composition de- 
scriptive of a tempest. 

Burre (b<ir), Fr. A dance melody. 

Burthen. See Burden. 

Busna (boos'n&), It. A species of trumpet. 

Buzz. A low, humming noise. 


Sktstm,Skadd,&aktfiead,&eve,liU,liale^ 6oUi,6odd, oomoon.iXlnU, (1 Fr. sound, kh Qer. c/i, nhnoM^. 




C. The first note of the modern scale, called 
bv the French tU, aud by the Italians do. 
The major scale of C is called the natural 
scale, because it has no flais or sharps. 


C C. I /iw^• I The lowest note on the man- 
uals o( an organ, and is called 
an 8-feet note, that being the 
length of the open pipe required 
to produce it. 
CCC. This note is an octave below CC, and 
requires a 16-feet pipe. 

C C C C. A note an octave below CCC; it 
requires a 32-ieet pipe. 

C with one, firole; the German method of in- 
dicating middle C. The six notes above it 
are marked in the same manner. 

C with two strokes ; an octave above C with one 

C with three strokes; an ocU ve above C with 
two strokes. 

C with four strokes; an octave above C with 
three strokes. 

pc Indicates common time of four crotchets, 
^ or quarter notes, in a bar. 

^ This character indicates alia breve or alia 
^ capvlla time. 

C. A. The initials of Col arco ; sometimes 
used in abbreviation. 

Cabaletta (k&-bS,-l$t't&), It. A simple melody 
of a pleaaing and attractive character ; ah 
operatic air^iike the rondo in form; acavalet- 
ta. Literally, " a little horse," a descriptive 
term based on the characteristic movement 
of the accompaniment, which is generally 
in triplets, like a horse cantering. 

Cabinet d'orgrue fk&b-I-na d'org), Fr. The 
case, or cabinet, in which the keys of an or- 
gan are sometimes placed. 

Cabinet planolorte. An upright pianoforte. 

Caccia (kat'tRha), It. A hunt. AUa ehccia, in 
hunting biyle ; i.e., hearty, free, offhand. 

Caccia, alia (kat'tsha aiaa). It. In the hunt- 
lug style. 

Caciiuctia (k&-tchoo'tch&) ,<Sp. A popular Span- 
ish dance, in triple time. 

C«»fonia (kfiko-fd-nfa), Ji(. > Wantofhar- 
Cacopfionle (k&k-o-fo-ne), Fr. j mony, cacoph- 

Cacofonico (k&'kd-fd'ni-kd). It. Cacophonous, 

Cacophony (k&-kdfd-ny). A combination of 
discordant sounds, false intonation, bad 

Cad. An abbreviation of Cadenza. 

Cadence (k&-danhs), Fr, A shake, or trill; 
also, a close in harmony. 

Cadence. A close. Lit., "a fall." The term 
applies to melodv as well as to harmony, (1) 
to the last melodic step of a strain (uot nec- 
essarily a "fall" as regards pitch, but al' 
ways a subsidence of motion iuto relative 
rest), and to a shake or brilliant passage of 
more or lessexteut, which leads up to the 
close of a piece, or part of a piece {v. Caden- 
za) ; (2) to two chords which form a close, 
mark a point of rest, complete or incom- 

The harmonic cadences may be divi<}cd into 
four classes. (1) The chords of the domi- 
nant aud tonic form a juU.^ or authentic, ca- 
dence, which iB perfect when the bass has 
the fimdamentalnote of the first and of the 
second chord, and the highest part the oc- 
tave of the fundamental note of the second 
chord (a), but otherwise is imperfect (aa). (2) 
The cnords of the subdominant (malor or 
minor) and tonic form the plagaZ cadence. 
According to some theorists it is, like the 
authentic, a full close; according to others 
it is not (b). (3) The chord of the tonic (c), 
or any otner chord (cc), aud thatof the dom- 
inant form a half close, or semicadence. Some 
writers, however, call this cadence imper- 
fect. Indeed, the nomenclature is very un- 
settled. (4) An int€rr*'pted,€leceptivet or fcdse 
cadence occurs where the chord of the dom- 
inant is followed by any chord except that 
of the tonic (d). 















j-^ — ^. II ^ — .^ H g! 1 g n 

w-f, — g II ^cj g irg^n^ II 

^^^-^ — '^Hl H — 1 — ti 

^ M^^ — <=- II ^ 1 ^-^ II 

















ftorm.a 3dd, &a20, d«nd, deve, iiU, I ts^, oold,6odd, oo moon, a but, U JFV. sotrnd^ kh Oer. ch, nh natoL 












a u 








& ' -g. 











Cadence, authentic. A perfect, or final, ca- 
deuce; tiie barmoriy of the dominant, f'>l- 

• lowed by that of the tonic, or the progres- 
sion of the domiuant to the tonic. 

Cadence brisee (ca-dens bre-8&\ Fr, An ab- 
rupt shake, beginuiug with the auxiliary 

Cadence , church . The plagal cadence. 

Cadence evltee (6v-6-t&), Fr. ** Avoided ca- 
dence." A dominant chord followed by an- 
other dissonance, or by an unexpected reso- 

Cadence, half. A cadence that is imperfect ; 
a close on the dominant. 

Cadence imperfaite (&nh-p€r-fa), Fr. An im- 
perfect cadence. 

Cadence, imperfect. Half cadence. 

Cadence interrompue (anh-tSr-rOnh-pO), Fr. 
An interrupted cadence. 

Cadence-marlcs. Short lines placed perpen- 
dicularly to indicate the cadeuce-notes in 

Cadence parfaite (p&r-fat), Fr. A perfect ca- 

Cadence perlee (p€r-la), Fr. A brilliant ca- 

Cadence rompne (rdnh-pO), Fr. A broken, or 
interrupted, cadence. 

Cadence, suspended. Where the cadence 
passes throtiKh several modulations from 
the domiuant to the tonic cuord. 

Cadenda (ka-d6n'thi a), Sp. 1 cadence 
Cadens (ka'dfins), Lut. J ^aaence. 

Cadenz (ka-d€nts), G'^. \ A cadence; an or- 
Cadenza (k&-dSn'tsa), It. j namental passage 
iutroduced near the close of a song cr solo, 
either by the composer or extemporaneously 
by the plerformer. A cadence {g. v.). In Eng- 
lish the word cadenza is used in the sense of 
a short, or a more or less extended flourish, 
which does not form pa»t of tlie rhythmical 
structure of a composition, but is a mere 
intercalation. Such flourishes may be met 
with anywhere in the course of vocal and 
instrumental com positions,more especially. 

however, at the end of the last solo of pieces 
for solo voif'es or instruments. In the aria 
and kindred forms the cadenza was a prom- 
inent feature, it assumed, however, the 
greatest importance in the concerto; there 
the flouriiih expands often into a brilliant 
fantasia on themes of the composition into 
which it is introduced— a fantasia either 
improvised by the performer or written out 
in full by the composer. These long con- 
certo cadenzas occur in the flrst and last 
movements, at the end of the last solo, and 
begin usually on the chord of the fourth and 
sixth, preceding the full close (dominant, 

Cadenza d* ini^anno (kft-dSn'tfia dgn-gan-n5). 
It. Au interrupted, or deceptive, cadence. 

Cadenza fiorita (k^-d^n'tsa fe-d-re't&). It. An 
ornate, florid cadence, with graces and eui- 

Cadenza sfugsita (ka-dSn-tfia sfoog-ghe't&). It, 
An avoided, or broken, cadence. 

Cadenza sospesa (k&-d6n'tsa sos-pa'za), It. A 
suspended cudeuce. 

Ccesure (s6-siir), Fr. ") (1) A pause in 
Caesura ( tsh^'soo-ra), It. > verse, so introduced 
Ccesura (tsa-soo'ra), Ijnt.) as to aid the recital 
and make the versification m^^re melodious. 
(2| Acut. Tbebreakat theendof aphiase. 
(3) The rhythmic termination of any pas- 
sage consisting of more than one musical 
foot. (4) The last accented note of « phrase, 
section, or period. 

CaMural (tsa-soo'ral), Lot. Relating to the 
caesura, or to the paiu>e, in tiie voice. 

Caisse (kas8), Fr» A drum. 

Calsse roulante (kass roo-lanht), Fr. ThesMe 
drum, the body being of wockI and rather 

Caisses clalres (kass klAr), Fr. The drums. 

Cal. An abbreviation of Calando. 

Calumus (kfi, la-moos) or, Calamus pastoralis 

(ka-la'moos pas-t6-ra'lis), Lat. A reed, or 
pipe, used by shepherds. 

Caland (ka-landO. n \ Gradually dimin- 
Calando (ka-lan'd5), j ishing the tone mu<1 

retarding the time; becoming soxier aud 

slower by degrees. 

Calascione (ka-la-shi-o'n€). It. A species of 


Calathumpian music. A discordant combi- 
nation of sounds. A low and grotescjue per- 
formance upon instruments, unmusical and 
out of tune. 

Calata (k&-la't&), It. An Italian dance in 2-4 

Calcando (kal-kan'dd). It. Pressing forward 
aud hurrying the time. 

Calcant (kal-kSnt), Oer. The bellows-treader 
in old German organs. 

Call. The beat of a drum. 

Call, adjutant's. A drumbeat dirt cting the 
band and field music to take the right oi the 

Sarm, &a^, a ale, 6end, e eve,liU,lide, 6 old, 6 odd,oomoon, iX btU, ti Fr. tound, kh Oer. ch, nhnoacu. 
i (66) 





Calliope (k&l-lS'O-p^). In pagan mythology 
the mase that presided over eloquence and 
heroic poetry. (2) An instrumeut formed of 
metal pipes, with keys like an organ ; they 
are placed on steam engines sometimes, ana 
the tones are produced oy currents of steam 
instead of air. 

c:i2:i^kff^Wf»^ n \ Calmness, tran- 
Calnuite (kal-ma'te), It, > o„«iiitv r«Dose. 
Calmato (kiU-ma't6), > <l^"iity, repose. 

Calo. An abbreviation of Calando. 
Galore (kfirlO^rS), R. Warmth, animation. 

Caloroso (kft-ld-rd'zo), R. Very much anima- 
tion and warmth. 
Celumeau (k&l'a-m5). A reed, or pipe. 

Cambiare (k&m-bi-&'rQ, H, To chang]9, to al- 

Camera (kft'm^rft), B, Chamber; a term ap- 
plied to music composed for private per- 
formance or small concerts. 

Camera muslca (kii-m^r& moo'zX-k&),/^ Cham- 
ber music. 

Caminando (ka-ml-n&n'dd). It. Flowing, with 
easy and gentle progression. 

Campana (kam-pa'n&), It, A bell. 

Campanada (k&m-pa-n&'d&), It. Sound of a 

Campanarum concentuA (kam-p&-n&'- 

room kdn-sSn'toos), r^ 

Campanarum modulatio (k&m-p&-n&'- * 

room mo-doo-ia'tsl-fi), 

Ringing of bells or chimes : chiming of bells. 

Campanarum puisator(k&m-pa-n&'room pool- 
' s&'ior), Lot. A ringer of bells. 

Campaneila (kam-p&-nein&), „ \ A litUe 
Campaneilo (k&m-parnend), ^^' j bell. 

Campanetta (kam-p&-nef ta) , It, A set of bells 
tuned diatonically, and played with keys 
like a pianoforte. 

Campanile (kftm-p^nSie), It. A belfry. 

Campanologv (k&m-p&-nOF5-gy). The art of 

ringing beUs. 
Campanone (k&m-p&-nd'n€), It. A great bell. 

Canarder (k&-nar-d&'),i'V. To imitate the tones 
of a duck. 

Canarie (k&-n&-reO, Fr. ) An old dance, in 

Canaries (kft-na'rte), En.\ lively 8-8 or 6-8, and 

Canario (k&-n&'rl-d). It. ) s o m e t i m e s 12^ 8, 

time of two strains. It derives ,it8 name 

from the Canary Islands, from whence it is 

suppobed to have come. 

Cancan (k&n-k&n). A vulgar kind of dance. 

Cancellen (k&n'sSM'n), Oer. Grooves. The 
small channels in an organ windchest, con- 
ducting air to the pipes. 

Cancelling sign. X natural (S) employed to 
remove the effect of a previous flat or sharp^ 

, Cancrizans (kan-kre'ts&ns), » \ Retro- 
Cancrizante (k&n-kri-tsan-te), ^^' /grade 
movement; going backward. 

Canere (k&'ne-rS), I^. To sing; to play upon 
an instrument. 

Canevas (kiln-€-v&0. '^. Fnconnected words 
set to music. (2) The rough sketch, or draft, 
of a song, indicating the measure of the 
verses required. 

Cangiare (k&n-jl-&'re), B, To change, to alter. 

Canna (kan'n&), It. A reed, or pipe. 

Cannon. The portion of a bell by which it is 

Cannon-drum. Th<) tomtom used by the na- 
tives of the East Indies. 

Canon (kftn'On). In ancient music, a rule, or 
method, for determining the intervals of 
notes. A musical composition for two or 
more voice-parts, in which the essential 
thing is that each of the parts in turn sings 
the very same melody (called the subject)> 
note for note, while the other voices make 
harmony with it. The simplest form of 
canon is the old form called a Round, so 
called from the voices following each other 
round and round through the very same 
notes, but at intervals producing hurmony. 

A canon may have one subject or more 
than one, and it may be for two voices or 
more than two. Hence such names as " 2 in 
1," meaning that two voices have a single 
subject ; " 4 in 2,*' meaning that four voices 
have two subjects, etc. 

Canons are further named from the inter 
val in which the second voice begins. For 
instance, at a) below, the second voice en- 
ters in the octave of the same phrase as 
given out by the first voice. It is, therefore, 
a canon " 2 in 1 " at the octave. At b) the 
second voice enters in the under fifth, and 
at c) in the over sixth. See, also, ImUaJtion, 

(|,-^j>j|i-[^^-; i ^ ^ 

Canone (ka'no-nfi), « I a canon 

Canonico (kii-nd-nl-ko), /'• /^ canon. 

Canone al sosplro {kil'n6-n€ &1 s6b-p8't6), R, 
A canon whose different parts commence at 
the distance of a crotchet rest from each 

Canone aperto (k&'n6-ne A-p&r'td). It An open 
canon ; a canon of which the solution or de* 
velopment is given. 

Aorm, ftodcj, & aZe» ^end, $0ve, XiS, I UUt old, Oodd, oomoon, tl hvit (i Fr, fotmd, kh Qtr, eh, nh 





Canoivt chvaso (k&'nd-nS ke-oo'zO), II. A done 
or hidden canon, the solution or develop- 
ment of which must )£>e discovered ; also an 
enigmatical canon. ' 

Caoone in corpe (ka'no-ne in kdr'pa), it. A 
perpetual fugue. 

Canone partito (la'no-ne par'tl-to), LcU. A 
perpetual lugue, iu which all the parts are 
written in partitions, or different lines, or in 
separate parts, with the proper pauses which 
each is to observe. 

Canone sciolto (ka'no-nfi she-dFtd), H. A free 
canon, not in the strict style. 

Canon* free. A canon not in strict conform- 
ity to the rules, the melody of the first part 
not being^ followed throughout. 

Canon, hidden. A close canon. See Canone 

Canonical mass. A mass in which the differ- 
ent parts of the musical service are in strict 
canouical order. 

Canonical hours. The daily offices of devo- 
tion prescribed to the Roman Catholic 
clenry. They are : (1) Matins and Lauds ; 
(2) Prime; (3) Tierce; (4) Sext; (5) None; 
(6) Vespers ; (7) Compline. Of these, Matins 
and Lauds, Vebpers, and Compline are called 
the greater hours, and the others the lesser 

Canonic Imitation. Imitation in which a sec- 
ond voice more or less closely follows the 
melody previously given out by another 
voice, and at a certain interval above or be- 
low, and with more or less close exactness. 
See Canon and Imitation. 

Canon, infinite. A canon, the end of which 
leads to the beginning ; a perpetual fugue. 

Canon perpetuus (ka'non p&r-pa'too-oos),'Za<. 

See Canon, infinUe. 

Canon, mixed. A canon of several voices, be- 
ginning at different intervals. 

Canon, strict. A canon in which the rules of 
this form of composition are strictly fol- 

cSSSi'ka-nM', Lot. I*"!. I'armonlou.. 

Cant. An abbreviation of Canto and Cantate. 

Cantab. An abbreviation of Cantabile. 

Cantablle (kan-tfi'bM«), It. That can be sung ; 
In a melodious, singing, and graceful style, 
full of expression. 

Cantablle ad libitum (kan-ta'bM3 ' ad llb-I- 
toom). It. In singing style, at pleasure. 

Cantabile con molto portamento (kan-ta'bi-l€ 
k6n mol'to p6r-ia-men'td), It. In singing 
style, with a great deal of portamento ; la a 
melodious style, with embellishments at 
pleasure, but few and well chosen. 

Cantaluolo(kan-tdryoodn5), » ) A street 
Cantambanca (i^n-t&m-bUn'kfi), ' j singer; 

an itinerant musician; a contemptuous 

name for a singer. 

Cantamento (k&n-tft-m«n'tA)» H, Tune; Hair. 

Cantando (k&n-t&n'dd), J2. In a melodloiu^ 

singing style. 

Cantans (k&n-t&ns), Lai. Singing. 

Cantante (kfin-t&n'te). It A singer ; also a 
part intended for the voice. 

Cantante ariose (k&n-tan'td&-rl-0'ze),i{. A spe- 
cies of melody which, by its frequent 
changes of measure and conversational 
style, first served to mark the distinction be- 
tween air and recitative. 

Cantar a la almohadllla (k&n-t&r' & 1& &l'md-&- 
dSl'ya). ^p. To sing alone, and without be- 
ing accompanied by instruments. 

Cantare (kan-t&'r$), IL To sing, to celebrate^ 
to praise. 

Cantare manierata(k&n-tft-re m&-ni-«-ra't&),J<. 
To sing with too many embellishments, 
without taste or judgment. 

Cantarlna (k&n-t&re'ua), £^. A woman who 
sings in public. 

Cantata (kan-t&'t&), JS. ) The word origlnal- 
Cantate (kanh-tftt), Fr. Vly meant something 
Cantate (k&u-t&'te, Oer. ) sung, in contradis- 
tinction to s >methiug played (sonata). So 
varied are the Innumerable exempUflcaiions 
of the cantata that it is impossible to define 
its character. Now this name is given to a 
vocal composition of soibe extent, consist- 
ing of recitatives, arias, choruses, etc., with 
orchestral accompaniments in most cases; 
formerly it often signified a short vocal com- 
position for one voice, with organ, harpsi- 
chord, or some other simple accompani- 
ment. Indeed, the ran^ of the cantata may 
be said to extend from an elaborate song to 
a short oratorio, and an opera not intended 
for the stage. 

Cantata amorose (k&n-t&'t& &-m6-T&z&), H. A 
cantata having love for its subject. 

Cantata morall o spirit«ilijc&n-ta't& m6-T&'- 
le 6 spe-rX-too-fi'le), It. ^^^ntata designed 
for the church. 

Cantatllla (kan-t&-tna&). It.") A short canta^ 
Cantatllle(kanh-t&-tel),fV. Vta; an air pre- 
Cantatina (k&n-t&-t^n&), It.) ceded by a reci- 

Cantator (k&n-til'tdr),£a^. A singer, a chanter. 

Cantatore (k^nh-tft-td^rfi). It. A male singer. 

Cantatorium (kfin-tSrtd'rl-oom),£a/. The book 
from which the priests in the Roman Catii- 
olic service chant or recite the responses. 

Cantatrice (kfin-tft-trS'tshe), It. A female 

Cantatrice buffa (kfin-t&trg'tshe boof fil), H. ) 
Cantatrix (kan-t&Hiix), Lot. / 

A female singer ; a woman who sings in 

comic opera. 

Cantazzare (k&n-tfi-tza'r6) , It. To sing badly. 

Cantellerando (k&n-tel-lS-r&n'dd), It. Singing 
with a subdued voice ; murmuring, trilling. 

Canterellare (k&n-te-rei-la'rfi), It. To chant, 
or sing. 

&ar»i, &ad(f, a ale, iierji,eeve,liU, I isle, 6 old, 6odd, oomoon, H biU,iXFr. sound, kh Oer. cA. nhmuoX. 





Canterino (k&n-tS-re'nd), H, 

A singer; a 

Cantica (k&n'tl-k&), II. ) Canticles ; the 
Canticae (kan'ti-tsa), Lot. f ancient laudi, or 
CanticI (kan'tl-tshe), It. pi. i sacred songs of 
Cantico ( kan-te'ko) , Sp. ) the Roman Cath* 
oiic Church. 

Canti cama^claleflchi (k&n'te cfir-nas- ") 
t8hi-a-16s-ke) It r 

Cantl chamevali (kan'tS kar-n^v&ag), ' J 
Songs of the carnival week. 

Canticle. A sacred hymn, or song. (2) A 
canto, a division of n song. 

Cantico (kan'tl-ko), It. \. canticle 

Canticum (kan'U-koom), jr^. | ^ °*°*^*^*®- 

Cantillate (k&n'tlMate). To chant, to recite 
with musicai tones. 

Cantiilation. A chanting, a recitation with 
musical modulations. 

Cuitillatio (k&n-tll-m-tsro), Lot. A singing 
style of declamation. 

Cantilena (k&n-tll&'na), It. The melody, air, 
or principal part iu any composition ; gen- 
erally the highest vocal part. 

Cantilena scotlca (kan-ti-la'na sko'tit-ka). It. 
A Scotch air or tune. 

Cantllene (kan-ti-la'n€), It. A cantilena. 

Cantino (kan-te'nd), It. The smallest string of 
the violin, guitar, etc 

Cantio (kan'tsl-o). Lot. A song. 

Cantique (jLanh-tekO, Fr. A canticle, or hymn 
of praise. 

Cantique des cantiques (kanh-tSk' dS kanh- 
tek'), Fr. Solomon's Song. 

Canto (kitn'td), B. (1) A song, a melody. (2) 
The art of singing. (3) The highest part m 
coucerted music. (4) The soprano voice. 
^5) The highest string of an Instrument. 
( V. Cantino.) 

Canto a cappella (& ka,p-p$1'1a). It. Vocal 
church miuic without instrumental accom- 

Canto Ambrosiano (&m-brd-^-a'nd), It, Am- 
brosian chant. 

Canto armonico (k&n'tdftr-rad'ni-kd), It. A 
part-soiig for two, three, or more voices. 

Canto clef. The C clef when placed on the 
first line. 

Canto concertante (kan'to kdn-tsh^r-tan't^), 
It. Thti treble of the principal concerting 

Canto cromatico (k&n'to kro-ma'tX-ko), It. 
Chromatic vocal music. 

Canto fermo (kan'to far'md), It. A chant or 
melody. (2) Choral singing in unison on a 
plain melody. (3) Any subject consisting 
of a few long, plain notes, driven as a theme 
for counterpoint. 

Canto ligurato (kan'to f§-goo-ra'td), II. A 
figured melody. 

Canto fiorltto (kan'to fe-o-ret'to), It. A song 
In which many ornaments are introduced. 

Canto fnniebre (k%n't<> foo-na'bre). It, A ^- 
neral soLg. 

Canto Qregrorlaiw (kjin'to gr6-go-rI-a'nd}, it 
The Gregorian chant. 

Canto llano (kan'to lya'^no), Sp. \ The plaJEa 
Canto piano (kan'to pla-no), It.{ ohan t or 

Canto necessario (k&n'to ndrtch^s-c^a'rf-^^, It 
A term indicating those parts thai are to 
sing through the whole piece. 

Canto primo (kan't6 prS'md), It, The fi*«f' 

treble or soprano. 
Cantor (kan-torO, It. A singer, a ch&nter. 
Cantor (kan'tOr), r-* 1 A 


Cantor choralis (kan't6r kS-raOIs), ^^' } pre- 
center ; a leader of the choir. 

Cantorate (kan:t6-ra'tfi). It, A leading singer 
of a choir. 

Cantore (kan-td'rg), B. A singer, a chanter, 
a poet. 

Canto recitativo (kS,n-td rS-tshi-ta-te'vo), IL 
Recitative, declamatory singing. 

Cantorei (kan-td-rIO,<?er. The dwelling-house 
of the cantor. (2) A class of the choristers 
in the public school. 

Cantoren (kan-to^r'n), Oer, Chanters, a choir 
• of singers. 

Canto ripieno (kan'td re-pl-a'n6). It. The 
trebly of the grand chorus ; the part that 
sings or plays only in the grand chorus. 

Cantoris (k&n-to'rls). Lot, A term used in ca- 
thedral music to indicate the passages in- 
tended to be sung by those singers who are 
placed on that side of the choir where the 
cantor or precentor sits. This is usually on 
the left-hand side on entering the choir 
from the nave. 

Canto rivoltato (kan'td re-vol-t&'to). It The 
treble changed. 

Canto secondo (kan'td sS-kou'do), It. The seo> 
oud treble. 

Canto simplice (k&n't5 sIm-ple'tshS), It, A 
plain song. 

Cantrice (kan-tre'tsh€), It.\ A female singer 
Cantrix (kan'trix), LcU. ) a songstress. 

Cantus (kan'toos), Lat. A song, a melody; 
also the treble, or soprano part. 

Cantus Ambrosianus (kan'toos fim-brd-d-a'- 
uoos), Lat. The four chants, or melodies, 
introduced into the Church by St. Ambrose, 
Bishop of Milan, in the fourth century, and 
which are supposed to be derived from an- 
cient Greek melodies. 

Cantusfiffuratus (kan'toos fe-goo-r&'too8),Xa<. 
Embellished or figurative chants or melo- 

Cantus linnus (k&n'toos fir'moos), Lat. The 
plain song or chant. See Canto fermo. 

Cantus Qregorianns (kUn'toos gr&-gd-rl-a'' 
uoos), iMt. Those four chantR, or melodies, 
introduced into the Church by St. Gregory, 
and which, with the Ambrosian chants, 
formed a series of eight modes, or tones, as 
they were called. 

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CtOKtm meosarabiiis (kftn'tooB mto-floo-r&'bl- 
lls), Lai. A regular, or measurdd, melody. 

Cantns mollis (kan'toos mdllis), I,at. A song 
written in the minor key. 

Cannm (k&'nam), Tur, A Turkish musical 
instrument, on which the ladies play. 

Canzona (kan-tsd'na). „ \ Song, ballad, can- 
Canzone (kaa-tao'ne), ^'" jzonet. (2) A grace- 
ful and B 'mewhat elaborate air, in two or 
three strains, or diyisions. (3) An air in 
two or three i>art8, with passages of fugue 
and imitation, somewhat similar to the 

Canzonaccea (k&n-ts6-naf tsh&-&), It. A low, 
trivial song, a poor canzone. 

Canzonclna (kan-tsdn-tshS'na), It. A short 
canzone, or song. 

Canzone sacra (kan-tsO'ne (<&'kr&),7<. A sacred 

Canzonet. A short song, in one, two, or three 

Canzonnetta (kan-tsd'net'tA), IL A short can- 

Canzoni (kan-tso'ni), II. A sonata; in con- 
nection with a passage of music it has the 
same meaning as allegro. 

Canzoniere (kan-t«6-nl-a're). It. A songbook. 

Canzonlna (k&n-tso-ng'na), It. A canzonet. 

Capelle (ka pfil'ie), Qer. A chapel, a musical 

Capellmelster (ka'pSl'mis'tCr). Qer. The di- 
rector, composer, or master of the music in 
a choir. 

Capo (ka'p6), iif. The head, or beginning; the 

Capodastro (k&pd-dSs'trd), It. See Capotaxto. 

Capo d* Inestrumentl (k&'po dIn-€s-troo-mto'- 
ti), It. The leader, or director, of the in- 
strumental performers. 

Capo d* orchestra (ka'po dor-kes'trft), It. The 
leader of the orchestra. 

Capona (ka-pd^nft), Sp. A Spanish dance. 

Capotasto (ka-pdt&s'to). It. The nut. or up- 
per part, of the fingerboard of a violin, vi- 
oloncello, etc. (2) A small instrument used 
by guitar-players to form a temporary nut 
upon the fingerboard to produce certain ef- 

Capo viollno (kH'pd ve-d-le'nd), B. The first 

Cappella (k&p-p€l-l&), R. A chapel, or church. 
(2) A band of musicians that sing or play in 
a church. 

Cappella musica (kap-p€n& moo^zl-kft), R. 
Uhapel or church music. 

Capriccletto (k&-pret-shl-€t'td), R. A short 

Capriccio (k&-pret'shi-d), R. A fanciful and 
irregular species of composition ; a species 
of fantasia; in a capricious and free style. 

Capriccioaaaiente (kft-pretHdiX-^ift-m&i'te),iL 

Capriccioso (kfirprSt-shl-d'zO), It. In a fanci- 
ful and capricious style. 

Caprice! (kii-prSfBhl), iZ. 1 A caprice. See 
Caprice (kapres), Fr. j Capriccio. 

Caprice. A whimsical, fanciful style of coio- 
position.' See Capriccio. 

Caprlcieusement (kft-pre-sQa-mOnhO, Fr. Ca- 

Capricieux (kft-pre-sti), Fr. In a fanciful and 
capricious style. 

Car. (kar), R. An abbreviation of Carta. 

Caracteres de musiqne (k&r-ftk-tfir' dHh mQ- 
zek') Fr. A term applied to musical signs ; 
all the marks or symbols belonging to mu- 
sical notation. 

Caramlllo (ka-rii-m6ryd), Sp. A flageolet, a 
small flute. 

Caressant (k&-res-s&nh), Fr. Caressing, ten- 

Carezzando (k&-ret-ts&n'do), n ) Inacaress- 
Carezovole (ka-rSt-so-vo'ld), ' j ing and ten- 
der manner. 

Carlcato (k&-il-k&'t6), R. Exaggerated, cari- 

Caricatttra(k&-rI-k&-too'ra), R. A caricature, 
an exaggerated representation. 

Carillon (k&-ril-yOnh), Fr. Chime. See OarO- 

Carillon a clavier (k&-rll-y6nh & kl&-vI-&), Fr. 
A set of keys and pedals, acting upon the 

Carillonement (kft rll-y6nh-m&nh), Fr. Chim- 

Carillonner (k&-ril-y5-n&0, Fr. To chime or 
ring bells. 

Carillonneur (k&-rll-yo-nlliO, Fr. A player, or 
ringer, of bells or carillons. 

Carillons (k&-r!l-yonhO, Fr. pi. Chimes; a 
peal or set of bells, upon which tunes are 
played bv the machinery of a clock, or by 
means of keys, like those of a pianoforte. 

(2) Short, simple airs, adapted to such bells. 

(3) A stop in an organ, to imitate a peal of 

Carita (k&-re't&). It. Tenderness, feeling. 

Carita, con (ka-re'ta kon). It. With tendel^ 

Carmagnole (k&r-man-ydl'), Fr. A famous 
French revolutionary s mg. It came into 
vogue in 1792, and derives its name from the 
Pledmontese town Carmagnola. 

Carmen fk&r'men), Ger. \ A tune, a song, a 
Carmen (k&r'men). Lot. ) i>oem. 

Carmen natalitium (kar'mSn nft-tiL-lS'tsI-oom), 
Lai. A carol. 

Carol. A song. (2) A song of joy and exulta- 
tion, a song of devotion. (3) Old ballads 
sung at Christmas and Easter. 

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€arola (kA-rOlft), It. A balUd, a danoe with 

G«rolare (1eJI-t6 Wt€), B. To sing in a war- 
bling manner, to carol. 

Caroletta (kirWV-iet'tft), It. A little dance. 

CwoUe (kjl-ror), ^. A carol. 

Carrure des phrases-Ck&r-rilr d€ iiSz),Fr. The 
quadrature, or balancing, of the phrases. 

Cartel (k&r-t^), Fr, The first sketch of a com- 
position, or of a full facore. (Obsolete. ) 

Cartellone(k&r-teHd'ne),i{. A large playbill ; 
the printed catalc^ue of operas to be per- 
formed during the season. 

Cassa (kas'sft), J<. The drum. 

Cassa grande (k&8'8& grftn'de). „ > The 
CaasamiUtareCkfis'BamMI-t&'re),^'^* / great 

drum in military music. 


Caaaatio (kfis-s&'tsl-a), Lot. > 
Casaazlone (kfis-sft-tsi-d^ne), iZ.> missal. 

' Ori- 
Caasation (k&9-8ft't^-dn), 6fr. ) gin ally the 
concluding piece of a musical performance, 
afterwards a kind of serenade consisting of 
seyeral instrumental pieces. 

Castagnet. Castanet. 

Caatagnetta (k&R-tan-yet'tft), It. 
Caatagnettes (kas-t&nh-yfttn, Fr, 
Caatagnole (kas-tan-yd'ie}, ^. 
CasUnetaa (kfts-t&n-yi' t&s), 8p, 
8ee Cattaneta. 

Snappers ; 


used iu 


Castanets. Snappers used to accompany 
dancing; an instrument of music formed 
of small, concave shells of ivory or hard 
wood, shaped like spoons. Castouets are 
used by dancers in Spain and other south- 
ern countries to mark the rhythm of the 
bolero, cachucha, etc. 

Castanheta (k&8-tan-&-t&). For, \ Casta- 
Castanuelas(k&8-t&n-yoo-&a8s),£^. jnets. 

Castrato (kiis-tr&'td). It. A eunuch. A male 
singer with a soprano voice. 

Catch. A humorous composition for three 
or four voices, supposed to be of English 
invention, and dating back to the Tudors. 
The parts are so contrived that the singers 
catch up each other's words, thus giving 
them a different sense from that of the 
original reading. 

Catena dl trilli (k&-ta'n& dS trel'lS), It, A 
ehaln, or succession of shakes. 

Catgut. A small string for violins and other 
instruments of a similar kind, made of the 
intestines of sheep and lambs, and some- 

j times cats. 

Catling. A lute-string. 

Canda (kou'dJl), Lot. Coda. 

CavalletU (kft-vfil-iet'ta), « ) . e-baletta 
CavaUetto (kii-va-16t't6), ^'- J ^ cabaietta. 

Cavalanet (k&v-al-kaO> Fr. Trumpet signal 
for tne cavalry. 

Cavata(kJl-vft'tfl),iZ. Production of tone ; also 
a small song, sometimes preceded by a reci- 
tative; acavatina. 

Cavatina(kfi-v&-t^n&), it.) An air of one 
Cavatine (k&v-a-tSn'), Fr. j strain only, of dra- 
matic style, sometimes preceded by a recita- 

C. B. The initials of Col basso and Contra 

CbSlU!*'"'''''-} Thech.™cterJU««d 
to indicate alia breve or alia capella time. 

C clef. The tenor clef. It is called the C clef 
because on whatever line i t is placed it gives 
to the notes of that line the name and pitch 
of middle C. Is used also for Sop. and Alt. 

C-dur (tsa-door), Oer. The key of C major. 

Cebell. The name of an old air in common 
time, characterized by a quick and sudden 
alternation of high and low notes. 

Celebrer (s&-l&-braO* Fr. To celebrate, to ex- 
tol, to praise. 

Celeramente (tshA-ie-rft-men'te), It. Quickly, 

Ceiere (tshaie-re). It. Quick, rapid, with v»< 

Celeridad(th&-l&-rI-dAdO,/S^.') Celerity, v»- 
Celerita (tha-l&-n't&), It. V locity, rapid • 
C^l^rlt* (sft-m-ri-tfi), Jfr. J ity. 

Celeste (sft-lSsV), i^. Celestial, heavenly; in 
some passases it indicates tbe employment 
of the pedal which acts on the celestina, or 
soft stop. Also a tremolo stop, or a stop 
consisting of a set of reeds or pipes a very 
little sharp, giving rise to a moderately 
quick beat or waving. 

Celestial music. Among the ancients, the 
harmony of sounds supposed to result from 
Uie movements of the heavenly bodies. 

Celestina (t8h&-l€8-te'n&), It. An organ-stop 
of small 4-feet scale, producing a very deli- 
cate and subdued tone. Also a tremolo 
stop in reed oi^gans. 

*Celli (tshei'ie). An abbreviation of Vlolon- 

'Cellist (tsheiagst). An abbreviation of Vi- 
oloncellist ; one who plays the 'Cello. 

'Cello (tsherid). An abbreviation of Violon- 

Cemb. An abbreviation of Cemballo. 

Cembalista (tsh€m-ba-lez't&), It. A player on 
the harpsichord ; also a player on the cym- 

Cembalo (tshSm'bfirld), r/ 1 A harpsichord ; 
Cembolo (tshem'b6-ld), * /also the name for 
a cymbal. 

Cenobites. Monks of a religious order, who 
live in a convent and perform the services 
of the choir. 

Cento (tsen-to). Lot. A composition formed 
by one hundred verses ana passages from 
other authors, and disposed in a new order. 

Centone (t8£n-t<yn6). Lot. A cento, or medley 
of different tunes or melodies. 

Ces (tses), Oer. The note C|». 






CesMlur (t8e8-door),<?er. The note of Cb major. 

C. espr. An abbreviation of Con espressione. 

Cestf ra. \ A pause in verse inti^uced to aid 
Cecure. /the recital and render the versifica- 
tion more melodions. See Caesura, 

Cetera (tsh&'t^rft), It, A cittern, a gnitar. 

Cetera tede^a (tsh&'te-ril tdHSes'kft), It. The 
German zither, a teu-btriuged instrument of 
the lute class. 

Ch. An abbreviation of Choir and Chorus. 

Clia chl (k& k€ >. A Chinese instrument, simi- 
lar to the kin, but having the chromatic 

Chacona (t8hfirkd'n&),£ip. ) Achaconne,aslow, 
Cliaconne (shlbkdnh),i^r. j graceful Spanish 
movement, in 3-4 time, and composed upon 
a ground bass. It is usually stated that the 
chaconne is in the major mode, and that 
pasflacaille, which Is somewhat similar to it 
in rhythm, is in the minor. This is not the 
case, as the following theme, on which 
Bach's celebrated Ciaccona for violin solo is 
founded, will show : 

^bacoon. A dance like a saraband. See Chor 

Chair organ. Found in old organ music. See 
Ctunr OTifan. 

Chal. An abbreviation of Chalumeau. 

Chain (k&-ieiO, Beb. An old Hebrew instru- 
ment, similar to a pipe or flute. 

Chaimey. See Chcdumeau. 

Chalotte. A tube of brass, made to receive 
the reed of an organ-pi|ie. 

Chalmeau (shftl-md'), j^ 1 An ancient rus- 
Chaiumeau (shMii-mS), j tic flute, re- 
sembling the hautboy, and blown through a 
calamus, or reed. The term is also applied 
to some of the low notes of the clarinet. 

Chamber music. Music composed for private 
];>erformance, or for small concerts before a 
select audience, such as instrumental duets, 
trios, quartets, etc. 

Chamlier voice. A voice especially suited to 
the execution of parlor music. 

Changeable. A term applied to chants which 
may be sune either m the major or minor 
mode of the Key or tonic in which they are 

Changer de ien (shftnh-zha dtlh zhfi), Pr. To 
change the stops or registers in an organ. 

Changes. The various alternations and differ- 
ent passages produced by a peul of bells. 

Changing notes. German," wechseln Tonen," 
dissonant tones occurring upon the unac- 
cented part of the beat. Changing tones dif- 
fer from poising tones in this, that whereas 
passing tones lead acronsfrom one consonant 
tone to another, chaugint, -^ones return again 

. to the consonant tone from which they 
" changed." For instance, upon the chord 
of do in the progression do re mi, re would 
be a passing tone ; but in the prc^^ression do 
re do, the re would be a changing tone. 

Chans. An abbreviation of Chanson. 

Chanson (sh&nh-66nh), Fr, A song. 

Chanson bachlque (shanH-sOnh bftk-€kO>/V. A 

Chanson des rues (sh&nn-sdnh de rilO) Fr, A 
street song ; a vaudeville. 

Chansonner (shanh-sOnh-n&O, J^. To make 

Chansonnette (shftnh-s5nh-n€tO, Fr, A little 
or short song, or canzonet. 

Chansonniere (shlLnh-B5nh-ni-arO, Fr. A fe- 
male song-writer. 

Chansons de geste (shftnh-sOnh dtlh zh&t), 
Fr, The romances formerly suni? by the 
wandering minstrels of the middle ages. 
Literally, "Songs of Deeds." These were 
great national epics of France, which had 
their origin from about A. D. 800 to 1300. 
Among the most famous were *' The Kong of 
Roland " and the "Song of Antioch.*' These 
epics appear to have grown up out of the de- 
tached labors of several generations of min- 
strels, each adding something of his own to 
the store, as he had received it from his 

Chant. A simple melody, generally harmo- 
nized in four parts, to whicli lyrical portions 
of the Scriptures are set, part of the words 
being recited ad libitum and part sung. 
A "single" chant consists of only two 
strains. A "double" chant consists of 
four. (2) To recite musically, to sing. 

Chant (sh&nh), Fr, The voice part ; a song or 
melody, singing. 

Chant amoureux (shanh-tfi-moo-rtih), Fr. A 
love-song, an amorous ditty. 

Chantant (shanh- tanh) ,Fr. Ad apted to sing- 
ing ; in a melodious and singing style. 

Chantante (shanh-t&nht), Fr, Singing. 

Chantante bass (sh&nh-tilnht bass), Fr. Vocal 

Chant d* eglise (sh&nh d'S-glSzO. Fr. Church 

Chant de Noel (shanh dtlh n6-&['), Fr. A Chri8^ 
mas carol. 

Chant des oiseaux (shanh dS swa-zoO ,Fr. Sing- 
ing of the birds. 

Chant de triomphe (shanh dtl trg-6nhf), J^. 
A triumphal song, a song of victory. 

Chant du soir (slianh dti sw&r), Fr. Evening 

Chants (sh&n-tS,), Fr. Sung. 

Chanter. One who chants. (2) The pipe that 
bounds the treble or tenor in a bagpipe. 

Chanter (sh&nh-t&O, Fr, To sing, to celebrate^ 
to praise. 

4 arm, & add, AoJe, 6end, € eve, 1 iU, lis^e, 6 oUi, 6 odd, oonuxm, H but, U Fr, wund, kh Qer, ch, nhnosa' 





Chanter 4 livre ouvert (8h&nh-t&' & ISvr oo- 
vai/), Fr. To siiig at eight. 

Chanter A plelne voix (shanh-t&' a pl&n vw&), 
Fr. To DO iu full voice. 

Chanter, arch . The chief chanter, the leader 
oi the chauts. 

Chanterelle (sh&nh-t6 rgl), Fr. Treble string; 
the smallest string of the violin. 

Chanterres (shanb-t^re), Fr. The singers of 
songs and ballads in the tenth and follow- 
ing centuries. 

Chanteur (shanh-ttlrO, Fr. A singer. 

Chanteur des rues (sh&nh-ttlr d3 ru^i Fr, A 
street singer. 

Chanterie (shanh-treOi Fr. \ Institutions cs- 
Chantry. j tablished and en- 

dowed for the purx>ose ot singing the souls 
of the founders out of purgatory. A church 
or chapel endowed with revenue for the 
purpo>e of saying mass daily for the souls 
of the donors. 

Chant pastorale (shanht p&8-t6-ralO, Fr, A 
pastoral song. 

Chantry priests. Priests selected to sing in 

Chanteuse (sh&nhrtihO, i^. A female vocalist. 

Chant funebre (sh&nh fu-n&br), Fr. Dirge, a 
funeral soug. 

Chant sur le llvre (shanh soor ItLh levr), Fr. 
A barbarous kind of counterpoint, or des- 
cant, as it was termed, performed by several 
YoiceA, each singing ex tempore. A n extem- 
poraneous counterpoint added by one or 
more singers to the canto fermo sung by 
others. It is identical with corUrapunto aUa 

Chant, Phrygian. A chant Intended to ex- 
cite the hearers to fury and rage. 

Chant, Roman. The Gregorian chant. 

Chant sacre (shanh tsakr), Fr. Sacred music. 

Chanter. A singer in a cathedral choir. 

Chantre fsh&ntr), Fr. A chorister, a chanter, 
a siufiing boy. 

Chapeau chinois (shft-pd' sh^nwa'). Fr. A 
crescent, or sec of small bells, used in mili- 
tary music. 

Chapelle (sh&p-^0» ^r. A chapel. See Cap- 


Characteristic chord. The leading, or prin- 
cipal, chord. 

Characteristic note. A leading note. The 
fourth and seventh f jom the tonic. 

Characters. A general name for musical 


CharalcterstGcke (k&-rac-t' r-sttik'g) , On. Char- 
acterlstic piecps. Pieces descriptive of 
moods, impressions, and events. 

Charivari (sha-rl-vft'rl), Fr. Noisy mu^ic, 
made witn tiu dishes, horns, bells, etc.; ; a mock serenade. 

Charlatan (shftr-la-t&nhO. ^r. A quack; an 
im poster; a superficial artist wno makes 
great pretensions, which are not justified \n 

Chasse (shass), Fr. Hunting; in the hunting 

Chatsoteroth (kat-so'te-rOth), „^ )The 
Catzozerath (kftt-zo-ze'rath), ^^' ] silver 
trumpet of the ancient Hebrews. 

Che (ka). It. Than, that, which. 

Che chi (k& ke). One of the eight species ln< 
to which the Chinese divide their musical 

Chef (shaf), Fr. Leader, chief. 

Chef-d*attaque (sha-d&t-t&k), Fr. The leader, 
or principal flmt-violin performer ; also the 
leader of the chorus. 

Chef-d'oeuvre (sha-doovr), Fr. A master- 
piece, a capital performance; the principal, 
or most important,com position of an author. 

Chef-d'orchestre (sha-dOr-kestr), Fr, The 
leader of an orchestra. 

Cheipour, Pn. A Persian trumpet used in 
military service. 

Chelys (ka-lls). Or. A species of lute, or viol. 

Cheng chi (kSng ke). One of the eight spe< 
cies into which the Chinese divide their 
musical sounds. 

Cherubical hymn. A hvmn of great im'^or- 
tance i u the service of the Holy Communion. 
" Holy, holy, holy," etc. 

Chest of viols. An old expression applied to 
a set C'f viols, two of which were basses, two 
tenors, and two trebles, each with six strings. 
Tnese instruments were particularly adapt* 
ed to those compositions called fantasias. 

Chest vo"oe. } '^^® lowest register of the voice. 

Chest, wind. A reservoir in an or^ran foi 
holding the air, which is conveyed from 
thence into the pipt'S by means of the wind 
trunks and channels. 

Chevalet (shftv-ft-laO, Fr. The bridge of a vi- 
olin, viola, etc. 

Cheville (sh6-v6lO, Fr, The peg of a violin, 
viola, etc. 

Chevrotement (she-vrot-mOnh), Fr. A tre> 
mor or shake in singing. 

Chevroter (shC-vrd-taO, Fr. To sing with a 
trembling voice; to make a bad cr false 

Clenr, brilliant, pure 
as to tone. 

Chiaramente (kea-ra-mSn'tS), R. Clearly, 
brightly, purely. 

Chiarentana (ke-a-rSn-t&'na), It. An Italian 
country dance. 

Chiarezza (ke-a-r€t's&), JR. Clearness, neat< 
ue&s, purity. 

Chiarina (ke-&-re'r «), It. A clarion. 

Chlara (ke-a'ra), „ \ 
Chiaro(k6-a'r6), -'^•/i 

iktirm,kadd, &ak, fiend, eeve, i<U, Iu{«,doU, 6 odd, oo moon, butt d ^. found, kh Qtr. eh, nhmiiCHi 





ChiaitMCuro (ke-S-rdsHcoo-rd), B. Light and 
shade ; the modifications of piano and forte. 

Chiave (ke-a'v6) , H. A def , or key. 

Clilnve maestro (ke-&'yS ma-as'tro), It The 
fundamental key or note. 

Chickera (ke'kS-ra), ITin. An instrument used 
in India, having four or five strings and 
played ^vith a bow. 

Chiesa (ke-a'za). It. A church. 

Chlffres (shefr), Fr. Figures used in har- 
mony and thorough bass. 

Chifla (tshe'fla), o« 1 a «v.«afift 

Chllladera (tshe-fla'dS-rft). SP- 1 A whistle. 

Chifladura (tshg-fla-doo'ra), Sp. Whistling. 

Chiflar (tshe-flS,rO, Sp. To whistle. 

Chime. A set of bells tuned to a musical 
scale ; the sound of bells in harmony ; a cor- 
respondence of sound. 

Chime-barrel. The cylindrical portion of the 
mechanism sometimes used lor ringing a 
chime of bells. 

Chimney. In an organ, a small tube passing 
through the cap of a stopped pipe. 

Chinese flute. An instrument used by the 
Chinese, made of bamboo. 

Chinese musical scale. A scale consisting of 
five notes without semitones, the mu«!ic be- 
ing written on five lines in perpendicular 
columns, and the elevation and depression 
of tones indicated by distinctive names. 

Chlnnor (also KInnor) (ken-ndr), tt^j^ \ An 
Chlnor(ke-n6r), ^^' | in- 

strument of the harp or psaltery species, 
supposed to have been used by the ancient 
Hebrews. See Kinnor. 

Chlrimla (tshe-re'mi-a), Sp. The hautboy. 

Chirogymnast (ke'r6-ghlm'na«»t), Gr. \ A 
Chlrogymnaste(ke'r6-gim-nas'te), It j square 
board, on which are placed various mechan- 
ical contrivances for exercising the fingers 
of a pianist. 

Chlroplast(ke'rd-plast), Gr. A pmall machine 
invented by Logier, to keep the hands and 
fingers of young pianoforte-players iu the 
right position. 

Chitarone (ke-ta-rd'n$), R. A large, or double, 

Chltarra (ke-tar'r&). It. A guitar, a cithara. 

Chitarrista rke-tar-res'tH), It. One who plays 
on the guitar. 

Chlttarra coll' arco (ke-tar'ra kdl 1ar-kd). It. 
A species of guitar played with a bow like a 

Chittarrina (ket-tar-rS'na), » \ The small 
Chlttarrino (ket-tar-re'no), ^'" j Neapolitan 

Chluso (ke-oo'zo), It. Close. 
Cho. Abbreviation of Chorus. 
Choeur (ktlr), Fr. The choir or chorus. 

Choice notes. Notes placed on different de- 
grees in same measure, either or all of 
which may be sung. 

Choir. That part of a cathedral or church set 
apart for the singers. (2) The singers them- 
selves, taken collectively. 

Choir, boy. A choir formed of bojrB from 
eigb t to fourteen years of ttxe. These choirs 
are confined mostly to the Episcopal Church. 

Choir, strand. In organ-playing, the union 
of all the reed stops. 

Choir orsan. In a large organ, the lowest 
row of keys is called the choir organ, which 
contains some of the softer and more deli- 
cate stops, and is used for accompanying 
solos, duets, etc. 

Chor (kor), Ger. {pi. Chore.) Choir, chorus 
choir oi a church. 

Choragrus (ko-r&'goos), Lai. The leader of the 
chorus in the Greek and Roman drama. 

Choral. Belonging to the choir ; full, or for 
many voices. 

Choral (ko-raV), Ger. Psalm or hymn tune ; 
choral song or tune. 

Choral anthem. An anthem in a simple, 
measured style, in the manner of a choral. 

Choral-book. A collection of choral melodies 
either with or without a prescribed har- 
monic accompaniment. 

Choralbuch (k6-rarboQkh),G<T. Choral-book; , 
a book of hymn tunes. 

Chorale (ko-r&'16), Ger. pi. Hymn tunes. 

Choral hymn. A hymn to be sung by a 


Choralist. Chorister, choir singer. 

Chorallter (kS-ran-tfir). >^_ ) In the 

ChoralmMsslg (ko-ral'm&s-slg), ^^' Jstyle-or 
measure of a psalm tune or choral. 

Choral service. A form of religious service 
in which the priest sings in response to the 
choir, and the entire liturgy is intoned or 
chanted instead of being read. 

Choraltar (k6r'al-tar'),Ger. The high, or great, 

Choramt (kor'ftmt), Ger. Cathedral service, 
choral service. 

Chorautus (k6-rou'toos). Lot. The name given 
by the ancient Romans to the bagpipe. 

Chord. Two or more tones sounding together 
harmonically. With reference to their mu- 
sical quality, chords are divided into har- 
mony, or natural chords (all the tones of 
which are partialsof tbefundamental), nnd 
combination chords (imitations of the former 
but composed of elements belonging to dif- 
ferent fundamentals) . To the former belong 
the major triad and the chord of the domi- 
nant seventh. In the key of C. these : 


ComMnation chords are cf cT^rv f 

tarm, ft odd, a o^, ^ end, e eoe, i iU, i ule, 5 old, d odd, oo moon, a hvl, u Fr, sound, kh Ger, eh. nh naaoL 





from the least appealing of all, the minor 
triad, to the most dissonant of seven thsand 
ninths. According to another view, all 
chords are triads (three tones), sevenths 
(four tones), or ninths (five tones). And all 
are derived from forms like the following : 

Chorda (kdr'da), ixi^. A string of a musical 

Chord, accidental. A chord produced either 
by anticipation or suspension. 

Chorda characterlstica (kor^dft ka'r&k-t^rta'tl- 
ka). Lot. The leading, or characteristic, note 
or tone. 

Chorda, dominant ^eptima. The dominant 
caord of the seventh. 

Chorda essentlales (kdr'da es-s€n'tsI*&'lS8). 
Lot. These are the tonic, third and fifth of 
each diatonic mode or scale. 

Chords vocalea (kor'da v6-kaie8), Lot. Vocal 

Chord, anomalous. A chord in which one or 
more of the intervals are greater or less than 
of those of the fundamental chord. 

Chordaulodian. ) The name given to a mu- 
Chordomelodlon. ) sical instrument resem- 
bling a large barrel organ, self-acting. It 
was invented by Kaufman n, of Dresden. 

Chord a vido (kdrd & vS d5\ It, A name for- 
merly given to a sound drawn from the open 
string oli a violin, violoncello, or similar in- 

Chord , characteristic. The principal chord ; 
the leading chord. 

Chord , ch romatic. A chord that contains one 
or more chromatic tones. 

Chord , common. A chord consisting of a fun- 
damental note, together with its third and 

Chord, dominant. A chord that is found on 
t^e dominant of the key in which the music 
is written. (2) The leading, or characteris- 
tic chord. 

Chord, equivocai. A name sometimes given 
to the diminished seventh. 

Chordienst (kdr'denst), Oer. Choir or choral 

Chord, imperfect common. A chord found- 
ed on the leadiuR tone. It has a minor 
third and diminished fifth. 

Chord, inverted. A chord whose lowest tone 
is not the fundamental but the third, fifth, 
or seventh from the true fundamental. 

Chordirector (k6r'di-r«c-t6r'), Oer. The direc- 
tor wiio trains the chorud at the opera-house. 

Chord, leading. The dominant chord. 

Cbord nona. Chord of the ninth. 

Chord of the eleventh. A chord founded on 
the chord of the uiulh by adding the inter- 
val of the eleventh. 

Chord of the fifth and sixth. (§) The first 
inversion of the chord of the seventh, 
formed by taking the third of the original 
chord for the bass, and consisting of that 
together with its third, fifth, and sixth. 

Chord of the fourth and fifth. ({) Chord 
of the eleventh, with the seventh and ninth 

Chord of the fourth and sixth, (i) The 

second inversion of the common chord. 

Chord of the ninth. (9) A chord consisting 
of a third, fifth, seventh, and ninth with its 

Chord of the second and fourth. (1) The 

third inversion of the seventh. 

Chord of the seventh. (7) A chord consist- 
ing of the root, together with the third, fifth, 
and seventh. 

Chord of the sixth. (6) The first inversion 
of the common chord. 

Chord of the third, fourth, and sixth. (l\ 

The second inversion of the chord of Vl/ 
the seventh. 

Chord of the thirteenth. Founded on the 
chord of the ninth by addiiig the eleventh 
and the thirteenth. 

Chord of the critone. Third inversion ol 
the dominant seventh containing a Super* 
fiuous fourth. 

Chordometer. An instrument for measuring 

Chords, derivative. Chords derived from the 
fundamental chords. 

Chords, diminished. Chords having minor 
thirds aud diminished fifths and sevenths. 

Chords, imperfect. Those which do not con* 
tain all the intervals belonging to them. 

Chords, relative. Chords containing one oi 
. more tones in common. 

Chords, small threefold. A common chor4 
with a minor third. 

Chord, threefold. The common chord. 

Chord, transient. A chord in which, in ordei 
to smooth the transition from one chord to 
another, notes are introduced which do not 
form any component part of the funda< 
mental harmony. 

Ch5re (kS'rg), Choirs, choruses. 

Chorea (ko'rS-ft), Lai. A dance in a ring ; a 

Choree (kO'ra), Or. In ancient poetry a foot 
of two syllables, the first long, the second 
short; the trochee. 

Choreus (k^Vrd-oos), Lai. The choree, or tro- 

Choriambus. A musical foot, accented thus : 

Chorion (k(yrl-dn). Or. A hymn in praise of 

Chori praefectus (kd'rS prA-f^k'toos), Lot. A 

Aoffli ^^joA^^a^t^cnd,^eve,liU,lialet6oldt6oddiOomo<m,ilbutfilF^.aound,lL^ 





Chorist (k5-il8tO. Oer, \ A chorister, a cboial- 
ChorUte (kd-rM), Fr. j singer. 

Chorister. A leader of a choir ; a singer. 

Chorknabe (kdTncn&-b€), Qer. Singing-boy. 

ChorocltharistiB (kd-r6-t8l-ta-rls'ta), Lot. A 
concert of instruments and voices; those 
who play to dancing. 

Chors&nger (kdr'sang-^r), ri^ \ A chorister, 
ChorschGler (ker-shtiier), ^^' / a choral- 
singer ; a member of the choir. 

Chorton(kdT'tdn),Gf0r. Choral tone; thensnal 
pitch or intonation of the organ, and. there- 
tore, of the choir. A choral tune. 

Chorus. A company of singers; a composi- 
tion intended to be sung hj a number of 
voices. (2) Among the ancient Greeks the 
chorus was a band of singers and dancers 
who assisted at the performance of their 
dramas, and occupied that part of the thea- 
ter answering to the present parquet. 

Chorus, cyclic (seHdlk). The chorus among 
the ancient Athenians which performed at 
some of their dramatic representations, 
dancing In a circle around the altar of Bac- 

Choruses, martial. Choruses in commemorar 
tion of warlike deeds. 

Chorus-tone. See Chorion. 

Christe eleison (krls-t6 a-lf 86n),(?r. O Christ, 
have mercy: a part of the Kyrie, or first 
movement, in a mass. 

Christmas carols. Light songs, or ballads, 
commemorating the birth of Christ, sung 
during the Christmas holidays. 

Christmesse (krlsfm^-nS), fy^ \ Christmas 
Chrlstmettc (krlst'met-te), ^^' /matins. 

Chroma Ck.T6'mS,), Gr. The chromatic signs ; a 
sharp (^) or flat (b). 

Chroma diesis (krO^mft dl-ft'ids), Gr. A semi- 
tone, or half tone. 

Chroma duplex. The double sharp, marked 
by the sigu X or ##. 

Chromameter (kro-ma-mS'tSr). A tuning-fork. 

Chromatic. This word, derived from the 
Greek cAroma, color, has a twofold meaning. 
(1) In modern music, progressing by semi- 
tones, chromatic in distinction irom dia- 
tonic {q. v.). Chromatic notes are notes of 
the diatonic scale altered by sharps, flats, or 
naturals. A cHromatic scale is one which 
proceeds throughout by semitones. ( V. JHa- 
tonic scale.) A chromatically altered chord 
is a chord which contains one or more noies 
foreign to the key to which it belongs, one 
or more notes proper to the key being sharp- 
ened or flattened a semitone. (2) In the 
musical genus called by the ancient Greeks 
chromatic, the tetrachord (a series of four 
notes, a division of the scale) ascended by 
two semitones and a tone and semitone ; for 
ixidtance, b c d> e. 

Chromatic depression. The lowering a note 
hj a semitone. 

Chromatic elevation. The elevation of a note 
by a semitone. 

Chromatic instruments. All Instruments 
upon which chromatic tones and melodies 
can be produced. 

Chromatic keyboard. An attachment ap- 
plied to the ordinary keys of a piano, for the 
purpose of enabling players of moderate 
skill to execute with greater facility tha 
simple chromatic scale, chromatic runs, ca- 
denzas, etc. 

Chromatic keys. The black keys of a piano- • 
forte. (2) Every key in the scale of which 
one or more chromatic tones occur. Not 
sanctioned by good usage. 

Chromatic melody. A melody the tones of 
which move by chromatic intervals. 

Chromatic scale. A scale which consists of 
twelve semitones, or half steps, in an octave. 

Chromatic signs. Accidentals; sharps, flats, 
and naturals. 

Chromatlctunlng-fork. A tuning-fork sound- 
ing all the tones and semitones of the octave. 

Chromatid suoni (krO-m&'tit-tshS soo-d^nl), -R. 
Chromatic suunds. 

Chromatics, accidental. Chromatics employ- 
ed in preparing the leading note of the mi- 
nor scale; chromatics incidentally em- 

Chromatlque (kr6-mft'tSk), Fr. \ Chromatic, 
Chromatlsch (krd-m&tlsh), Ger. /moving by 

Chromatlquement (kr5-mArt£k'm5nh), Fr, 

Chromatlsches Klanggeschlecht (krd-mft-tX'- 
shes kl&ug-ghe-shlekhtO, Ger. The chro- 
matic genus or mode. 

Chromatlsche Tonlelter (krd-m&'tl-she tdnOI'- 
ler), Ger. The curomatic scale. 

Chronometer (kr6-n6-m&'ter), Gr. The name 
given lo any machine for measuring time. 

Chronometer, Weber. An invention of God- 
frey Weber, similar to a metronome, but 
simpler in construction, consisting of a 
chord marked with flfty-five inch spaces, 
and having a weight attached to its lower 
end. The rate of motion is varied by the 
length of the cord. 

Chrotta (krdt'tft), M. The primitive flddle. 
difTering from the modem in the absence of 
a neck; thecrowle. 

Church cadence. Another name for the pla- 
gal cadence. 

Church modes. See Gregorian modes. 

Chute (shiit), Fr. Obsolete mark of embel- 
lishment, equivalent to along appoggiatura. 

Claccona (t8he-ftk-k6'n&), r/ 1 A slow Span- 
Clacconne (t8he-&k-kdn'ne), * ) ish dance, 

generally constructed on a ground best, 
ee Cfuiconne. 

Claramella (tshfi-ft-r&-meia&), B. A bagpipe. 

, ft aad, & ale, 6 end, £ eve, i iS, I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, iX but, ti Fr. aound, 1th Ger. eft, nh 




Wicata (t86-ko(/tft), Lot. A pipe or flute made 
fr^m the hollow stalks oi the hemlock ; a 
shepherd's pipe. 

Cicutrenna (tshS-koO'tren'n&), R, A musical 

Qmbale. See Cimbd. 

Ciinbali(t8hem-h&ae),i{.pl.)C7mhals: mlli- 
Cimballes (sim-bal), Pr. pi. ) tary instm- 
meuts used to mark the time. 

Cimbalello (them-b&-la'yd), £^. A small bell. 

Cimbel (tsim'bei), Oer, A mixture stop of 
acute tone. 

Cimbelstem (tslm'b^-stftm), Oer. Cymbal 
star. A 1 1 organ-stop consistin g of five bel Is, 
and composed of circular pieces of metal 
out in the form of a star, and placed at the 
top of the instrument in front. 

C in alt. The eleventh above the G, or treble, 
c.ef note ; the fourth note in alt. 

C In altlssimo. The octave above C in alt; 
the fourth note in altissimo. 

Cinelle, n^^ \ A cymbal ; a Turkish mu- 
Clnellen, jsical instrument, more noisy 

than musical. 

Cink (tsink), Ger. A small reed-stop in an or- 
gan, bee Kinkhom. 

Cinnara (tshen^nftrra), It. The harp of the 

Cinq (sftnkh), Fr. ) Five; the fifth voice 

Cinque (tshen'kwfi), B. J or part in a quintet. 

Cinyra (sln'S-ra). An old name for the harp. 

Ciphering (si'fgr-Ing). The sounding of the 
pipes of the organ when the keys are not 
touched ; due to leakage in the valves. 

Circularcanon. A canon which goes through 
the twel\ e major keys. 

Circle of fifths. A method of modulation 
which conveys uk round through all the 
scales back to the point from which we 

Circular scale. The row of tunlnp^-plns and 
the wrest-plank of a piano, made in a curved 
form, in order to throw the strings farther 

CIS (tsis), Oer. The note G^. 

Cis-cis (tsls-tsis), Oer. The note C-double- 
sharp, Cff#, CX. 

Cis-dur (tsIs-doorO, Oer. The key of C# major. 

CU-moll (tsis-mdll), Oer. The key of C^ minor. 

C*stella(tsl8-tein&), Lot. A small chest or box, 
triangular in shape, and strung with wires, 
which are struck with little rods. See Dul- 

Cistre (sestr). Ft. A dthem, a small harp. 

dJtrum. See CUtem, 

Citara (tshe't&-r&), It. A cittern, a guitar. 

Citaredo (tsh6-t&-r&'dd), „ ) 
I (t8he-t&-r6s't&), "' j 


harp or cittern. 

Cithar (tslth'ftr), Dan. A cittern. 

A minstrel, a 
player upon the 

Clthara (tsfi'tft-rft). Lot \ The lute, an old in- 
Cithara (thet'ft-rfi), 8p. j strument of the gui- 
tar kind. 

Clthara bijuga (tsS't&-rfi bl-yoo'ga), Lot. A 
cithara, so called from its having two neck* 
which determine the length of the strings 

Clthara hispanica (thet'a-r& hls-panl-kft), Bp. 
The Spanish guitar. 

Cithara, keyed. The clavicitherium. 

Citharodia (tsl-thft-ro'dl-ft). Or. The art ol 
singing to the lyre or cithara. 

Citharoeduj (tsI-t&-re'doos),£a^ Hewhoplayi 
upon a harp or cithara. 

Cither. ' \ An old instrument of the lute oi 

Cithera. ( guitar species; the oldest on reO' 

Cithern , r ord had three strings, which were 

Cittern. \ afterward increased to eight, 

Cythorn. J nine, and up to twenty-four. Th*» 

cither was very popular in the sixteentt 

century. The cittern and guitar seem to b« 

derived from the same Greek word. 

CItole (tsl-tdae). Lot. An old instrument o) 
the dulcimer species, and probably synony- 
mous with it. 

Cittam. The ancient English name of the 

Civetteria (tshe-v^t-t&'rl-a). It. Coquetry ; ia 
a coquettish manner. 

Clair (kl&r), Fr. Clear, shrill, loud. 

Claircylindre (kl&r-sX-lflnhdr). An instro 
ment invented byChladni in 1787, for the 
purpose of experimenting in acoustics. 

Clalron (kla-r6nh), Fr. Trumpet; also the 
name of a reed-stop In the organ. 

Clamor. In bell-ringing, a rapid multiplice^ 
tion of strokes. 

Clang. A sharp, shrill noise. See Klang. 

Clani^ (klan'gd). Lot. To clang, to sound. 

Clangor (klan'gdr). Lot, A sound, noise; the 
clang of the trumpet when blown power- 

Clapper. The tongue of a bell. 

Claquebois (kl&k-bwa), Fr. A three-stringed 

Clar. An abbreviation of Clarinet. 

Clara voce (kl$'r& vd'tsS), Lai. A clear, loud 

Clarabella (kla'r&-beia&) j^ \ An organ-stop 
Claribella (kl&'ri-beiOa). ^^- f of efeht-feet 

scale, with a i)Owerful, fluty tone; the pipes 

are of wood and not stopped. 

Ciaribel flute. An organ-stop of the flute 

Clarichord. See Clavichord. 

Clarichorde (klftr-X-kdrd), Fr. The darichord, 
or clavichord. 

Clarin (kla'rSn), Oer. A clarion: also th» 
name of a four-feet reed-stop in Qerma:? 

ClarinblaMn (k]il-r6n'bl&-zen).0er. Soft notv 
or tones upon the trumpet. 

H:Qriit,ikadd,^aie, (iend, e 0ve, XiS, Iis<e, 5 old, 6 odd, oo moon, Hbttf, HFr.mund, kh fier.fl^nhnoKf' 


T A 



Clarinet. One of the most important wood 
wind instruments. It is said to have been in- 
dented about 1700 by J. C. Denner, of Nu- 
remberg. It consists of a cylindrical tube, 
with finger-holes and kers, which termi- 
nates in a bell, and has a beak-like m mih- 
piece with a single beating reed. lis ex- 
treme compass extends from e to a"'. 1 here 
are clarinets of different pitch ; those com- 
monlT used in the orchestra are theclariuets 
in C, in B^, and in A-. The clarinets in D, 
£{>, F, Ak etc., are rarely used except in 
military bands. All clarinets, the one in C 
excepted, are transposing iustrumen is ; that 
Is to say, they do nut sound the notes which 
are written. For instance, the B[? clarinet 
sounds them a tone lower, and the A clari- 
net a minor third lower. Musicf Ttiecl r 
inet is written in the G clef. ( V. chalumcau.) 
Besides the above-mentioned ciariuets, 
there are a bass clarinet and a baritone clar- 
inet. Now clarinets are also made of ebon- 
ite. Also an organ-stop, voiced like a clari- 

Wlarlnet, alto. A large clarinet, curved noar 
the mouthpiece, and a fifth deeper than the 
ordinary clarinet. 

Clarinet, bass. A clarinet whose tones are an 
octave deeper than those of the C or B> clar- 

ClarinettlJta (klarI1-ne^t^ta), 72. \ A per- 
Clarinettitfte (klAr-l-n^t-test), Fr. } former 
upon the clarinet. 

Clarinetto (kla-ri-nSt'to), It. A clarinet. 

Clarinetto d'amore (kla-rl-net^td da-md'r^), It. 
A species of clarinet a fifth lower than the 
C clarinet. An alio clarinet. 

Clarinetto dolce (klarrl-n^t'to ddVtshg), //. A 
species of clarinet a fifth lower than the C 

Clarinetto seoondo (kla-rl-net'td s&-kdn'dd), It. 
The second clarinet. 

£larino (kla-re'no). It. \ A small, or octave. 
Clarion. j trumpet; also the 

nameofa4-feet oi^an-reed stop, tuned a i 
octave above the trumpet-stop. Tiie term 
Lb also used to indicate the trumpet partd in 
a foil score. 

Clarion harmonlque (kl&-rl-0nh hftr-mdnh- 
nek'), Fr. An organ-reed biop. See Bar- 

Clarionet-flute. An organ-stop of a similar 
kind to the stopped diapason. 

Clarone (kla-ro'ne), It. A clarinet. 

Claras (kla'roos), Lot. Loud, clear, bright. 

Clart^ de voix (kl&r-ta dah vw&), Fr. Clear- 
nubs of voice. 

Classic, OTf Classical. These words are used 
in music, as in tae other arts and in litera- 
ture, in various senses, which often more or 
less overlap. (1) "Of the first class, of the 
first rank ; " more especially applied to the 
older, universally acknowledged, masters 
and their works, those of the best epoch of 
theart. (2) Having, or resembling, tbe style 

and temper of these masters and their works 
—their perfectness of form, and sobriety, 
and ideal beauty of contents. The opposite 
of " classical ** in this sense is " romantic" 
{q. v.). Also in popular use to designate 
Serious music in general, as distinguished 
from the merely ad capiandum and ephem- 

Classical music. Standard music ; music of 
first rank, written by composers of tne high- 
I St order. 

Clause. A phrase. 

Clausel (klou'z'l). Ger. 1 A close, a ca- 
Clausula (klou'stl-la), Lot. jdence, a conclud- 
ing musical purase. 

Clav. An abbreviation of Clavecembalo, Clav- 
iciiord, and Clavecin. 

Clavecin (kUv-^-sftnh), Fr. The harpsichord. 

Clavecin acoustique (kl&v-&-8ftnh a-kooz-tek), 
Fr. An instrument of the harpsichord or 
. pianoforte class, now obsolete. 

ClavicvmlMluni (kla-vl-tsim'ba-loom). Lfli. 
The liarp8icnord ; spinet. 

CUvicymbel (kla-vi-tslm'b'l), Oer. A clavi- 

Claveciniste (kla-ve-s&nh-^tO, Fr. A harpsi- 
chord-piuyer, or maker. 

Clavessin (kl&v-S-sftnh'), Fr. The harpsichord. 

See Cluoeciii. 

Claviatur (kla-vi-ft-toor'), Ger. The keys of a 
harpaichord, piano, etc. 

Clavicembalo (kla-vi-tshSm'ba-ld), It. \ 
Clavicembaium (Kla'-vi-ts6m-ba'loom), Lot. j 
The har>>sichord. 

Clavichord. A small, keyed instrument like 
the spinet, and the forerunner of the piano- 
forte. The tone of the clavi<'hord was agree- 
able and impressive but not strong. The 
strings were ma 1e to vibrate by means of a 
small brass upright, called a tangent, fi^od 
in the key. The tanifent "stopped" tlie 
string (like a violinist's finger) and caubcd 
it to sound at the same time. 

Clavicytherium (kl&-vi-tffI-ta'ri-oom), Lai. A 
ppecied of upright harpsichord, said to have 
been originally in the form of a harp or 
lyre. It was invented In the thirteenth 
century, and was the earliest approach to 
the modern pianoforte.. 

Clavicylinder. An instrument exhibited in 
Paris ill 1806. It was supposed t> consist of 
a series of cylinders, which were operated 
upon by bows set in motion by a crank and 
brought in contact with the cylinders by 
means of the keys of a fingerboard. 

Clavier (klft-ver), Fr. ) The keys or key- 
Clavier (kia fer'), Oer. j board of a pianoforte, 
organ, etc. Also an old name for the clavi- 
Clayierauszu8[(kla-f€r'ous't8oog),6'^. An ar- 
rangement of a full score for the use of piano- 
Clavieren (kla-fe'ren),G'er.p2. The keys. See 

Aorm, & add, &aile,^cndf^cvef Ittf, lisle, oold, 6 odd, oomoon,iXbtU, a Fr, sound, kh Ger. ch, nh nosac 





ClAvierlehrer (Ufirfgra&'rer), Oer. A piano- 
forte- teacher. 

Clavienchule (klft-fer-shoo^S), Oer. A piano- 
forte instruction book. 

Clavierspleler (Uft-fer'spSier), Oer. A piano- 

Clavierstimner (kla-fdr'sUrn'mer), Oer. A 

Clavleiiibufiff (klil-fer'd'boong), Oer. Exer- 
cises for the clavichord. 

Clavierunterricht (klft-fiT'oon'ter-rlkht), Oer. 
Lessons or instruction on the pianoforte. 

Clavls (kia'vls), Lnt. U ^e-, . . clef 
Ciavis (klA'vIs), Oer. ; ^ jcey , a ciei. 

Clear flute. An organ-stop of 4-feet scale, the 
tone of which is very clear and full. 

CM (kla). rv \ A key ; a character used to 
Clef (kla).''^^* /determine the name and pitch 
of the notes on the staff to which it is pre- 

Clef, alto. The C clef on the third line 
of the staff. 

Clef, baritone. The F clef when placed | 
on the third line. 

Clef, bass. The character at the beginning 
of the staff, where the lower or bass | 
notes are written, and serving to indi- 
cate the pitch and name of those notes. 
The F clef. 

Clef, C. So called because it gives its name 
to the notes placed on the same line with it- 

Clef, coanter tenor. The C clef when placed 
on the third line in order to accommodate 
the counter tenor voice. 

Clef d'accordeur (kla d&k-kdr-dtlr), Fr. A 

Clef de fay (kl& dOh f&), Fr. The F, or base, 

Clef descant. The treble, or soprano, def . 

Clef d*ut (kl& doot), Fr. The C (def. 

Clef, P. The base clef. 

Clef, French treble. The G clef on the bot- 
tom line of the staff; formerly much used 
in French music for the violin, flute, etc. 

Clef, German soprano. The C clef placed 

on thefirut line of thestaff for soprano '] g [ 

Clef, mean. 

The tenor clef ^=or 


Clef, mezzo-soprano. The C clef when placed 
ou the second Hue of the siaff. 

Clef note. The note indicated by the clef. 

Cief sol (kla sol), Fr. The Q, or treble, 

Clef, soprano. The G clef placed on the first 

line. (Obsolete.) 
Clek', tenor. See Mean def. 
Clef, treble. The G clef; soprano clef. 

Cloche (kldsh), Fr. A beU. 

Clochette (kl64hetO, Fr. A little bell ; a hand 

Clocks, musical. Clocks containing an ar- 
rangement similar to a barrel organ, moved 
by weights and springs, and producing vari- 
ous tunes. 

Clorone. A species of clarinet which is a fifth 
lower than the clarinet ; alto clarinet. 

Close. A cadence ; the end of a piece or pas- 

Close harmony. Barmony in which the 
notes or paris are kept as close together as 

C major. The diatonic scale or key of C with- 
out flats or sharps. 

C minor. The diatonic scale or key of C with 
minor third and sixth. 

C-moll (tsa-mdll), Oer. The key of C minor. 

C natural. C without flat or sharp, 

C. O. An abbreviation of Choir organ. 

Co rk6), ) 

Col (kd-€), n. [ With; with the. 

Col (kdl, i 

Coalottino (kd-a->ldt-te'nd), It. See Concertino. 

Cocchina (ko-ke'-nft), Jl. An Italian country 

Coda (kd'd&). It. The end ; a few measures 
added to the end of a piece of music to 
make a more effective termination. 

Coda brillante (ko'dft brll-l&n'te), It. A brU- 
liaut termination. 

CodetU (kd-d^f t&). It. A short coda or pas- 
sage added to a piece, or serving to connect 
one movement with another. 

Coffre (kofr), Fr. The frame of a lute, guitar, 

Cogli kdVye), J<. With the. 

Cogll atromenti (kdl'ye str5-men'td). It. pi. 
With the instruments. 

Cognoscente (kdn-yd-shfin'tC), H. One well 
versed in music ; a connoisseur. 

Col bassi (kO'e bas'se), It. With the basses. 

Col fagotti (ko-d fa-gdt-te), It. With the bas- 

Coi violini (kdr v6-d-lS'n€), It. With vhe vio- 

Colachon (kd-l&-8hdnh), Fr. An Italian in- 
strument, much like a lute, but with a 
longer neck. 

Col arco (kol ar^Lo), M. With the bow. See 

Coll' arco. . 
Colasclone (kd-l&s-shl-d^ne), It. An instru* 

meut like the guitar, with two strings only. 

Col basso (kol bfis-sd), B. With the bass. 

Col C. An abbreviation of Col canto. 

Col canto (kol k&n't6). It. With the melody, 
or voice. See CoUa voce. 

Coll (kol). ) 

Colla (kdha), It. J- With the. 

Colio (kdl'16), i 

Amrm,& add, kale, 6end,eeve,im, I iMe, 6 old, odd. oo moon. H but, ilFr. sound, kh Oer. ch. nhnasfu. 





ColUi dftstra (kdin&dfti'tr&), II, With the right 

Colla masslma dUcrezione (kdllft m&Bfa.'Ta& 
dl»-kre tol-d'ne), It, With the greatest dis- 

Colla MTte (kdin& p&i'te), M, With the part ; 
indicating that the time is to be accommo- 
dated to the solo singer or player. 

Colla piu gnui forza e prestezza (kdllft p^oo 
grftu fdrz& a pr«8-tei'zft), Jt, As loud and as 
quickly as possible. 

Colla punta d'arco (kdlOfl poon't& dftrOcO). n. 
With the point, or tip, or the bow. 

Colla sinistra (kdlOA sl-nls'trft), It, With the 
left hand. 

Colla voce (kdl'l& v<ytshe), IL With the voice, 
implying that the accompanist must accom- 
modate and take the time from the singer. 

Coirarco (kdl l&r'kd), It. With the bow ; the 
notes are to be played with the bow, and 
not pizzicato. 

College songs. Songs for the use of, and sung 
by, college students ; usually of a conviviai 
and spirited character. 

Col legno (kdl l&n'yd), H, With the bow-stick. 

Col legno deir arco (kdl Ian' yd d€l Iftr^kO), II. 
With the bow-stick ; strike the strings with 
the wouden side of the bow. 

Colla parti (kdlie p&r'tS), It, With the prin- 
cipal parts. 

Colle trombe (kdiae trdm'be), It. With the 

Coir otUya(kdlldt-t9rV&),i{. With the octave. 

Colofane (k6l-d-f&ne), Fr, 

Colofonia (ko-ld-fd'ni-il). It. 

Colophane (kdl-d-f&ne), Fr, 

Colophon (kO^-df6nh). Fr, 

Colophonium (kd-ld-fd'nI-oom),Ger. 

Colophony, Eng. 
Resin: used for the hair in the bow of a vi- 
olin, etc., to enable the performer to get a 
better hold upon the strings. 

Coloratura (kd-ld-rSrtoo'r&), It. 

Colorature (kd-ld-ra-Uxyre), It. 

Coloraturen (kd-ld-ra-too'ren), Oer.} passages, 
roulades, embellishments, etc., in vocal mu- 
sic. This word, the plural form of which, 
in Italian, is colorature, is, less properly, 
but very conveniently, used also in connec- 
tion with instrumental munic. 

Combination, or. Combinational tones. See 

BeaiUtant tones. 

Combination pedals. See Composition pedals. 

Come (k<ymS), H, As, like, the same as. 

Com^die (kdm-&-de), Fr, Comedy, play. 

Com^dl^n (kdm-&-dI-&nhO, Fr. \ A come- 
Comediante ^k6-m&-dl-&n'te), £^. f d 1 a n, an 

ComMienne (kAm-ftrdl-ftnhO, Fir, An actress. 

Comedy, lyric. A comedy s];>ecially adapted 
for singing. 

1 Orna- 

Come il rimo tempo (kd'mfi &. pr^md tSm'pO), 
It. lu the same time as the nrst. 

Come prima (kd'me pre'm&), It, As before, as 
at first. 

Comes (k<ymte). Lai. The comi>anion, or an- 
swer, to the dux (guide), or subject, of a 

Come sopra (kd'mS sd^prft). It, As above ; as 
before ; indicating the repetition of a previ- 
ous, or similar, passage. 

Come sta (kd'mS stft), B. As it stands ; per- 
form exactly as written. 

Come tempo del tema (kd'mg tSm'pd d^l tft'- 
ma), It. In the same time as the tneme. 

Comico (kd'ml-kd). It. \ Comic ; also a 
Comique(k6-mek'), J'r.j comic actor, and a 
writer of comedies. 

Comic opera. Burlesque opera ; an opera in- 
terspersed with light songs, dances and jests. 

Comic song.* A song set to comical, humor- 
ous words. 

Comiquement (kd-mek'm&nh),^. Comically, 

Cominciante(kd-mIn-tshI-iln't6), It. A begin- 
ner in music, etc. 

Cominclata (kd mln-tshi&'t&). It, The bes^n- 
niug, the commencement. 

Comma (kom'm&). It. This is the name of 
various small intervals not used in practical 
music, forming the difiTerenoe between two 
notes of nearly the same pitch. Two of these 
small intervals are : (1) The comma syrUo- 
num, or the comma of Did/mus, which is 
the difference between a major and a minor 
tone, equal to the ratio 80:81. (2) The comma 
ditonicum, or comma of Pythagoras, which Is 
the difference between the twelfth fifth 
(just intonation, not tempered) and the 
seventh octave above a given note. 

Commedia (kdm-m&'dl-a), It. A play, a com- 
edy; also a theater. 

Comme 11 taut (kdm el fd), Fr, As it should 

Commencant (kdm-m&nh-s&uh), Fr, A begin- 
ner in music, etc. 

Commencer (kdm-m&nh-sft), Fr, To begin, to 

Commodamente (kdm-md-dft-m6n't6),i<. With 
eabe and quietude. 

Commodo (kdm-md'dd), It. Quietly, compos- 

Common chord. A chord consisting of a baas 
note with its third and fifth, to which its 
octave is usually added. 

Common chord, imperfect. A chord consist- 
ing of a bass,acc;oinpanied by its minor third 
and imperfect fifth. 

Common hallelujah meter. A stanza, of six 
lines of iambic measure, the syllables of 
each being in number and order as follows* 
8, 6, 8, 6, 8, 8. 

Common measure. Four-pulse measure. 

^4Hii, A«dd, & oZe, 6 endt S eve, X iU, I isi6,d oldt 6 odd, oo moon, tibiU, iX Fr. sound, kh Qer, ch. nh nasai, 





Common meter. A verse, or stanza, of four 
lineH in iambic measure, the syllables of 
each being in number and order, thus, 8, 6, 
8, 6. 

Common particular meter. A stanza of six 
lines in iambic meastire, the number and 
order of syllables as follows : 8, 8, 6, 8, 8, 6. 

Common time. Common measure. 

Common turn. A turn consisting of the prin- 
cipal note, the note above it, and the note 
below it. 

Comodamente (k6-md-d&-men't6), Ty \Ck>n- 
Comodo (ko'mo-do^ ^ • j ven- 

ieutly, easily, quietly, with composure. 

Compass. The range of notes or sounds of 
which any voice or instrument is capable. 

CompiacevoIe(k6m-pl-a-tsha'v6-lS), „ ) 

Complacimento(k6m-pi-a-tshi-men'td), ^^' j 
Agreeable, pleasing, attractive. 

Compiacevolmente (kom - pM-^he-vdl-mSn'- 
t€). It. In a pleasant and agreeable style. 

Complalnte (kOm-plfinht'), Fr. A religious 

Complement. That quantity which is want- 
ing to any interval to fill up an octave. 

Complementary part. That part which is 
added to the subject and counter subject of 
a fugue. 

Complete cad«nce. A full cadence. 

Complin (kfim'plln), Lat. Evening service 
during Lent in the Catholic Church. 

Componiren (kom-po-ne'r'n), Qer. To com- 
pose music. 

Componista (k6m-p6-nes'ta). It. A composer, 
an author. 

Composer (k6nh-p6-zft), Fr. To compose mu- 

Composer. One who composes ; one who 
writes an original work. 

Compositeur (k6m-p6-sl-ttir0,i''r.') A com- 
Compositore (k6m-p6-si-t6'r6). It. J-poser of 
Componist (kom-po-ulstO, ^tr. J music. 

Compositeur de fusmes (kttm-ptts-I-tttr' dtih 
fug), Fr. A composer of fugues. 

Composition. Any musical production ; the 
art of inventing or composing music accord- 
ing to the rules of harmony. 

Composition, free. That which deviates 
somewhat from the rules of composition. 

Composition, erotic. That which has love for 
its subject. 

Composition, strict. A composition that ad- 
heres rigidly to the rules of art. 

Composition pedals. Pedals connected with 
a system ol mechanism for arranging the 
stops of an organ Invented by J. C. Bishop. 

Compositor, music. A person who sets mu- 
sic type. 

Compositura (kom-po-sl-too'ra), » ) A 
Composizione (k6m-p6-sl-tsi-6'n6), '''• j com- 
position, or musical work. 

Composizione dl tavollno (kom-pd-sl-tsl-d'nS 
de ta-v6-le'n6), It. Table music, music sung 
at table, as glees, catches, rounds. 

Composso (kom-pSs'so), « ) Composed, set 
Composto (kom-pos'to), ■**" j to music. 
Compound Intervals. Those which exceed 

the extent of an octave ; as a ninth, tenth. 


Compound stops. Where three or move or- 

gan-stops are arranged so that by pressing 
own one key they all sound at once. 

Compound measures. Those which include, 
or exceed, six parts in a measure, and eon- 
tain two, or more, principal accents, as. 6-4. 

6-8, 9-4, 0-8, 12-8, etc. • » - 

Con (kon). B. With. 

Con abbandono (kon ab-ban-dS'no), It. With 
passion, with ardent feeling. 

Con abbandono ed espressione (kon ab-ban- 
do'-no CI 6s>pra8-sl-6'ne), It. With passion- 
ate feeling and self-abandon. 

Con affetto (kon af-f6t't6), „ 1 In an 

Con affezlone (kon fif-ffit'tsi-o'ne), ^^' /affect- 
ing manner, with warmth 

Con affllzione (kon af-fle-tsl-o'nC), R. With af- 
fliction, mournfully. 

Con azilita (k6n a-jll-i ti')- It. With agility, 
neatly. '* 

Con asrltazione (kon a-jl-ta-tsl-6'n6), R. With 
agitation, hurriedly. 

Con alcuna llcenza (k6n ai-koo'nfi le-tsh6n- 
tsa), It. With a certain degree of license as 
regards time and expression. 

Con allegrezza (kon al-16-gr6t'tsfi). It. With 
lightness, cheerfully. 

Con alterezza (kon al-t6-r6t'tsa), R. With an 
elevated and sublime expression. 

Conamabilita (kon a-ma-blll-ta). It. With 
gentleness and grace. 

Con amarczza (kon a-ma rfit'tsa), It. With af- 
fliction, with a sense of grief. 

Con amore (kon a-mo're). R. With tenderness 
and affection. 

Con anima (kon &'ni-ma), „ \ Withanima* 
Con animo (kon a'ni-mo). ^'" J" tion and bold 

\Con animazione (k6n a-nl-ma-tsl^ne). It 
With animation, decision, boldness. 

Con audace (kon a-oo-da'tsa6\ It. With bold 
ness, audacity. 

Con bellezza (kon b61-16t'tsa),7^ With beat* t) 
of tone and expression. 

Con bizarrla (kon be-tsar'rl-ft). A Capricious 
ly, at the fancy of the player or composer. 

Con bravura (k6n brfi-voo'ra\ R. With brav- 
ery, with boldness. 

Con brio (k6n bre'6), It. With life, spirit, 

Con brio ed animate (kdn bre'5 Cd a-nl-ma'td) 
It. With brilliancy and animation. 

Con calma (kdn k&l'ma), R. With calmness 
and tranquillity. 

&«*m, ft odd, ft ate, 6 end, 6cwc,litt, iwte, 6oW, 6odd, oonioo»,ti6M/,(i jy.«ottnd,kh Gfr.c*, nhmuat 





Con calore (kon kS-ld^r^), Jt. With warmth, 
with fire. 

Con carlta(kdn ka-re'ta), It. With tendernesa. 

Con celerlta (kon tsha-l^rl-ta'), It. With cel- 
erity, wiin'rapidity. 

Concento (kdn-tsh€n'to), It. Concord, agree- 
ineut, harmony of voices and instruments. 

Concentrare (kdn-tsh6n-tra'r6), It. To concen- 
trate the sounds. It also means to veil the 
sounds in mystery. 

Concentus (kon-tsSn'toos), Lot. Harmonious 
blending of sounds; concord. 

Concert. A performance in public of practi- 
cal musicians, either vocal or instrumental, 
or both. (2) Harmony, unison. 

Concert, amateur. A concert of nonprofes- 
sional mu!)icians. 

Concertando (kdn-tshSr-tau'dd), It. A concer- 

Concertant (k6nh-p6r-tfinhO, Fr, Performer 
in a concert, a m^usiclan. 

Concertante (kon-toh^r-tHn'tS), It. A piece in 
which each part is alternately principal and 
subordinate, as in a duo concertante. (2) A 
concerto for two or more instruments, with 
accompaniments for a full band. (8) A fe- 
male concert singer. 

Concertato (kdn-tshCr-tS.'to), It. In an irregu- 
lar and extemporaneous manner. See, also, 

Concerted music. M u»ic in which several 
voices or instruments are heard at the same 
time ; i i opposition to solo music. 

Concertgeber (kdn-tsSrt'ga'ber),6'er. One who 
gives a concert. 

Concertina (k5n-tsh€r-te'na), iZ. A small mu- 
sical instrument, hexagonal in form, which, 
as regards construction, is somewhat simi- 
lar to the accordion (q. v.). The English 
treble concertina has a compass of about 
three and a half or four octaves (from g to 
g'''') with all the intermediate semitones, 
and is a double-action instrument— that is, 
on expanding and compressing the bellows 
the same note is produced. The tenor, bass, 
and double-bass concertina are, like the ac- 
cordion, single-action instruments, produc- 
ing difi'«rent notes on expanding and com- 
pressing the bellows. Charles Wheatstone 
patented the concertina in 1829. The Ger- 
man concertina is a less perfect instrument 
than the English concertina ; it is a single- 
action instrument, and its scale is not chro- 

Concertina, alto. A concertina having the 
compass of the viola. 

Concertina, bass. A concertina having the 
compass of the violoncello. 

Concertina, soprano. A concertina having 
the compass of the violin. 

Concertino (kdn-tshSr-te'no), It. A small con- 
certo. (2) Theopposlteofripicno— namely, 
principal, or concertante; for instance, vi- 
dino concertino^ principal violin, {hj The 

name concertino Is sometime applied to a 
first-violin part in whSch are entered the 
obligato passages of the other parts. ( V. Con- 
certo grosso.) 

Concertiren (k6n-ts6r-te'r*n). Oer. To accord, 
to agree in sound ; also a soli movement 
where each instrument or voice has in its 
turn the principal part. 

Concertmeister (kon-tsSrt' mis'tSr), Ger. The 
leader of the orchestra, the first of the first 

Concerto (k6n-tsh6r't6), It. (1) A concert. (2) 
A composition consisting generally of thre«^, 
rarely of four, movements, for one or more 
solo instruments, with orchestral accom- 
paniment. Its form is, on the whole, that 
of the sonata; its distinctive features are 
the tutti (the orchestral ritornelli) and cer- 
tain peculiarities arising from the inten- 
tion to display the solo instrument and the 
powers of the player. As one of these pe- 
culiarities may be mentioned the cadenzas 
Elayed by the performer of the solo part just 
efore the concluding tutti of the nrst and 
the last movement. ( V. Sonata &u6. Cadenza.) 
The customary tutti, which, for instance, in 
Mozart's concertos, appear in difi'usive full- 
ness, are in more modern times often cur- 
tailed or altogether omitted. This is espe- 
cially the case with the long introductory 
tutti, which generally presented both the 
first and thesecondsubject,afterwards taken 
up by the solo part or solo parts. Also the 
cadenzas have lost much of their former im- 
portance. In other words, the concerto, at 
one time a show-piece, has more and more 
become a tone-poem. Concertos without or- 
chestral accompauiment need hardly be 
mentioned; they are exceptional, and of 
very rare occurrence. 

In its earliest application the word '* con- 
certo" was synonymous with "concent," 
signifying not a definite form, but a compo- 
sition in parts, either purely vocal or vocal 
and instrnm'^ntal. Giuseppe Torelli. who 
died in 1708, is regarded as the inventor of 
the modern concerto. The development of 
the concerto runs parallel, one may say is 
identical, with that of the sonata. The 
earlier exemplifications of these forms difier 
indeed often only in name. With Mozart 
(1756-1791) the concerto reached, so to speak, 
maturity. (See the following articles) : 

Concerto, a soio. A concerto written for the 
purpose of displaying the powers of a par- 
ticular instrument, without accompani- 

Concerto da camera (kon-tshSr'td da ka'm€- 
ra^, It. Chamber concerto. Contra to Con- 
certo gro880. 

Concerto di cliiesa (kdn-tshSr'td de ke-§,'z&), 
It. A concerto for church use. 

Concerto doppio (kon-tshSr'td dop'pl-d), It. A 
concerto for two or more instruments. 

Concerto srrande (kon-tshCr'to grand), Fr. ) 
Concerto grosso (icdn-tsher'td gros-sd). It. f 

A grand orchestral composition for many 

instruments; a grand concert. 

A<irm,SLaddf&ale,&end,6eoe, iill,li8le,6old,6odd, oo moon, tl &u<, li Fr.90undi kh Qer,cht nhncuoL 
« (81) 




Concerto spirituale (kdn-tshSr'td sp€-rS-too- 
ft'lS), It. A miscellaneous concert, consist- 
ing chiefly of sacred or classical music. 

Concert, operatic. A performance of music 
selected from operas. 

Concertsaal (kdn-ts€rt's&l),G'<T. Concert-hall. 

Concertspieler (kdn-t8ert^si>e-lSr), Ger. A solo 
player, concerto player. 

Concert spirituel (kdn-tsSrt'sp^re-too-ftl')* ■^. 
See Concerto spiritiuUe, 

Concert5tiick (kdn-ts€rt'st(ik),(?er. A concert- 
piece; a concerto. 

Concert pitch . The pitch adopted by gen eral 
consent for some one given note, and by 
which every other note Is governed. The 
so-called French normal diapason is now 
generally adopted, computed from A— 435 
vibrations per second. This is nearly a half 
step lower than the concert pitch in use by 
American piano-makers previous to about 

Concitato (kou-tshl-t&'td), II. Agitated, per- 

Conclusione (kdn-kloo-zX-d^nS), II. The con- 
clusion, or winding up. 

Con comodo (kdn kO'mo-dd), It. With ease, in 
convenient time. 

Concord. A harmonious combination of 
sounds ; the opposite to a discord. 

Concordant. Agreeing, correspondent, har- 
monious. Concord depends upon the fre- 
quency of coincidences between vibrations 
of the different tones composing the cr)n- 
cord. Hence the most agreeable concord is 
that of the octave, of which the ratio is 1:2, 
a coincidence occurring with every vibra- 
tion of tbe lower tone. The next is that of 
the fifth, in which the ratio is 2:3. a coinci- 
dence occurring with every second vibra- 
tion of the lower tone. And so the concords 
shade off through the interv&ls of the har- 
monic series, which follow the ratios 1:2:3:4: 
5:6:7:8:9:10, etc. 

Concordanza (kdn-kor-dftn'tsa), Ji.*) n^-^-,.^ 
Concorde (k6n-k6rd), Fr. Uamonv 

Concordia (kdn-kSr'dl-a), It. j harmony- 

Con dellcatezza (kdn deM-k&-tgt'8&), It. With 
delicacy and sweetness. 

Con deslderlo (kon da-zi-d&'ri-o), It. With de- 
sire and ardent longing. 

Con devozlone (kon da-vo-tsl-o'nS), It. With 
devotion, devoutly. 

Con dllieenza (kon dl-\\-i&u'tBSi.),It. With care 
and diligence. 

Con dldcrezlone (kdn dIs-kra-tsi-d'nS), It. 
With discretion ; at the discretion of the 

Con disperazlone (kon dls-pd-ra-tsI-d^nS), It. 
With despair, violence of expression. 

Con divozione (kon d^vd-tsi-(}'ng), It. With 
religious feeling ; in a devotional manner. 


Con dolce maniera (k6n ddl'tih^ mil-nl- 

Con dolcezza (kdn ddl-ts6f tsft). 
In a simple, delicate manner ; with softness, 
sweetness, delicacy. 

Con dolore (kon do-ld'rS), It. Mournfully, 
with grief and pathos. 

Conductor. The master, or chief, of an or- 
chestra, who directs the time and perform- 
ance of every piece with his baton. 

Conductuj (kdn-dook'toos), LcU. A very old 
species of descant, which, instead of being 
founded upon some popular melody, was 
entirely original, botn descant and har- 
mony, and entirely independent of every- 
thing but the imagination of the composer. 

Con duolo (kdn doo-d'ld), It. Mournfully, 
with gfief. 

Conduttore (kdn-doot-td're), H. A conductor. 

Con elesranza (kdn &-l&-gan'ts&). It. With ele- 

Con elevatezza (kdn a-ie-v&-tgt-t8&), » ) 

Con elevazione (kdn &-ie-v& tsI-d'nS), ^^' J 

With elevation of style ; with dignity. 

Con energla (kdn a-nfir-je'&}, „ \ With en- 
Con energico (kdn fr-ner'jl-kd), ^^* j ergy and 

Con entuslasmo (kdn en-too-zI-fts'md),i{. With 

Con equalianza (kdn &-kw&-U-ftn'ts&), It. With 
smoothness and equality. 

Con e senza stromentl (kdn & sfin-tsft strd- 
mSn'tS) , Jt. With and without instruments. 

Con esp. ) An abbreviation of Con espres- 
Con espres. j sione. 

Con espressione (kdn Es-pr^sX-d^nfi), It. With 

Con facllita (kdn f^-tshe-li-taO, It. With facil- 
ity and ease. 

Con espressione dolorosa (kdn fts-pr^-si-d'nfi 
dd-ld-rd'is&), It. With a sad expression. 

Con estro poetico (kdn as'trd pd-a'tl-kd), Jt. 
With poetic fervor. 

Con fermezza (kdn far-mfit'tsa). It. With finii. 

Con festivita (kdn fes-te'vl-tft). It. With fes- 
tive gayety. 

Con fiducia (kdn f^doo^tshl-a), It. With hope, 
with conddence. 

Con fierezza (kdn fe-^ret't8&). It. With fire, 

Con flessibillta (kdn flSs-sI-be'lI-t&), It. Witl; 
freedom, flexible. 

Con forza (kdn fdr'tsft), It. WiUi force ; with 

Con freddezza (kdn frM-det't8fi),i2. With eold> 
ness and apathy. 

Confr^rle de St. Jullen (kdn-fr&'r« dtlh s&nlt 
jii-ll-anh'), Fr. An ancient French associa^ 
tion, or club, of ballad-singers and itinerant 

ftiMtii, ft add, ft a2e, 6 end, e eve, I ill, I isle, d old, 6 odd, oo moon, 11 but, H Fr, mvnd, kh Oer, ch, nh natak 




Con fretta (kdn frgt'tfl), It. Hurriedly, with 
an increase of time. 

Con fuoco (kdn foo-d'kd), It. With fire and 

Con furia (kon foo'rI-&), r* ) With fury, 
Con furore (kon foo-rO'r6), * ) ra^re, vehe- 

Con earbo (k5n g&r'bd), H, With simplicity 
and elegance. 

Con sentllezza (kdn jSn-tit-iet'tsa), It. With 
grace and elegance. 

Con giustezza (kdn joos-teftsft), R. With 
justness and precision. 

Con giustezza dell' Intonazlone (kdn joos- 
tet'tsa del Ign-to-na-tsl-Cne), It. With just 
and correct intonation. 

Con gli (kdn gle). It. pi. With the. 

Con gll stromentl (kdn gld strd-mfin'te), JR. 
With the instruments. 

Con gradaztone (kdn gra-ddrtsI-d'nS), It. With 
gradual increase and decrease. 

Con grande eapresalone (kdn grfin'd€ fis-prSs- 
sI-ouS). It, With much expression. 

Con grandezza (kdn grfin-d^t'tsfi), It. With 
dignity and grandeur. 

Con gravita (kdn gTSrVi-til'), It. With gravity. 

Co*, grazia (kdn gra'td-a), It. With grace and 

Con gusto (kdn goos'td), II. With taste. 

Con impeto (kdn em'p€-td), ^. > 

Con impetuosita (kdn em-pfi-too-d-sX-ta'), * j 
With impetuosity and venemence. 

Con Impeto doloroso (kdn em'pS-td dd-ld-rd'- 
zd), It. With pathetic force and energy. 

Con indlfferenza (kdn In-dYf-fe-ren'tsa), It. In 
an easy and indifferent manner. 

Con innocenza (kdn in-nd-tshgn'ts&), It. In a 
simple, artless style. 

Con intimlsslmo sentimento (kdn In-tX-mW- 
sl-md s€n-tJ-m6n'ld), It. With very much 
feeling ; with great expression. 

Con intrepldezza (kdn In-trg-pI-det'tsU), It. 
With intrepidity, boldly. 

Con ira (kdn e'nl), It. With anger. 

Con isdegno (kdn ^-dftn'yd), It. With anger, 

Con ismanla (kdn es-m£'nl-a), It. In a fren- 
zied style. 

Con Istrepito (kdn es-tra'pl-td). It. With noise 
and bluster. 

Conjoint degrees . Two notes which 1 mmed i- 
ately follow each other in the order of the 

Conjunct (kdn*yoonkf), Lat. A term applied 
by the ancient Greeks to tetrachords, or 
fourths, when the highest note of the lower 
tetrachord was also the lowest note of the 
tetrachord next above it. 

Conjunct succession. Where a succession of 
tones proceed regularly upward or down- 
ward tnrough successive scale degrees. 

Conleggerezza(kdnlM-j^r6t'ts&), „ ) 
Conleggierezza(kdnied-jl-e-ret'isk). ^^' J 
With lightness and delicacy. 

Con lenezza (kdn le-nfif tsa), JR. With mild- 
ness, Bwebtness. 

Con lentezza (kdn lto-tdt'ts&). It. With slow- 
ness, lingering. 

Con maesta (kdn mS^ ^-taO , It. With majesty 
and grandeur. 

Con maianconia (kdn m£L-l&n-kd-ne'&), ) 
Con malenconia (kdn ma-13n-kd-ne'a), It. > 
Con malinconia (kdn ma-lin-kd-ne'a), > 
With an expression of melancholy and sad- 
Con mano destra (kdn ma'nd dSs'trfi). » > 
Con mano dritta (kdn ma'nd dret't^), ^^' j 
With the right hand. 

Con mano sinistra (kdn ma'nd sS-nls'trft), It. 
With the left hand. 

Con misterio (kdn miz-t&'ri-d). It. With mys- 
tery, with an air of mystery. 

Con moderazlone (kdn md-de-ra-tsI-d'nS/, It, 
With a moderate degree of quickness. 

Con molto espresslone (kdn mdl'td ^-pr€s-sl- 
d'n€), It. With much expression. 

Con molto carattere (kdn mdl'td kfirr&t't€-re). 
It. With much character and emphasis. 

Con molto passione (kdn mdVtd pas-si-d^nfi). 
It. With much passion and feeling. 

Con molto scntimento (kdn mdl'td sSn-li- 
mfin'td). It. With much feeling or senti- 

Con morbidezza (kdn mdr-bI-dSt'ts&), Ji(. With 
excetis of feeling or delicacy. 

Con moto (kdn md'td). It. With motion ; not 

Connecting note. A note held in common by 
two successive chords. 

Con negligenza (kdn n&l-yl-jto'ts&), II. In a 
negligent manner, without restraint. 

Con noblllU (kdn nd-bd-U-t&O, It. With no- 

Connaisseur (kdn-n&-sflr), «. ) One skilled 
Connoisseur (Kdn-wasdr), *) in music; a 
good judge and critic of musical composi- 
tion and performance. 

Con ottava (kdn dt-t&'vft), „ \ With the oc- 
ConSva. '''Jtave; to be 

played in octaves. 

Con passione (kdn pfis-sl-d'n^), It. In an im- 
passioned manner, with great emotion. 

Con piacevolezza (kdn pe-ft-tsh^vd-l^t'tsS.), M, 
With pleasing and graceful expression. 

Con piu moto (kdn pe'oo md'td), It. With in- 
creased motion. 

Con preclpitazione (kdn pre-tshl-pl-t^-tsl-d'- 
ji€), It. With precipitation; in a hurried 

Con preclslone (kdn pr^tshi-zl-d'nfi), M. With 
exactness and precision. 

Conprestezza (kdn prSs-tSt'tsa), H. With pre- 
cision and exactness. 

(kwrm, BkOddt hale, li end, % eve, liU,li»le,6old,6odd»oomoon,ilbut,iXFr,iound, kh Oer. ch, nh nasal. 





Con rabbla (kon T&l/bI-&), It, With ra«;e, with 

Con rapldita (k5n ra-pe-drta'), R, With rapid- 

Con replica (kdu ra'pll-k&), R, With repeti- 

Con riaoluzlone (kdn re-zd-loo-tsI-<yn6), It. 
Witu firmuess and resolution. 

Con scioltezza (kdl she-61-t£t't8a)« B, Freely, 

Con sdesrno (kon sdan'yC), It. With wrath ; 
in an angry and scornful manner. 

Conjecutive. A term chiefly applied to pro- 
greb&ioiis of perfect fifths and octaves, which 
are permissible only under certain condi- 
tions or for special purposes. Thev are most 
pbiectionable when the parts which thus 
offend are extreme parts. Cousecutiye uni- 
souB are likewise prohibited. But the pro- 
hibition of consecutive octaves and unisons 
applies only to individual parts, not to the 
doubling, reinforcing, of one part by an- 
other. Hidden consecutives are discus$ied 
in the article Hidden Fifttis and Hidden Oc- 

Consecutive fifths. Two or more pe -^ect fifths, 
immediately following one another in simi- 
lar motion. Consecutive fifths are disagree- 
able to the ear, and forbidden by the laws of 

Consecutive octaves. Two parts moving in 
unison or octaves with each other. 

Con semplicita (kon t9«m-ple-tshi-t&0> R- With 

Con sensibilita (k5n s^n-sl-be-U-taO, R. With 
sensibility and feeling. 

Con sentimento (kon sen-tl-mfin'td). It. With 
feeling and sentiment. 

Consequent (kon-se-kw^nt), Lot. \ An old 
Consequente (kon H6-kw6n'tS), It. ) term, 

meauing the answer in a fugue, or of a point 

of imitation. 

Conservatoire (kon-sfir-va-twar'), Fr. 

Conservatoria (kdn-86r-v&-t6'rl-a). It. 

Conservatorio (kou-ser-va-to'ri o)). It. 

Conservatorium (kon-sfir-fa-to'rl-oom) Qer. 

A school or academy of music in which ev- 
ery branch of mnnical art is taught and an 
art-standard maintained. 

Con severita (kon se-va'rl-t&), R. With strict 
and severe Myle. 

Consolante (kon so-lSn'tS), It. In a cheering 
and cousoliug manner. 

Consolatamente (kdn-sd-l&-tll-m€n't6), R. Qui- 
etly, cheerfully. 

Con solennita (kon s5-len-nl-t&0, R- With 

Con somma espressione (kdn som'ma €s-pr&3- 
si-6'ne), It. With very great expression. 

Consonance. An accord of sounds agreeable 
and satiR^ctory to the ear ; the opposite to 
a discord or dissonance. See Concord. 

Consonant. Accordant, harmonious. 


A consa 
nance, 9„ 

To harmo 
With a so 

Consonantamente (kdn-s6-nSn-t&-men'te), li. 

Consonantia (kdn-8d-niln't8l-&), Lot. Accord, 
agreement of voices. 

Consonant sixths. The major and minor 

Consonant thirds. The major and minor 

Consonanz (kon-sd-nftnts'), Oer. 
Consonanza (kon-sO-nan'tsa), It. 

Consoniren (kdn B5-ne'r*n), Oer. 
uize; to agree in sound. 

Con sonorita (kon sd-n5-rl-t&0> R- 
norous, vibrating kind of tone. 

Con sordini (kdn sdr-de'nl), R. pi. With th\, 
mutes. This indicates: (1) in pianoforu^ 
playing that the soft pedal nas to be used 
(2) in violin, viola, etc., playing, thai h 
mute has to be placed on the bridge ; (3) in 
horn, trumpet, etc., playing, that a mute 
has to be inserted into the bell. Sordini if 
the plural of Sordino. ( V, Sordino. ) 

Con spirito (kon sp^rl-td). It. With spirit, life^ 

Con strepito (k5n strfi'pl-td), R. In a boister- 
ous manner, with impetuosity. 

Con stromenti (kon strG-m^n'tl), R. pi. \ 
Con strumenti (kon stroo-m€n'tI), It. pi. j 

With the instruments ; meaning that the or* 

chcstra and voices are together. 

Con suavezza (kon BOo-a-vet'ts&), » \With 
Con 8uavita(k6ii soo-fi'vX-t&), ^^' | sweet- 
ue&s and delicacy. 

Cont. An abbreviation of Ck>ntano. 

Contadina (kdn-ta-de'ii&).72. A country dance. 

Contadlnesco (kdn-ta-dl-n^sOLd), It. Rustic, 
in u lural style. 

Contano (kdn-ta'nd). It. To count, or rest ; a 
term applied to certain parts not played for 
the time being, while the other parts move 

Con tenerezza (kdn te-nd-ret'tsa). It. With ten- 

Con timedezza (kdn te-m&-d6t'tsfi), R. With 

Con tinto (kdn ten'td). It. With various shades 
of expression. 

Continuato (kdn-te-noo-fi'td), It. Continued, 
held on, sustained. 

Continued bass. See Basso continuo. 

Continued harmony. A harmony that does 
not change, though the bass varies. 

Continued rest. A rest continuing through 

al suc- 


12 8 

2 3 3 8 3 3 

42 8 5 28 


ures, the number of measures being indi- 
cated by a figure over a whole rest. 

Continuo (kdn-te'noo-d), R, Without 

9karm,&add, a ale, ^end, e eve,liU,HsU, d old, 6 odd, oomoon, H but,iiFr. sotind, kh (3er. eh, nhnoMit 





Continuous horizontal line. A line indicat- 
ing tliat the pabsages are to be played as uni- 


Contra (kdn'tr&), R, Low, under. 

Contrabassiat. A double-bass player. 

ContralMSS (kdn'tr^-bas), It. ) The 

Contrablwsso (kdn'trftb-bas-sd), It. > double 
Contrabass viol. ) bass. 

Contraddanza (kdn-tr&d-d&n't8&)» IL A coun- 
try dauce. 

Contra-fasrotto (k6n'trft-fag-gdt'td), 72. The 
double bassoon ; also the name of au organ- 
stop of 16- or 32-feet scale. 

Contr* alti (kdn-tral'te). The higher male 
voices, usually called counter tones. 

Contralto (kOn-tral'td) H. The deepest species 
of female voice. 

Contranquillezza(k^ntr&n-kwn'le^tsa), „ \ 
Con tranqulllita (kon tran-kwU-lXt-t&O '''* J 
With tranquillity ; with calmness. 

Contraposaune ( kdu'tra-pd-zou'nS) , Oer, Dou- 
ble trombone ; a 16- or 32-reed stop in an 

Contrappuntlsta (kdn-trap-poon-tez'tg), It. 
% One skilled in counterpoint. 

Contrappunto (kon-trap-poon'td), It. Coun- 

Contrappunto alia decima (kon-tnlp-poon'to 
al'la da'ishl-ma), It. A species of double 
counterpoint, where the principal counter- 
point may rise a tenth above, or fall as much 
below, the subject. 

Contrappunto alia mente (kdn-tr&p-poon'to 
&l'la men'tfi), It. See Chant sur le livre. 

Contrappunto doppio (kon-trap-poou'to ddp'- 
pl-6), It. Double counterpoint. 

Contrappunto doppio alia duo decina (kon- 
tr&p-poou'to ddp'pi-o al'la dood d§.'tshi m&), 
It. Double couuterpoint in the twelfth. 

Contrappunto sciolto (kon-trap-poon'to she- 
ol'to). It. A free counterpoint. 

Contrappunto sopra 11 sog^tto (kdn-trap- 
poon'to s6'pra el s6d-j6t to). It. Counter- 
point above the subject. 

Contrappunto sotto 11 soggetto (k5n-trfip- 
poon'to sot'to el sdd'jdt-to), It. Counterpoint 
oelow the subject. 

Contrappunto syncopato (kon-tr&p-poon'to 
sdu-ko-pa'td), Jt. The syncopation of one 
part for the purpose of producing discord. 

Contrapunkt (kdn'trft-poonkf), Ger. Counter- 

Contrapunctum floridum (kdn-tra-poonk'- 
toom fld'ri-doom), Lat. Ornamental couu- 

Contrapunctum In decima gravl (kon-tra- 

poonk'toom In da'tsi-ma gra've), Lat. A 
term given to double counterpoint when 
the parts move in tenths or thirds below 
the subject. 

Contrapuntal. Relating to counterpoint. 
Contrapuntist. ) 

Contrappuntlsta (kdn-trftp-poon-tez'ta}, II. / 
One skilled in counterpoint. 


Contrapunttts simplex (kdn-trft-poon'toos 
sim'piex), Lat. Simple counterpoint. 

Contr' arco (kdn-trftr'kd), It. Bowing an in- 
strument in a manner contrary to rule. 

Contrario (k6n-tril'ri-6), It. Contrary. 

Contrary bow. A reversed stroke ot the bow. 

Contrary motion. Motion in an opposite di- 
rection to some other part ; one rising as the 
other falls. 

Contrassoggetto (kdn-tr&s-sdd-jSt'to), It. The 
counter subject of a fugue. 

Con trasporto (kdn tras-p5r't6), It. With an- 
ger, excitement, passion. 

Centra tempo (kdn-tnl tSm'p5), It. • Against 
the time ; syncopation, one part moving in 
a slower progression than the other parts. 

Contra tenor. See Counter tenor. 

ContratOne (kdn'tra-to-nS), Ger. A term ap- 
plied to the deeper tones cf the bass voice. 

Contra violone (kdn-tr§ ve-d-lo^nS), It. \ 
Centre-basse (kdntr-bfiss), Fr. j 

double basd. 

Contredance (kdntr-d&nhs), Fr. A country 
dauce, a dance in which the parties engaged 
stand lu two opposite ranks. 

Centre partle (kOutr par-te), Fr, The second 

Contrepoint (kdntr-pw&nh), Fr. Counter- 

Contre-sujet (k6ntr-sii-zha). Fr. The counter 
subject, or second subject in a fugue. 

Contre-temps (kdntr-tanh), Fr. Syncopation, 
driving notes, notes tied and accented con- 
trary to the natural rhythmic flow of the 

Contretenour (k6ntr-t^noorO, Fr, Counter 

Con trUtezza (kdn trez-tet'ts&), It, With sad- 
ness, with heaviness. 

Centre (kon- tro) , It. Counter, low. 

Con tutta forza (kon toot-t& for'ts^), j. \ 

Con tutta la forza (kon toot-ta m for'tsa), ^^' j 

With all p tssible force, with the whole 

power, as loud as possible. 

Con variazone (koa va-rl-il-tsl-d'n$), R. With 

Con veemenza (kdn va-&-m6n'tsfi), R, With 
vehemence, force. 

Con velociU (kon v6-16-tshl-ta'). It, With ve- 

Conversio (kon-vSr'sX-d), Lai. Inversion in 

Con vigore (k6n ve-gS're), It. With vigor, 
sprightliness, strength. 

Con yiolenza*(k6n ve-6-16n'tsa). It, With vl- 

Convlvaclta(k6nve-va-tshl-ta'), „ IWith 
Con vivezza (k6n ve-v6t'tsa), ^^' j liveli- 
ness, vivacity, animation. 

Con voce rauca (kdn vd'tshS rS,'oo-k&), R, 
With a hoarse or rough voice. 

%(Mtn» & odci, & oJe, S«nd, e etw, X i2l I isle, d o£d, 6 odd, oo moon, ti &u<, tl .FV. soum^ kh &er. c^ 





Con volublllta (kdn vd loo-bfi-ll-ta'). It With 
volubility, with fluency and freedom of 

Con zelo (kdn tsft'ld), R. With zeal. 

Con 8va. An abbreviation of Con ottava. 

Con 8ya ad libitum. With octaves at pleas- 

Coperto (kd-pSr'ta), It. Covered, muffled. 

CoDpeiaOte (kdp'p'l-fld-t6), Ger. Coupling- 
nute ; an organ-stop of the clarabella or 
stopped diapason species, intended to be 
used in combination with some other stop. 

Copula (ko'poo-la), It. \ A coupler. An ar- 
Copule (ktt-piilO, Fr. j rangement by which 
two rows of keys can be connected together, 
or the keys connected with the pedals. 

Copyright. The exclusive right of an author 
or his representative to print, publish, or 
sell his work during a specified term of 

Cor. An abbreviation of Comet. 

Cor (k5r), Fr. A horn, commonly called the 
French horn. 

Coraie (kd-r&'ie), II. Choral ; the plain chant. 

Cor anglalA (kdr finh-gl&s), Fr. "English 
horu." This instrument is a large-sized 
oboe, with a compass from e to aJ'. But 
as the cor anglais is a transposing instru- 
ment, and sounds a perfect flith lower than 
the notes written for it, these latter extend 
from b to e"'. 

Corante (ko-r&n't6), n \ A slow dance in 
Coranto (kfi-rAu'td), ^^' J 3-2 or 8-4 time. 

Corda (kor'da). It. A string ; una eorda, one 
string. Used to denote the soft pedal on 
the piano, as against trecorde, three strings, 
or the full power of the instrument. 

Cordatura (kdr-dH-too'rft), It. The scale or 
series of notes by which the strings of any 
instrument are tuned. 

Cordo (kOrd), Fr. A string. 

Corde k boyau (kdrd & bw&-y5), Fr. Catgut ; 
strings for the violin, harp, etc. 

Corde 4 Jour (kOrd & choor), «. ) An open 
Corde k vide (kOrd & ved), -^* j string on 
the violin, viola, etc. 

Cor de chasse (kdr dtlh shftss), Fr, The hunt- 
ing horn ; the French horn. 

Corde de luth (kOrd dtlh loot), Fr, A lute- 

Corde fansse (kOrd f^Bs), Fr, A false or dis- 
sonant string. 

Cor de postilion (kdr dtih pds-tSl-ydnh), Fr, 
Postillion's horn. 

Cordes de Naples (kdrd dtlh Nft-pl), Fr. The 
strings imported from Naples for the vio- 
lin, harp, etc. 

Cor de signal (kOr dtlh sSn-y&l), Fr. A bugle. 

Cor de vaches (kOr dti v&-sh&), Fr, The cow- 
boy's horn. 

Cordo vuide (kdrd vwSd), Fr, An open string 
ou the violin, viola, etc. 

Cordiera (kOr-dl-ft'ril), H, The tailpiece of a 
Violin, viola, etc. 

Cordon de sonnette (kdr-ddnh dtlh sdn-n&t), 
Fr. A belirope. 

Coreografia (kd-re-d-gr£l-fe'fi). It. The method 
of describing the figures of a dance. 

Coriambuj (k6-ri-£m'boos). Or. In ancient 
poetry, a foot consisting of four syllables, 
the first and last long and the others short. 

Corifeo (kd-rI-fft'0),Jit. The leader of the dances 
in a ballet. 

Corista (ko-res'tfi), JH. A chorister. 

Cormorne. A soft-toned horn ; also a reed^ 
stop in English organs. See OreiMma. 

Corn (kdrn), Wd. A horn. 

Cornamusa (kdr-n&-moo'z&), It, A species oi 

Cornamute. A wind instrument, a species of 

Comare (kdr-n&'r€), It. To sound a hom or 

Come (kOm), Fr. A horn. 

Come de chasse (kOm dtlh shfiss), F\ , Sea 
Cor de choMse. 

Comemuae (kOr-ntlh-miiz), Fr. Bagpfpes. 

Cornet. (1) An obsolete wind instrument, 
generally made of wood, of which there 
were several kinds, of different sizes. ( V. 
Cometto.) (2) The name of several organ- 
stops, generally mixtures of 3 to 5 ranks. (3) 
A brass instrument of the trumpet family. 
{V. Comet d pistons.) 

Cometa. \ A name sometimes applied to a 
Cornetto. j reed-stop in an orifau of 16-feet 

Comet k bouquin (kOr-n^t il l^oo'k&nh), Fr. 

Cornet ; bugle horu. 

Cornet k pistons (kdr-nCt & pi3-t6nh), Fr. A 
brass instrument of the trumpet family with 
valves {q. v.), by means of which a chromatic 
scale can be produced. It is usually in the 
key of B[^, and has one or more crooks (A, 
A[>, G), and, therefore, the /lotes written for 
it (from fjf to c'") sound a tone, minor third, 
major third, or perfect fourth lower. The 
soprano cornet is in the key of E[>. Comets 
in other keys are also to be met with, but 
are less common than those above men- 

Cornet dreifach (kdr-nfit' orl'f&kh), Ger. Cor- 
net with three ranks, lu German organs. 

Coraett (k6r-n6tO, Oer. \ . p^-n^* 
Cornctta (kor-net'td), ii |-^co™eiJ- 

Cometica (kdr-n&'tl-k&), 8p. \ A small cor- 
Cornettino (kdr-net-t6'n5). It. j net. 

Cometto (kor-nfit'td), li. A comet. 

CornI (kOr'ne), It. pi. The horns. 

Cornist. \ A performer on the comet or 
Corneter. j horn. 

Corniste (kOr-uSstO, Fr. A player upon the 

ComO (kdi'nd), It. A hom. 






CDnkrfa4Coar6i-^£l'tA),JL A horn of a high 
pitch inet iitvx. 

Como hssw 'kdf' id b&s'aO), M, A iMun horn, 
a hora ol a low (>itch. 

Como cromatico kdr'ud kr6-ma-a-kd),ii(. The 
chromatui horu. 

Como di lMS5er)o (kdr'nd dd bfis-sef td), H, 
The basset ho«n. A species of clarinet a 
fifth lower thMi the G clarinet. (2) a deli- 
cate-toned reed-organ stop of 8-feet scale. 

Como dl caccia ' kdr'nd dS kaf tshl-ft), 22. The 
hunting, or Ft.<ench horn. 

Como dolce (kdt'nd dortshfi), 11. Soft horn ; 
an organ-fitoi) occurring both in the -man- 
ualB and peaiila. 

Como In B bas«o, H. A low B horn. 

Como Ingleae r Kdr'nd ^n-gl&'ze), It. The Eng- 
lish horn, an alto oboe. 

Cornopean. An organ-reed stop of 8-feet pitch 
and broad scale; also a wind instrument of 
the trumpet jpecies. See Comet d patom, 

Corno prlmo ^kdr'nd pre'md), IL The first 

Comoquartc (kdr'nd kw&r'tO), iZ. The fourth 

Como qulnta ;kdr'n5 kwIn'tS), B, The fifth 

Como secondo (kdr'nd 86-k6n'd6), R. The sec- 
ond horn. 

Como sordo kdr'nd sdr'dd), iZ. A horn with 

Como ventll« (kdr'nd ySn-t^ae), It. \ 

Cor omnitomqae (k6r.6nh-nl-td-nek), Fr. | 
Chromatic bora, with valves or keys for pro- 
ducing th€ semitones. 

Coro (kd'rd), It. \ A. choir, a chorus, a piece 
Coro (ko'rd), Sp. /for many voices. 

Corona (k6-r(yn&), „ \ A pause or 

Coronata (kd-r6-n&'t&), '''- j hold (/tn). 

Coro prlmo ^k6-r6 pr^m5) ,It. The first chorus. 

Corps (kor), Fr. The bodv of a musical in- 
strumt:ut. (2) A band of musicians. 

Corps de ballet (kdr dtlh bftM&), Fr. A gen- 
eral name fur the performers in a ballet. 

Corps de voix (k5r dtUi vwft), Fr, Body or 
fullness of tone. 

Cdrrente (kdr-rfin'tS), R. An old dance tune 
in slo JT triple time. See CorarUo. 

Corripititeur (k6r-r»-pa-tl-ttir'), Fr.\A mu- 
Corrlpetltore (kdr-rl-pe-a-td're). it. | sician 

who instructs the chorus singers of the 


Cdrvphseus (kd-rl-f&'oos), Or. The conductor 

of tne chorus. See Corif^' 
Coryphte (kd-rl-fft), Fr. The leader or chief 

of the group of dancers in a ballet. 

Cftsaque (kt^-sftk), Fr. The Cossack dance. 

Cotll. An abbreviation of Cotillon. 

Cotillon (k6-t€l-y6nh), Fr. Lit, " petticoat.** 
" A social game in form of a dance." The 

cotillon has no charaoteriatie music. A 
waits, Raiop, or any other dance tune is 
us^ for the purpose. 

Cooac (kwi&k), Fr. The *' quack " of the clar- 
inet, oboe, aud bassoon, caused by a bad 
reed or reeds, deranged keys, wearied lips, 
etc.. which in Bngush is also called the 
•* goose." 

CooM (koo-lftO* Fr. (1) Slurred, legato. (2) 
A grace consiating ol two or three ascending 
or descending notes, forming, as it were, a 
double or triple appoggiatura. 

Counter. A name given to an under part, ai» 
counter tenor. 

Counter bass. A second bass. 

Counter dance. See CojUredarue. 

Counterpart. The^rt to be applied to an- 
other, as, the baas is the counterpart of the 

Counterpoint. Point against point. (1) The 
art of adding one or more parts to a given 
part. (2) A part or parts added to a given 

The contrapuntal style is distinguished 
from the harmonic in this, that wbilst tha 
latter consists of a melody accompanied by 
cbords, the former is a simultaneous com- 
bination of several melodies, or melodic 
Sikrts. The supreme contrapuntal forms are 
anon and Fugue. 

In teaching counterpoint, theorists assume 
generally five species : (a) Note against note 
—a semibreve against a semibreve ; (6) two 
notes against one— two minims against a 
semibreve; (e) four notes against one— four 
crotchets against a semibreve; (d) synco- 
pated counterpoint— the second minim of 
one bar tied to tbe first of the following bar 
against a semibreve entering on the first part 
of each bar; (e) florid counterpoint— a mix- 
ture of the thi% preceding species. 

Further, counterpoint is divisible into 
simple and double counterpoint. The lat- 
ter diflfers from the forpier in this, that its 
parts are invertible, i. e., may be transposed 
an octave, or ninth, tenth, twelfth, etc., 
above or below one another. Counterpoint 
is called triple when three, and quadruple 
when four parts are mutually invertible. 

Counterpoint, double. A counterpoint that 
admits of an inversion cf the parts. 

Counterpoint, equal. Wl lere the notes are of 
equal duration. 

Counter subject. (1) The second theme in 
double fugues and fugues with two subjects 
in distinction from the principal subject. 
(2) The subject accompanying the answer 
(the resumption bv one part of the subject 
proposed by another) of a fugue. But the 
accompaniment of the answer gets this name 
only when it is retained throughout the 
fugue. (3) A melody forming a counter- 
point against a cautus firm us. 

Counter tenor. Male alto voice. ( V. Alto.) 

Countertenor. High tenor; the highest male 
voice. It is generally a falsetto. 

ftarm, &add, ft aUt ^end, 4 mfe,liU,lisle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, abut, tt Fr. tound, kh Ger. ch. nhnatoL 





Cftanter tenor clef. The C clef, when placed 
on the third Uue. 

Counter theipe. See Cotinter subject. 

Country dance. ^' hether " country " means 
here simply " rustic," or has to be regarded 
as a corruption of " contra," is still a matter 
of c mtroversy. But whatever the right Iq- 
terpretation may be, a country dance is a 
contra dance. One writer dffincs it as*' a 
dance in which partners are arranged oppo- 
site to each other." Another writer, after 
remarking that at the commencement the 
gentlemen are arranged on one side and 
the ladies on the other, proceeds thus in 
bis description of the dance: "In Its fig- 
ures the dancers are con&tantly changing 
places, leading one another back and for- 
ward, up and down, parting and uniting 
again. The numerous different figures, 
which give an interest to this dance, are 
generally designated with a particular 
name. The music is sometimes in 2-4 and 
sometimes in 6-8 time" ('Chambers's En- 
cyclopeedia"). To this has, however, to be 
added that these are the most common, 
but not the only times iu which country- 
dance tuues have been composed. 

Coup de baguette (koo dQh bd,-gw3t), Fr. Beat 
of the drum. 

Coup de cloche (koo ddh kldsh), Fr, Stroke of 
the clock. 

Couper le sujet (koo-pa Itih soo-J&), Fr. To 
curtail or contract the subject or theme. 

Coupler. See Copula. 

Couplet (koo-pla), Fr. \ A stanza, or verse ; 
Couplet. J two verses or lines of 

poetry forming complete sense. 

Cdups d*archet (koo dar-sh&), Fr. Strokes of 
the bow ; ways or methods of bowing. 

Courante (koo-r3,Dht), Fr. Running: an old 
dauce in triple time. The second part of 
a suite, usually in passage work. 

Courtal (koor-tal), ) An old instrument; 

Courtaud (koor-to), Fr. > a species of short 
Courtaut (koor-to), ) bassoon. 

Covered consecutlves. Implied consecu- 

Covered bctaves. Consecutive octaves that 
are implied in the movement of the voices. 

C. P. Abbreviation of Colla parte. 

Cr. ) 

Cres. > Abbreviations of Crescendo. 

Cresc. ) 

Cracovlenne (krft-k6've-6nn'), Fr. A Polish 
dance in 3-4 time. Similar to the mazurka. 

Cravlcembalo (kra-vl-tshem-bald). It. A gen- 
eral name for all instruments of the harp- 
sichord species. 

Credo (kra'do). Lot. I believe. Third part of 
the Catholic mass. 

Crembalum (kr^m-ba-loom), Lot. A jew's- 

Cremona (kr^-md^nSl), It. An organ-stop ; the 
name of a superior make of violins from 

the place where the violin was x>erfected — 
Cremuua, in Italy. 

Cremom. A reed-organ stop of 8-feet scale. 

Cres. al forte, or^ ol ff. Increasing as loud as 

Cres. al fortissimo. Increasing to Very loud. 

Crescendo (kre-shSn'do), It. A word denot- 
ing a eraduallv increasing power of tone 
it 18 often indicated by the sign ><=:=. 

Crescendo ol fortissimo (kre-sh^n'dd fil fdr 
tes'si-md). It. Increase the tone until th« 
greatest degree of power is obtained. 

Crescendo al diminuendo (kr^shto'dd al 

dS-me-noo-Sndd), It. 
Crescendo e diminuendo (kre-shSn'do & 

de-me-uoo-6n-d6), Jt. 
Crescendo ^i diminuendo (kr^-sh^u'do 

pd-e de-me-noo-€n-dd), It. 
Increase and then diminish the tone ; 1^ 

dicated often by the sign -«===3.^ 

Crescendo e incalcando poco a poco (kr(> 
shSn'dd a en-Jull-k&u-dd po'ko a po'kd), It. 
Increasing the tone and hurrying the tim* 
by degrees. 

Crescendo II tempo (kre-shfin'd^^ei tSm'pd), it 
Increase the time of the movement. 

Crescendo nel tempo e nella forza (kr6 shSn*- 
do nei tem'pd a ndl'la fOr'tsa), It. Increasv 
in time and power. 

Crescendo poco a poco (kr^-shSn-dd pd^kd li 
po'ko), It. Increasing the tone by little and 

Crescent. A Turkish instrument made oi 
small bells hung on an inverted crescent. 

Cres. dim. An abbreviation of Crescendo e 

Cres. e legato (kr€s. & le-ga'td), R. Crescendo 
and legato. 

C, reversed. A. sign in old music of a dimi* 
nutiou of one half the value of the notes. 

Croche (krdsh), Fr. A quaver, or eighth 

Croche double (krdsh doo-b'l), Fr. A 
semiquaver, or sixteenth note. 

Croche polntee (kr6sh pwUn-ta), Fr. i 
dotted quaver. 

Croche Quadruple (kr<3sh kw&-dril-pl), Fr. zkt. 
A hemldemisemiquaver, or sixty-fourth ^z 
note. -p^ 

Croche triple (krSsh trS-pl), Fr. A demi- Be 
semiquaver, or thirty-second note. -gl- 

Crochet (kr6-8h&), Fr. The hook of a quaver, 
semiquaver, etc. 

Croma (krd'ma). It. A quaver, or eighth note. 

Cromatica (krO-mft'tl-k& n ) Chromatic, re- 
Cromatico (icrd-m&'tX-kd '/ferriug to inter- 
va.s and scales. 

Crome (krO'me), II. pi. Quavers ; when writ- 
ten under crotchets or minims, it shows tht^t 
thosd notes are to be divided iuto quavers. 

Jikorm^ ikOddt ft a2«, ^end^ e«ve, liU, I uUfi old, 6odd, oomoon^tibut, ti Fr,90und, kh Qer, ch, nh nosoL 





Cromht%rn (kromlidrn), Oer, A reed-stop in 
au orgaD. 

Crommd (krdm'md), It. A choral dirge or 

Cromome (kro-morn), Fr. The name of a 
family of obsolete reed wind instruments. 
In Germany it was called Krummhom 
(crooked horn). Cromome is said to be a 
corruption of cormome (cor, horn ; wiome, 
dim, gloomy). 

Crooked flute. An Egyptian instrument in 
the shdpe of a bull's horn. 

Crooked hdrn. ) The buccina; a wind 
Crooked trumpet, r instrument of the an- 

Crooks. Curved tubes which are inserted into 
horns, trumpets, etc., for the pjirpose of al- 
tering the key. The A crook, for instance, 
in making the tube of an instrument in B^ 
longer, makes its pitch also a semitone 

Cross. The h<^Ad of p lute; a mark for the 
thumb, placed over a note. 

Cross flute. A transverse flute, a German 
flute, so called in distinction from the flag- 
eolet, played from the end, like a clarinet. 

Crotale (kro-tal'). ■F'*'- | An ancient mu- 

Crotalo (krd''a-lo), It. vsical instrument, 

Crotaluni(kro ta'loom),(?r. \ u s e d by the 

priests oi Cy bele. From the reference made 

to it by different authors it seems to have 

been a small cymbal or a species of Castanet. 

Crotales. Little bells. 

Crotchet. A note equal in value to half a :p= 

minim. ±=: 

Crotchet rest. A rest equal in duration z^ 
to a crotchet. zz 

Crowd, Eng., Crwth (krooth), Wd. A more 
or less lyre-shaped instrument, the strings 
of which were originally twanged ; after- 
wards it was also played upon with a bow, 
modifications of structure being conse- 
quently introduced. 

Crowle. An old English wind instrument of 
the bassoon species. 

Crowther. See Crowder, 

Crucifixus (kroo-tsl-fix'ood), Lot. Part of the 
Crtdo in a mass. 

Crttit (kru-it), Iri. An ancient musical in- 
strument of the Irish. See Crwth. 

Crvpezia (kroo-pfi'zi-a), Gr. Wooden cl<^s 

worn by the Greek musicians in beating 

Crutchetam. Name originally given to the 

Crwth (krooth). Wet. An old Welsh instrw 
meut, having six strings, resembling thev^ 

C. S. The initials of Con sordino. 

Cskrdha (tsar-d&s), Magyar. A Hungarian 
(Magyar) dance in 2-4 or 4-4 time. Triple 
time is very exceptional, and not true to 
the national character. The Cs&rd^ (from 
Csdrda, inn on the heath) is often preced- 
ed by a moderate movement called Lassu 
(from Lassan, slow). The quick movement 
is called Fris (from the German Frisch, 
fresh, brisk, lively). 

C-Schlussel (tsa'shliis-s'l), Oer. The G clef. 

etc. Abbreviation of Concerto. 

Cuclear (koo-kla-ar'), Sp, To sing as the 

Cue. The tail, the end of a thing. The last 
words of an actor on a stage, serving as an 
intimation to the one who followSj when to 
speak and what to say. 

Cum cantu (koom kan'too), Lot. With song, 
with singing. 

Cum Sancto Spiritu (koom sank'to spe'ri-too), 
Lot. Part of the Gloria in a mass. 

Currendaner (koor-r6n-da'n6r), ^ "JSchool- 
Currendc (koor-r6n'd6), "^' j boys, 

or young choristers, chanting in procession 

through the streets. 

Custo(koos-td<, 7i(. )A direct /W. A 
Cu8tos(xoos'tos), 1.0^. r mark sometimes 

placed at the end of a staff to indicate the 

note next following. 

Cylinder. Part of the horn. (Ventil, piston.) 

Cymbales (sanh-bal), JV. \ Circular metal 
Cymbals. ) plates used in 

bands, usually in combination with the 

§reat drum ; they are clashed together, pro- 
ucing a ringing, brilliant effect. 

Cymbalum (ts!m-ba-loom), or.Cimbalum. Lai. 
Instrument of the dulcimer kind,'used by 
the gypsies. 

Cymbale (sanh-bal), Fr. \ A mixture organ- 
Cymbel (tslm'b'l), Ger. j stop of a very acute 
quality of tone. 

Cypher system. An old system of musical 
notation, in which tne notes were repre- 
sented by numerals. 

aorm, & ouu, » oie, 6 end, e eve, 1 ifl. I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, u Fr. sound, kh Oer. eh, nu iUi^oK 



D. The second note in the diatonic scale of G. 

Da (da), R, By, from, for, through, etc 

Dabbuda fd&b-boo-d&Oi R- A psaltery, a spe- 
cies of harp. 

Da capo (d& k&'pd), B. From the beginning ; 
an exprciisiun placed at the end of a move* 
ment to indicate that the performer must re- 
turn to the first strain. 

Da capo al fine (d& ka'pd &1 fe'ne), B. Return 
to tiie beginning and conclude with the 
word Fine. 

Da cap6 al segno (d& k&'p6 &1 s&n'yd) , 72. Re- 
peat from the sign ^« 

Da capo fin al segnd (d& k&'pd fSn &1 s&n'yd>, 
It, Return to the beginning and end at the 

Da capo e p6l la coda (d& ka'po & pd'e la kd'dft), 
It, Begin again and then play to the coda. 

Da capo senza repetlzlOne, e pbl la cOda (d£ 

k&'po 8&n-t8& rSrpa-ti-t^-o'ne, a po'e lako'dfi,), 
It. Begin again , but without repetition, and 
then proceed to the coda. 

Da capb sin* al segnO (dft k&'pd s6n &1 san'yd). 
It. Return to the beginning and conclude 
at the sign ^. 

D' accdrd (d&k-kOrdO. Fr. \ In tune, in 
D* accordo (d&k-kdr-d6), H. /concord, in nar^ 

Dach (d&kh), Oer, Lit., "roof.'' The upper 
part of the sound-box of a stringed instru- 
ment. The belly of a violin, etc. 

Da chieSa (dft k&-&'zft), It. For the church. 

Dactyl fd&k'tll), Lot. A metrical foot, consist- 
ing of one long syllable, followed by two 
short ones, marked thus, — w w. 

Dactyllon (dak-tni-Ou), Or. An instrument 
invented by H. Herz, with a view to assist 
pianists in making their fiuKers independen t 
and of equal strength and suppleness. It 
consists or ten rings that hang above the 
•^evboardand are fastened to steel springs. 

Vm^ylw (d&k'tit-loos), LaL See Dactyl. 

Dada. A term used in drum music to indi- 
cate the left hand. 

ualna (d&-e'n&). \ A kind of Lithuanian 
Dainos (dft-e'nOs). j folksong that has love and 

ii.endship for its subject. Dainos is the 

plund of daina. 

Oaire. The tambourine, or hand drum. 
Daktylus (d&k'tl-loos), Or. A dactyl. 

Dagli (d&l'yl), 
Dair (d&ir), n 
Daila(d&rm), ^'* 
Dalle (danS), 
Dallo (d&iao). 

O /tUiCtionB of '^A 
preVcdition da, and the 
masculine and femi- 
nine, singular and plu- 
ral, forms of the defi- 
nite article <i, lo (m. 

sing.), i^gli (m. plur.), la it. sing.), le (f. 
plur.). From the, by the, ot the, etc . 

Da iontano (dft 15n-t&'nd), It. At a distance; 
the music is to sound as if far away. 

Dal aegno (dftl s&n'yo). It. From the sign $. 
A mark directing a lepetition from the sign. 

Dal segno alia fine (d&l s&n'yo fti-lfi fe'nd), i}. 
From the sign to the end. 

Dal segno fin al segno (dftl san'yd f6n ftl san'. 
yd), It. From sign to sign. 

Dal teatro (dftl tft-ft'tr6), lU In the style ol 
theater music. 

Damenisatlon. The syllables da, me, ni, po, 
tu, la, be, which Uraun employed in his sol' 

Damper. A little cushion of felt connected 
with the piano-key in such a manner that, 
being raised when the key is depressed, it 
permits the string to vibrate. When the key 
is released the damper falls upon the string 
and stops the vibration. (2) The mute or 
brass instruments. 

Damper-pedal. That pedal in a pianoforte 
which raises the dampers from tne strings 
and allows them to vibrate freely. Its usa 
is indicated by the abbreviation ped. 

DImpfen (d&m'pfen),G'0r. To muifle, or dead- 
en, the tone of an instrument. 

DImpfer (dam'plSr), Qer. A mute, or damper. 

Dance, morrlce. *) A dance in imitation of 

Dance, morris. }>the Moors, usually per- 

Dance, morrlske. j formed by young men 

dressed in loose frocks, adorned with bells 

and ribbons, and accompanied by castanets, 

tambours, etc. 

Dances. Certain tunes composed especial" - 
for dancing. 

Danklled (dftnklSd), Qer, X thanksgiving 

Danse (d&nhs), Fr. A dance tune. 

Danse contre (dftnhs kOntr), Fr, A country 
dance, a quadrille. 

Dansis de matelOt (dftnhs dfih mftt-ft-15), Fr, 
A dance resembling the hornpipe. 

Daaza (dan'tsft), It, A dance. 

-» • 






Danzetta (l&ii<tset't&), It. A litUe dance, a 
short dance. 

Da prima (da pre'mM,), H. At first ; from the 

Darabukkeh (dfl-rfirboo^eh). A small Ara- 
bian drum, made in various forms. 

Dar la voce (dfir U vd'teh^), It, To strike, or 
give, the keynote. 

Darmsaite (d&rm'sI-tS), r^^ \ Gut strings 
Darmsaiten (dfirm'sl-t'n), ^^- J used for 
the harp, violin, guitar, etc. ' 

Oarsteller (d&r'st^MSr), Oer. A performer. 

Da scherzo (da sk&rt'so). It In a lively, play- 
ful manner. 

Das (das), Oer, The ; neuter form of definite 

Dasselbe (dUs-s^l'bS), Oer. The same. 

Dauer (dou'Sr), Oer. The length, or duration, 
of notes. 

Daum (doum), Oer. The thumb. 

Daumenklapper (dou'm to-klap-p€r) , Oer. Cas- 
tanet, snapper. 

D. C. The initials of Da capo. 

D-dur (da' door), Oer. D major ; the key of D 

D^but (da'bfi), 1^. First appearance ; the first 
public performance. 

Debutant (da'bu-tftnh), « ") A singer or 

Debutante (da'bu-t&nht), * j performer who 

£.ppear8 for the first time before the public. 

Decachord (dSk'&-kOrd), ] An an- 

Decachordon (d€k H-kdr'ddn), Lot. >-clent mu- 

Decactirdo (dgk-a-kdr'do), It. ) sical i n- 

strument of the harp or guitar species, with 

ten strings. It was called by the Hebrews 


Decamerdne (dSk'&mS-ro'ne), II. A period of 
ten days ; a collection of ten musical pieces. 

I>ecanl (dS-k&'nl), Lot. pi. In cathedral mu»ic 
this term implies that the passages thus 
marked must be taken by the singers on the 
side of the choir where the dean usually sits. 

Dteid^ (de-se-da), j^ \ With de- 

Dteid^ment (d^se-da-m&nh), ^^' j cision, 
with resolution. 

Deciflia (da'tsl-m&), LaL A tenth ; an inter- 
val of ten degrees in the scale, also the name 
of an organ-stop sounding the tenth. 

Dteime (dft-sem), Fr, A tenth See Decima. 

Decimole. A musical figure formed out of 
the division of any note or ehord iato ten 
parts, or notes, of equal value. 

Dteisif (da-se-sif), Fr. J>ecisive, clear, firm. 

Decisione (dS-tshe-zI-d'nfi), It. Decision, firm- 

Dteisivement (da-66-zev-m5nh), Fr, Deci- 

Decisivo (d&-tshl-ze'v6), « I In a bold and 
Deciao (da-tshe'zd), ^^' 

j decided manner. 

Decke (dSk'S), Oer. The soundboard of a vi- 
olin, violoncello, etc.; also the cover or top 
in tiiose organ-stops which are covered or 

Declamandb (dSk Ifi-m&n'dd), It. With de- 
clamatory expression. 

Declamatlo (dek-la-mft'tI-5), It. Declamation, 

Declamation. Dramatic singing. The art of 
rendering words with the proper pronunci- 
ation, accentuation, and expression. The 
mastery of this art is as necessary to the 
singer as to the speaker. 

Declamazlone (dek-la-nuL-tsI-d'nS), B. Decla- 

Decorative notes. Notes of embellishment, 
appoggiaturas, etc. 

Decres } ^^^^cviations of Decrescendo. 

Decrescendo (d&-kre-sh3n'dd), B. Gradually 
diminishing in power of tone =»-. 

Decuplet. A group of ten equal notes, to be 
played in an aliquot part of a measure. 

Dedicate (dfid-l-k&'to), H. \ Dedicated 
DMi^ (da-di-&), Fr. / dedicated. 

Deficiendo (d&-fe-tshien'dd), It. Dying away. 

DeflTll (dal'ye), It. Of the. 

Degr^ (dS-graO, Fr. A degree of the staff. 

Degree. A line or space of the staff. 

Del (del), n. Of the. 

P^lassement (da-llUis-manh'), Fr. An easy and 
agreeable composition. 

Deliberatamente (dS-I&b^r&-ta-men'te), „ \ 
Deliberate (d6-le b€-ra't6), -*'* / 


Delicatamente (dei-i-ka-tarmen't^), B. DeU- 
caiely, smoothly. 

D^licatesse (da H-kfi-tess). Fr. \ Delicacy, 
Delicatezza (dei-i-k&-tet'z&) , 22. j r ^fined exe- 

Deiicatisslmamente (d^l-l-k^-tes-sl-mtl- 


With extreme delicacy. 

Delicate (d^l-i-ka'to), Jt. Delicately, smoothly. 
Delle (de-le), Fr. Loose, light, easy. 
Delirio (d6-le'ri-6). It. Frenzy, excitemen*. 

Deiizlosamente (d€-llt-si o-zgrmSn'te), It, De- 
liciously, sweetly. 

Dell* {dm), \ 

Dl!l;|dlnl];^- [ Of the, by the, etc 
Delld(deiad), ) 

Dem (d€m), Oer. To the. Dative form of the 
definite article. 

Dteiancher (d3,-manh-sha), Fr. To change or 
alter the position of the hand ; to shif ^ on 
the violin, etc.; to cross hands on the piano- 
forte, making the left hand play the part of 
the right, and vice versa. 

It. t 

Acrm, & add, kdU,(i end, e eve, liU,l isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moonf iX but, H Fr. sound, kh Oer. eh, nh nosof. 




•v-\ « 

I>emaii<Se (de-m&nhdO, Pr. The question, or 
propofiitiou, of a fugrue; called also dux, or 
leading subject. 

Demi (dS-meO, Fr. Half. 

Demi-baton (de-me'b&'tdnh),Fr. A breve rest. 

Demi-cadence (de-msnca-dftnhs'), Fr. A half 
cadence, or cadence on the dominant. 

Demi-staccato (da-md'Htak-ka'td), Fr. Half 
staccato. The tones slightly separated, but 
not so much as in staccato. Demi-staccato 
difTers from nun legato in that the former 
is positive and the latter is merely n^a- 
tive, the tones failing to connect, but not 
being purposely separated. 

Deml-mesure (d^me^m^-ziir'), n^ ) A min- 
Demt-pause (d6-me'p62), ' ' J im or 

half rest. 

Demi-quart de soupir (df-me'k&r dtih [-§— 
soo-per), Fr, A demisemiquaver rest. P*— 

Demtsemiquaver. A short note, equal in 
duration to one half the ^ f 

semiquaver, made thus, R or thus, ^ 

Demtsemiquaver rest. A mark of silence, ^ 
equal in duration to a demisemiquaver, s 
made thus, % 

Deml-soupir (dS-me'soo-per, Fr. A quaver 

Demi-ton (dS-me tdnh), jFV. ) An interval of a 
Demttone (d^-me'tdn). ) half-tone. 

D^noument (da-noo m&nh), Fr. Conclusion, 
the catastrophe of an opera, play, etc. 

De plus en plus vite (dOh plii zanh plii vet), 
Fr. More and more quickly. 

Depresslo (d^-prSs'sI -5), II. The fall of the 
hand iu beating time. 

Depression, chromatic. Depression by a 
chromatic sign. 

De profundis (de pro-foon'dXs), Lat. '* Out 
of the depths. O Lord." One of the seven 
penitential psalms. 

Der (d&r), Oer. The singular masculine form 
of the deduite article, and genitive feminine 
form of same. 2) Of the. 

Dersrieichen (d^r-gU'kh'n), Oer. The like. 

D^rlv^ (d6-re-va), Fr. Derivative. 

Derivative chords. Chords derived from oth- 
ers by inversion. 

Des (dSs), Oer. The note Dt?. Also genitive 
form of definite article. From the, of the. 

D^saccord^ (daz-&k-kOr-d§,),^. Untuned; put 
out of tune. 

Disaccorder (d&z-&k-k6r-d&), Fr. To untune, 
to put out of tune. 

Descant. Harmony.extemporaneous or other- 
wise, sung or played to a given melody or 
theme. See DiscarU. 

Descant clef. The treble, or soprano, clef. 

Descend. To pass from a higher to a lower 

Descendant (dS-s&nh-d&nh), Fr. Descending. 

Deschant (dd-sh&nh), Fr. Discant. 

Des-dur (d&'door), Oer. Dt» major. 

Deslg^n. A design, or plan. Sometimes used 
in place of motive, but more generally to in- 
dicate the plan of a larger part of a compo- 

Des-moll (dte-moU), Oer. The key of Db mi- 

Desperazione (d^s-p^ra-tsI-o'nS), It. See DiS' 

Dessauer iMarsch (des'sou-Sr m&rsh), Oer. A 
famous instrumental march, one of the na- 
tional airs of Germany. 

Dessin (des-s&nh), Fr. The design, or sketch, 
of a composition. 

Dessus (d^s-sOs), Btr. The treble, or upper, 

Desto (dSs'td), R. Brisk, sprightly. 

Destra (dSs'tra), It. Right ; deatra mano, th« 
right hand. 

D6tach6 (da-t&-sh&), Fr. Detached, staccato. 

Determinatisslmo (da-tSr-ml-na-tes'si-mo), It. 
Very determined, very resolutely. 

Determlnato (da-t£r-mi-na'td), Ji(. Determined, 

Determinazione (da-t€r-ml-n&-tid-d'ne),/^ De- 
termination, resolution. 

Detto (det'td), //. The same. 

Deutlich (doitlikh), Oer. Distinctly. 

Deutsche FIfite (doif she fli/te), Oer. A Ger- 
man flute. 

Deux (dil), Fr. Two. 

Deuxieme (dii-zI-amO, Fr. Second. 

Deuxleme position (dfi-zl-am' po-ze'sl-onh), 
Fr. The second position of the hand or fln- 
gers in playing the violin, etc. 

Devote (da-vd'td), It. Devout, religious. 

Devozione (d&-vd-t8i-d'ne), It. Devotion, re- 
ligious feeling. 

Dextra (dex-trft). Lat. \rr^ , j^t hand 
Dextre (dfixtr), Fr. | ^'^^ ^^'^^ '^^^' 

Dl (dS), It. Of, with, for, etc. 

Dialogue. A composition in which two par^c, 
or voices, respond alternately to each other. 

Dialog© (de-a-lo'go). ^. lAdialoime 
Dialogue (de-a-log'), jy. | A aiaiogne. 

Diana (de-a'na). It. \ The reveille ; the beat 
Diane (dl-an-tlh), Fr. fof drums at daybreak. 

Dlap. An abbreviation of Diapason. 

Diapason (de-a-pa'sOn), Or.' \ The whole oc- 
Dlapason (dl-ft-p&'86n), Eng. J tave. (1) An oc- 
tave. (2) The compass of a voice or instru- 
ment. (3) Pitch ; as xhe diapason normal 
of the French. (4) The English namerof the 
organ-stops which the Italians and Germans 
call characteristically " principal " (Princi- 
pale. Principal). The diapasons are the 
most important foundation stops of the 

Ccrm. 'iaJd, a aUt 6end, e eve, iiU, liste, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, iX btU, (i Fr. toundf kh Oer. eh, nh 




Diapason, open. An organ-stop the pipes of 
wnich are open at the top, and made of 

Diapason , stopped . An organ-stop, generally 
of wood, having its pipes closed at their up- 
per end with a wooden plug by wMchi it is 

Diapente (de-sl-p6n'te), Or. A perfect fifth; 
also an organ-stop. 

Diapente col dltono (de-a-p«n'te kol f^-vynd), 
Or, A major seventh. 

Diaphonie (de-tl-fd'ne>. \ (1) Clear, transpar- 
6iaphony (de-&f-d-ny ). j ent : two sounds 
heard together. (2) In Greek music it meant 
dissonance, as symphony meant couso- 
aance. (3) One of the earliest attempts at 
simultaneous combination of notes in the 
middle ages. It preceded discant, which in 
its turn was followed by counterpoint. 

Dlaphonlcs (de-a-fonlks). The science of 
refracted sounds. 

Dlaschisma (de-a-skls'ma), Or. This term is 
to be met with in mathematical calculations 
<tf the ratios of intervals. It is the name of 
various small intervals not used in practical 

Diastema (de-fts't€-mS), Or. An Interval. 

Diatonic (d!-artdn1k). (1) Through the tones. 
In modern music,as distinguished from chro- 
matic. A diatonic scale is one consisting of 
the tones belonging to the three principal 
harmonies of the key, and of no others ; tnat 
is to say, of tonic, subdomiiiant, and domi- 
nant, whether the mode be major or minor. 
(2) The Greeks distinguished their modes as 
diatonic, enharmonic, and chromatic, which 
differed from each other in the nature of In- 
tervals composing them. See Key, mode. 

Diatonic flute. A flute capable of producing 
the various shades or differences of pitch of 
the major and minor scales. 

Diatonic melody. A melo.^y in which no tones 
foreign to the key are KL.^d, 

Diatonlco (de-a-t^'n^k^^, It. ^ 
Dlatonique (de-&-tdnh-nekO, Fr. > Diatonic. 
Diatonlsch (de-&-t6n^h), Oer. j 

Dlatonlquement (de-a-tdnh-nek'manh), Fr. 

Dl bravura (d6 br&'Voo'ra), It. In a brilliant, 
florid style. 

Dl chiaro (de ke-a'x6), It. Clearly. 

Dlchord (dl-k6rd), Or. (1) A two-stringed in- 
strument. (2) A n instrument the strings of 
which are tuned in pairs. 

Dlchten (dihk't'n), Oer. To compose metric- 

Dlchter (dihk'*i£r), Oer. A poet, a minstrel. 

Dl colto (d6 kol'td). It. At once, instantly, 

Didactic. That which is calculated to in- 

Die (de), Ger. The plural form of the definite 
article. Also feminine singular. 

Diesare (de-a-za'rfi), JJ. ) To raise the pitch 
Dieser (di-a-za), ^. J of a note, either at 
the signature or in the course of a composi- 
tion, by means of a sharp. 

Diesd (dl-az), Fr. A sharp (^). 

Dies Ir»(dr6z6'ra), Lot. '♦ Day of vengeance," 
a venerable hymn of the Church. Second 
movement of the Requiem. 

Diesis (de-a'sis), Or. and It. \ A quarter of a 
Diesis (di-a'sis), Fr. J tone ; half a 

semitone. A term which has been applied 
to various small intervals, mostly to inter- 
vals smaller than a semitone. (2) The name 
given to the sharp in Italy, and also in 

Dies, music. Steel punches for the purpose 
of stamping music-plates. 

Diese, double. A double sharp (^^). 

Die zeugmenon (de tsIg'me-nOn), Or. The 
third tretachord disjoined from the second. 

Difference tones. See ReauUant tones. 

Difficile (def-fe'tshl-ie), It. Difficult. 

Disrltorium. A small, portable, dumb instru- 
ment, with five keys, for exercising the fin- 

Digital exercises. Exercises for strengthen- 
ing the fingers and rendering them inde- 
pendent of each other. 

Dlsmita (d6n-yl-tfi'), ) Dignity, grand- 

Dis^nitade (den-yi'ta'dg), It. S- eur, great- 
Dlsrnitate (den-yl-ta'te), ) ness. 

Dl srrado (de gra'do). It. By degrees ; step by 
step ; in opposition to di salto. 

Dlgresslone (d§-gr€s-ri-6'n6). It. A deviation 
from the regular course of a piece. 

Diletant (de-16-tanh'), Oer. \ A lover of 
Dilettante (de-l^^tanh'te), It. jart ; an ama- 
teur who composes or performs without 
making music a profession. 

DileUosamente (de-iet-to-za-men't^), Jf. Pleas- 
antly, agreeably. 

Dilicatamente (de-lX-kJl-ta-men'tS), It. Deli- 
cately, softly. See Delicatamente. 

Dllicatezza (dMI-ka-t^t'sa), It. Delicateness, 
softness, neatness. 

Dilicatissimamente (d6-iX ka-tes-si-mfi-mSn'- 
tSj, It. With extreme softness and delicacy. 

Dilicatlsslmo (de-U-ka-tes'si-mo), It. With ex- 
treme softness and delicacy. 

Dllicato (de-li-ka'td). It. Soft, delicate. 

Dillsrenza (de-ll-j^n'tsa), It. Diligence. 

Dillgenza, con (de-li-jSn'tsa kon), It. In a dil- 
igent and careful manner. 

Diludlum (dMoo'di-oom), Lot. An interlude. 

Dlluendo (dMoo-Sn'dd), It. Diminishing; a 
gradual dying away of the tone until it is 

Dimin. } '^^^^e^^^^ons of Diminuendo. 

'«ar«fc 4 add, a oZe, Qend, § eve, i iU, i iOe, 6 otd^ 6 odd, oo moon, d hvi, ii Fr. sound, kh C^er. ch. nh nosoL 





Diminished. This word Is applied to inter- 
vals or chords which are less than minor or 
perfect intervals. 

Difninished chords. Chords that contain 
dimiuished intervals. 

Diminished fifth. An interval equal to two 
whole tones and two semitones. 

Diminished fourth . One whole tone and two 

Diminished imitation. A style of imitation 
in which the answer is given in notes of less 
value than that of the subject. 

Diminished intervals. Those which are one 
chromatic nemitone less than minor or per- 
fect intervals. 

Diminished octave. One chromatic semitone 
iesa than a full octave. 

Diminished seventh. One chromatic semi- 
luue less than a minor seventh. 

Diminished sixth. One chromatic semitone 
less than a minor sixih. 

Diminished third. One chromatic semitone 
less than a minor third. 

Diminished triad. A chord composed of the 
minor third and the diminished or imper- 
fect fifth. 

Diminu^ (dl-m6n-oo-&0, Fr. Diminished. 

Diminuendo (de-me-noo-an'dd), II. Diminish- 
ing gradually the intensity or power of the 

Diminuer tdi-m&>noo-&0> Fr. To diminish. 

Diminution. In counterpoint this means the 
imitation of a given subject, or theme, in 
notes of shorter length or duration ; in op- 
position to augmentation. 

Diminuzione (de-mi-noo-tsl-d'n^), B. Dimi- 

Di molto (de mdVtd), It. Very much ; an ex- 
pression which serves to augment the mean- 
ing of the word to which it is applied. 

D in alt, B. The fifth note in alt ; the twelfth 
above the G, or treble-clef note. 

D in altissimo, It. The fifth note in altissimo ; 
the twelfth above G in ait. 

D'iniranno (den-gan'nd), It An unexpected 

DI nuovo (dS noo-d'vd), It. Anew, once more, 

Dioxia. A perfect fifth ; the fifth tone, or 

Di peso (d<S p&'zd). It. At once. 
Diphonium. A vocal duet. 
DI posta (dS pds'ta), It. At once. 
Di quieto (de kwe-&'t6), It, Quietly. 

Direct. A mark sometimes placed at the end 
of a staff to indicate the note next follow- 
ing (AV). To beat time for a musical per- 
formance, and to direct the interpretation. 

Directeur (dl-rSk-tar'), Fr. The director, or 
conductor, of a musical performance. 

r f ^ f r 11 


r P r ■ ■ r 

-^^ K 

Direct motion. Similar, or parallel, motion ; 
the parts rising or falling in the same direc- 

Director. The conductor, or manager, of a 
mubical performance. 

Direct turn. A turn consisting of four notes, 
viz., the note above wntu.. pi.ywi 
that over which the 
sign is placed, the prin- 
cipal note, the note 
below it,and ending with the principal note. 

Direttore (de-rfit-to're). It. A director. See 

Dirge. A musical composition, either vocal 
or instrumental, designed to be performed 
at a funeral, or in commemoration of the 

Diritta (dg-ret'ta), It. Direct ; straight on, in 
ascending or descending intervals. 

Dis (dez), Qer. The note D#. 

Di salto (de sal'tS), It. By leaps or by skips v 
in opposition to di grado. 

Disarmonia (dS2s-ar-md'ni-&),ii(. Discord, want 
of harmony. 

Discant. Lit., " diverse song." (1) One of 
the early phases of counterpoint. The term 
signified at first the addition of a melody to 
a melody. Afterwards, however, the num- 
ber of the parts was not limited. According 
to the number of parts employed the discant 
was double, triple, or quadruple. (2) The 
highest kind of the human voice, the so- 
prano, or treble. Also the highest member 
of a family of iustruments, the highest reg^ 
ister of an instrument, and the highest part 
of a composition. 

Discantschlttssel (dlz-k&nt'shlii-sn). Ger. The 
soprano ; the C clef placed upon the first 
line, the note upon that line being called C. 
It is seldom used now. 

Discantstimmen (dl^.-k&n^stIm'm'n), or. Dis- 
cantregister (dIz-kant'ra-ghl[s't6r),C?cr. The 
organ-stops which comprise only the treble, 
not the bass notes. They are also called 
HcUbe Stimmen, half-stops. 

Discantgeige (dis'k&nt-ghrghe), Ger. An ob- 
solete term for the violin. 

Discantist (dls-kan-tlst'), Ger. Treble, or so- 
prano singer. 

Discantsaite (dis-kanf sl'tS), Ger. Treble string. 

DiscantsJInger (dis-kant'sang'Sr), Ger. Treble 
or soprano singer. 

Discantus (dis-kan'toos). Lot. Discant. 

Discendere (de-sh&n'd&-re). It. To descend. 

Discepola (d^sha'pd-l&). It. A female pupiL 

Discepolo (de-sha'po-lo). It. Disciple, pupil, 

Disciolto (de-6he-drt5),/K. Skillful, dexterous. 

Discord. A dissonant interval, an interval 
that does not satis ty the ear, but causes un^ 
rest. The opposite of a discord is a concord. 
(2) A chord which contains one or more dis* 

A«nii, ft oddyftofe, a endtieve,liU,\iHle,iioUi, 6 odd, oo7Hoon,ilbut, u Fr. toimdi kh Qer. ch, nhnosoA 




Bonanc intervals, and which, on account of 
its unsatiBfyini; and diuquieting effect, re- 
quires to be resolved Id to a consonant chord. 
(V. Introduction.) The for^oiug are the uses 
of this term, as popularly employed. Prop- 
erly speaking, however, discord isan unmu- 
sical, inharmonious effect, which may go far 
beyond the limits of the permissible. Any 
inharmonious combiuation. A Dissonance 
is a discordant combination musically em- 
ployed. Inasmuch as consonance depends 
upon appreciable relations between the 
tones so related, dissonance and discord de- 
pend upon the clashing of vibrations and 
uie luaDility of the ear to find a common 
measure or principle of unity. These clash- 
ings take place in dissonance (g. v.), but the 
manner in which a dissonance is used sug- 
gests to the ear the resolution, the later en- 
trance of the concordant tone which the dis- 
sonance had temporarily displaced. 

Discordant. A term applied to all discordant 
or inharmonious sounds. 

DUcordante (dls-k6r-d&n't€), It. Discordant. 

Discordantemente (dls-kdr-d&n-t^men'te). It. 

Discordare (dls-kdr-d&'r^). It, \ To be out of 
DlsGorder (dls-kor-da , Fr. j tune. 

Discorde (dls-kftrd). Fr. \ T%4a^^-^ 
DisGordia (dis-kor'dl-a). Lot. |^iscora. 

Discreto (dls-kra'to), II. Discreetly. 

Discrezlone (dis-kr&t-tsl-5'n€), It. Discretion, 
judgment, moderation. 

Dls-dur (dIs-door),G'er. The key of D# major. 

Disharmonle (dis-h£r-md-neO, Qer. Dishar- 

Dishamonlsch (dXs-hfir-md'nIsh), Qer. Un- 

Disharmony. Discord, want of harmony. 

Dislnvolto (dls-!n-v6n6), ,, [ 

Oisinvolturato (di8-iu-vdl-too-ra't6), ^^' / 

Off-hand, bold, not forced, naturally. 

Ulsis (desiies), Oer. D-double-sharp. 

Disjunct. Disjoined. A term applied by the 
Greeks to those tetrachords where the low- 
est sound of the upper one was one degree 
^i^her than the acutest sound of the one 
immediately beneath it. 

Disjunct succession. A succession by skips. 

Dis-moll Cd2s-mdl),(?cr. The key of D:;^ minor. 

Disonanza (dXs-6-nllnt's&), It. Dissonance. 

Disonare (dis-d-nU're), II. To sound discord- 
Di sopra (dS sd^pril). It. Above. 

Disperato(dIs-p€-ra'td),/iC. Despaired of; with 

Disperazione (dls-p^r^-tsI-d'nS), It. Despair, 

Dispersed harmony. Harmony in which the 
notes forming the various chords are sepa- 
rated from each other by wide intervals. 
Strictly, chord positions in which the upper 
voices exceed tne compass of an octave. 

Disposition. The arrangement of the stops 
in an organ, disposing them according to 
power, quality of tone, etc. (2) Estimate as 
to cast and appointment of an organ. 

Dissonance. The inharmonious relation of 
tones. (See Discord.) Strictly speaking, dis- 
sonance is the musical employment of dis- 
cord. All harmonic combinations are dis- 
sonant in greater or less degree, except the 
unison, octave, major and minor thirds and 
sixths, the perfect fifth, and harmonic 
seventh. All dissonances are employed as 
temporary substitutes for consonants, in o.r- 
der to render the liarmonic motion more 
emphatic and appealing. The disappear- 
ance of the dissonance is generally effected 
by the voice having it prc^ressing one de- 

§ree to the consonant tone displaced. Most 
issonances are either Suspensions^ held over 
out of a previous 'Chord, Appoggiaturas, 
struck free upon the beat but resolved upon 
the half beat, Passing tones, introduced in 
passing by degrees from one chord tone to 
another, or Cnanging tones, where a voice 
skips off to a dissonant tone and immedi- 
ately returns. 

Dissonant chords. All the chords except the 
perfect concord and its derivatives. 

Dissonant (dls-s5-nfinh), Fr. \ Dissonant, 
Dissonante (dIs-8d-n&n't(B), J<. /out of tune, 

Dissonanz (dls-sd-n&ntsO, Oer. \ Dissonance; 
Dissonanza (dls-sd-n&n'ts&). It. /discord. 

Dissonare (dl8-s6-n£l'r6), II. ) To sound 
Dissoner (dis-sd-nft'). Fr. > out of tune; 

Dissoniren (dXs-sd-ne'r'n), Oer.) to be discord- 

Dissoni suoni (d!s-s<}-ne soo-d'nl). It. Inhar^ 
monious sounds ; discords. 

Distico (d!s-te-kd), Sp, A distich. 

Distinti suoni (dIs-tSn'tl soo-d^ni), It. Distinct 

Distinto (cUs-ten'td), IL Clear, distinct. 

Distonare (dls-td-n&'rS), It. To be out of tune. 

Distoniren (dis-td-ne'r'n). On. To get out of 
tune ; to produce discord either in singing 
or playing. 

Di testa (de te&'t&). It. Of the head, in speak- 
ing of the voice. 

Dithyraml>e (de-tt-r&hmb), Fr. 1 A song or 
Dithyraml>e (de-ti-ram'bd), Ger. j ode sung in 

ancient times in honor of Bacchus ; a wild, 

rhapsodical composition. 

Dithy rambic (de-thi-r&m'bik) , Or. In style of 
a dlthyrambe. 

Ditirambica (dg-te-rftm'bl-ka), „ >Dithyram- 
Ditirambico (de-te-rfim'bi-ko), ^^' / bic. 

Ditirambo (de-te-r&m'bd). It, See DUhyrambe, 

Dito (de'td). It. The finger. 

Dito grosso (dS'td grCs'sd), It. The thumb. 

Diton (d§-t5nh), Fr. \ Of two parts or 
Ditone (de-td-n€). Or. (tones; a major 
Ditono (de'to-no). It. f third or interval of 
Ditonus (dI-td-noos),La<. J two whole tones. 

tvrm^kadd, &a2e»dend, eeve, liU, H8le,6<M, 6 odd,oomoon, a but, iX Fr.sound, kh Oer, ch, n^fuwri. 




Ditty. A song, a sonnet ; a little poem to be 

Dlv. Abbreviation of Divisi; divided. 

Divan (de'van). Per. Among the Persians a 
term applied to a series of poems with the 
disticbs eudins; in every letter successively ; 
a collection of the writings of a single au- 

Diverbia (di-ver'bl-a), LaiA K musical dia- 
Diverbio (de-var'bI-6), It. jlogue, often used 
Y>y the ancients to enrich their drama. 

Divertimento (d^vSr-ti-mSn'td), It. A short, 
light composition, written in a pleasing and 
familiar style. 

Divertissement (dl-v^r-tesa'm&nh), Fr. (1} A 
light, entertaining composition, consisting 
of a series of pieces, which may be in any 
form. (2) A composition consisting of a 
number of movements or simple tunes 
loosely strung together. A potpourri. (3) 
Formerly the name of a series of dances or 
songs inserted in the acts of operas, ballets, 
and plays. (4) Now a short ballet with li^ 
tie or no action, often a mere medley of 

Divisi (de-ve'z!), It. Divided, separated. In 
orchestral parts this word implies that one 
half the performers must play the upper 
notes and the others the lower notes. The 
term has a similar meaning when it occurs 
in vocal music. 

Division. (1) A variation of a simple theme. 
(2) A long note divided into short notes. A 
series of notes forming a chain of sounds, 
and in vocal music sung to one syllable. To 
run a division is to execute such a series of 

Division (di-ve-ze 6nh), Fr. A double bar. 

Division du temps (dl-ve-ze-Onh dtX tanh), Fr. 

Division-marks. Figures with a curved line 
above them, showing the number of equal 
parts into which the beats are divided 
m a group of notes, r. 5". 7^» 9^1 etc. 

Divotamente (de-v6-ta-m6n't6), « \ Devout- 
Divoto (de-v6't6), ^^' |ly, in a 

solemn style. 

DIvozione (de-vot-tsi-o^nfi), It. Devotion, re- 
ligious feeling. 

D. Ml The initials of Destra mano. 

D-moll (da-m611), Qcr. The key of D minor. 

po ((16) , It. A syllable applied to the first note 
of a scale in sol-faing. In France the " fixed 
Do " system prevails, whereby the name Do 
is always applied to C or its derivatives (C- 
Aharp, C-flat) in all keys. 

Doctor of Music. The h ighest musical degree 
conferred by the universities. It is condi- 
tioned upon presenting an extended and 
meritorious composition, lasting forty min- 
utes or more, for soli, chorus, and orchestra, 
together with a satisfactory demonstration 
in musical history, theory, etc. 

Dosrlia (ddV yI-&), R, Grief, affliction, sadness. 

Doigt (dwfi), J<. Finger. 

Doigt* (dwa-tft), J-r. Fingered. 

DoiflTter (dwft-tft), Fr. To finger ; the art of 
fingering any instrument. 

Doiarts fixes; (dw& fSk-s€), Fr, Fixed fingers. 

Dot. An abbreviation of Dolce. 

Dolcan. Obsolete name for Dulciana, an o^ 
gau-stop {q. v.). 

Dolce (dol'tshe), R. Sweetly, softly, deli 

Dolce con gusto (ddl'tshd'kdn goos'td), tt 
Softly, sweetly, with taste and expression. 

Dolce e cantabile (ddKtshe a kan-t&'bMg), It. 
Sweet, soft, in singing style. 

Dolce e luslngando (dol'tshg ft loo-s^n-sftn'dd). 
It. In a soft and insinuating style. 

Dolce e piacevolmente espressivo (dartshS ft 
pe-a'tsh6-v61-m6n't6 6s-pr6s-s§'v6), It, Sof^ 
and with pleasing expression. 

Dolce ma marcato (ddVtshe mftmftr-kfi'td), J*. 

Soft and delicate, but marked and accented. 
Dolce maniera (ddl'tshS ma-nl-a'ra). B. s^ 

delicate and expressive manner of delivery. 

Dolcemente (ddl-tsh£-mto'te), R. Sweetly, 
gently, softly. 

Dolcezza (ddl-tsh^t'za), i2. Sweetness, soft^ 
uess of tone. 

Dolciano (d61-tshl-&'n6), « ) A pmall bassoon, 
Dolcino (dol-tshe'no), ^^' j formerly much 
used as a tenor to the hautbov. 

Dolciss. An abbreviation of Dvilcissimo. 

Dolclssimo (ddl-t8hes'sl-m5),72. With extreme 
sweetness and delicacy. A vtry soft organ* 
stop of the dulciana quality. 

Dolemment (dd-l€m-manh), F^. Dolefully, 


Dolent (do-lanh), Fr. \ Sorrowful, monm- 
Dolente (d6-16n't6). It. ] ful, pathetic. 

Dolentemente (dd-ien-t6-men'tfij, iJL Sorrow- 
fully, mournfully. 

Dolentissimo (do-lSn-tes'sl-md), T*. With ex- 
treme sadness; with very pathetic and 
mournful expression. 

Dolore (d6-ld'r6). It. Grief, sorrc*. 

Dolorosamente (do-lo-ro-za-mSn't&i, r, ) 
Doloroso (do-lo-ro'zo), '"^' ] 

Dolorously, sorrowfully, sadly. 

Dom (dom), Ger. A cathedral. 

Domchor (dom'kdr) , Ger. The cathedral choir. 

Dominant. The name applied by theorists to 
the fif ih note of the scale. 

Dominant chord. A chord found on the dom- 
inant, or fifth, note of the scale- so called 
from its establishing the key and requiring 
the tonic to follow it. 

Dominante (ddm-I-n&nht), Fr. \ The domi> 
Dominante (do-ml-nan'te), Ger. jnant. 

Dominant harmony. Harmony on the dom- 
inant or fifth of the key. 

Aaffn,ft odd, aol^, 6end, e eve, I iU, 1 is2«, 6 old, odd. 00 moon, tl&u<, H Fr. 90und, kh Ger. eh, nh na$aL 





Dominant sectton. A section terminating on 
the common chord of the dominant. 

Dominican psalml (d6-m1-nl ka'l€ s^l'me), iMt. 
CertHlu psalms of the Roman Catholic 
Church, sung in the Vespers. 

Oomklrche (dOm'kSr'iihg), Ger, A cathedral. 

Dona nobis pacem (do'na nd'bis pa'ts^m), TmL 
•* Grant us Thy peace." The concluding 
movement of the Mass. 

Donna (ddn'ua). It, Lady; applied to the 
principal female singers in an opera. 

Dope (dd'po), It. After. 

Doppel (dop'p'l), Ger. Double. 

Ooppel-be (d6p'p',Grr. A double flat (bW, 
equal to a depression of two half-steps. 

DoppelfiOte (dOp'p'l-flo'tfi), Get-. Double flute ; 
a stop in an organ the pipes of which have 
two mouths. 

Doppelfuge (dop-p'l-foo'ghe), Ger. Double 

Doppelfiasel (dop'p'l-fltl-g'l), Ger. Double 
grand pianoforte. (1) An instrument in- 
vented in the last century, also called Dia- 
plasion and Vis-i-vis. It had at both ends 
one or two keyboards, which acted upon 
two separate sets of strings. (2) Piano & cla- 
viers ren versus (g. v.). 

Doppelgedeckt (d6p'p'l-g6-d6ktO,(?«'. Double- 
stopped diapason. 

Doppelgelge (dop'p'l-ghl'ghe),^^-. Anorgan- 
siop. See Viola d* Amour. 

Doppelgriffe fdSp-p'l-grlffe), (?cr. Double stop 
on the violin, etc. 

Doppelkanon (d5p'p'l-kfi-n5n), Ger, A canon 
with two subjects. 

Doppelkreuz (dop'p'l-kroitz), Ger. A double 
sharp (^ff or X)> raising a note two semi- 

Doppelpunkt (ddp-p^-poonkt), Ger. Double 
dot after a note. 

Doppel5chiag (dop'p'l-shlSgh), Ger. A mor- 
dent, a turn. 

Doppelschritt (ddp'p'l-shiit), Ger. A quick 

Doppelt (d6p-p»lt), Ger. Double. 

Doppeite Noten (d6p'p*l-t6 no't'u), Ger. Double 

Doppelter Trillerlauf rdSp'p'l-ter triri6r-louf), 
Ger. Double cadence. 

DoppeK gestrtehene Note (ddp'p€lt gh6-strl'- 
kn'ue no'tfi), Ger. A semiquaver. 

Doppia lyra (d6p-pI-& le'ra), It. A double lyre. 

Doppio (dop'pl-o). It. Double, twofold ; some- 
times indicating that octaves are to be 

Dornio movlmento (d6p'pl-5 m6-vl-m6n-t6),i? 
Double movement or time ; that is, as ifast 

Doppio pedale (d6p'pi-6 p€-daa6), It. Playing 
a bass passage on the organ with the pedals 
moving in octaves, etc.; that is, using both 
feet at the same time. 

Doppio tempo (djjp'pl-d t€m'pd), It. Double 
time, as fast again. 

Doppo (d6p'p6), It. After. See Dope, 

Dorian (d6-rl an), Gr. \ The name of one of 

Dorien (dd-rl-ann), Fr. jthe ancient modes or 

scales. (1) In the ancient Greek system, 

the octave species elgabcde, and one 
of the transposition scales. (2) In the 
e celesi as tjeal system, the octave species 

defgabcd, the first (authentic) mode. 

Doric mode. Dorian. 

Dossologia (dds-sd-ld'ji-a), It. Doxology. 

Dot. (1) A point placed after a note in* 
creases its duration one half. (2) A point 
placed above or below a note indicates that 
the latter has to be played staccato (de- 
tached). If there is at the same time a si ur, 
the notes thus marked are played mezzo 
staccato (lit.," half detached "). (3) A series 
of two or four dots placed by a double bar 
indicate that the strain upon that side is to 
be played twice through. See Repeat. 

Dot, double. Two dots placed after a note to 
increase its duration three fourths of its 
original value. 

Double (doo'b'l), Fr. Variation. Doubles 
may be defined as repetitions of a song, 
dance tune, or instrumental air, ornament- 
ed with figures, graces, diminutions, runs, 
etc. The term is obsolete. 

Double A, or, AA. In Engla nd the term 

double is applied to all those fg^ 

bass notes from G to F iuclu- isz: 

sive. In Germany the rule is : 

dififerent. See Double G. ^to 

Double-action harp. A harp with pedals, by 
which each string can be shortened two 

Double aftemote. Two afternotes, taking 
their time from writu.. — pui^. 

the previous 

note. bg -|iLf-' 

Double appoggiatura. A union of two short 

Double B, OTf BB. See Dovble G. 

Double bar. Two thick strokes drawn down 
through the staff to divide one strain or 
movement from another. In many editions 
these are incorrectly placed. 

Double bass. This instrument, the laigest 
member of the violin family, and the fun- 
damental part of the orchestra, has geuer- 
erally either three or four strings. In Ger- 
many the double bass is tuned asunder (a), 
in England most frequently as under (&), 
and in Italy and Frances as under (c). The 
double bass sounds the notes an octave 
lower than they are written. 





Acm, ftadd,&aie, €eml, det«, I i{2, 1 isle, 5 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a &u/, \l/'r.8oii7u2,kh Ger.c^,nh noMiL 
T (97) 





_nMe iMssoon. This Instrument is an oc- 
tftve lower in pitch than the bassoon. Its 
extreme compass extends from the donble 
oontra Bb to tue'small F {B,J^ to f ). The cr>m- 
pass of a double bassoon designed by Dr. W. 
H. Sione, and made by Haseneir, of Cob- 
lentz, extends from C, to c'. Also a 16- or 32- 
feet organ reednstop, of smaller scale and 
softer tone than the double trumpet. 

f>oable bemol (b&-mdl), Fr. Double flat. 

Double C, or, CC. eeeDotOOeO, 

Double chant. A simple harmonized melody 
in four strains or phrases, and extending to 
two verses of a psalm or canticle. 

Double chorde (doobl k6rd), Fr. Playing one 
and the name note on the violin upon two 
strings at once. 

Double counterpoint. A counterpoint which 
admits of the parts being Inverted. 

Double croche (doobl krOsh), Fr, Double- 
booked ; a semiquaver. 

Doubled. A term applied when one of the 
notes of a chord is repeated in a different 
part of the same chord. 

Double D, or, DD. BeelknOOeO, 

Double demijemlquaver. A note equal in 
duration to one half of a demisemi- wn 
quaver ; a sixty-fourih note. It is writ- IftZ 
ten thus: -p- 

Double descant. Where the treble or any 
high part can be converted into the bass, 
and yfce versa. 

Dobble diapason. An organ-stop tuned an oc- 
tave below the diapasons. It is called a 16- 
feet stop on the manuals ; on the pedals it is 
a 82-feet stop. 

Double dlese (doobl dl-ftz) , Fr. A double sharp 


Doubled letters. Capital letters doubled, in- 
dicating that the tone is an octave lower 
than where the letters stand single. 

Double drum . A large drum used in military 
bands and beaten at both ends 

Double dulciana. An organ-^top of small 16- 
feet scale aud delicate tone. 

Double E, or, EB. Bee Double O, 

Double P, or PP. See Double Q. 

Double flageolet. A flageolet consisting of 
two tubes, blown throuKh one mouthpiece, 
and producing two souuds at one time. 

Double flat. A character (t»b) which, placed 
upon a staff degree, indicates a depression 
of a whole »itep. 

Double flute. A flute so constructed that 
two tones may be produced from it at the 

A same time ; a stop in an orgau. See Doppd- 

Double fugue. A fugue on two subjects. 

Double Q. The octave below 
O gamut; the lowest G on 
the pianoforte, in England 
the term Double is applied 
to all those bass notes from 
O to F inclusive. 



Double srrand pianoforte. An instrument 
with a set of keys at each end, invented 
by James Pierson, of New York. 

Double hautboy. A 16-feet reed-organ stdp 
of small bcale. 

Double lyre. The lyria doppia, an old in- 
•strumeiit of the viol kind. 

Double note. A breve ; a note twice \i^[ 
the length of a whole note. \r^\'', 

Double octave. An inter ml ot two octaves; 
a fifteenth ; the bisdiapason of the ancient 

Double quartet. A composition written for 
eight instruments or voices ; eight singers. 

Double reed. The mouthpiece of the haut' 
boy, bassoon, etc., formM of- two pieces of 
cane joined together. 

Double shake. Two notes shaken simultane- 
ously ; they must form sixths or thirds. 

Double sharp* A character which, when 
placed upon a staff degree, indicates an ele- 
vation of a whole step. It is usually written 
as follows: ^^ or X. 

Double-stopping:. In violin -playing, two at once. 

Double-stopped diapason. An organ-stop of 
16-feet tone on the manuals ; the pipes are 
stopped or covered at the top. 

Dpuble suspension. A suspension tbst re- 
tards two notes and requires a double 
preparation and resolution. 

Double tierce. An organ-stop tuned a tenth 
above the diapasons, or a major third above 
the octave. 

Double time. Inelegant for Double Measure. 
A movement iu which every measure is 
composed in two equal parts. It is marked 
by letting the hand fall and rise alter- 

Double-tonguelng. A method of articulating 
quick notes used by flute-players. 

Double trill. See Double shake. 

Double triplet. The union of F^ 
two triplets; asextole, thus: 

Double trumpet. An organ-stop of 16-feet 
scale ; sometimes the lowest octave of pipes 
is omitted, and it is then called the Tenor- 
oon trumpet. 

Double twelfth. An organ-stop sounding the 
fifth above the foundation stops ; it is gen- 
erally composed of stopped pipes. 

Doublette (doob-lSf). Fr. An organ-stop 
tuned an octave above the principal; iu 
England it is called the fifteenth. A mix- 
ture oi: two ranks. 

Doucet (doo-sftO> Fr. Sweet, soft, gentle. 

Doucement (doos'manh), Fr. Sweetly, softly, 

Douleur (doo-lflr'), Fr. Grief, sorrow, pathos. 

Douioureusement (doo-loor-(is-m&nh), Fr. 
Plaintively, sorrowfully. 

i» oniH & add, & ofe, e «nd, « 0t«, 1 <tt, I is^e, d oM, d odd, 00 moon, tl 6tt^ tt fV sotffid, k^ 





Dottlottrettx (doo-loor-<Ui),i^. Sorrowful, ten- 
der, plaiutive. 

Doux (dooz), Ft. Sweet, soft, gentle. 

Douzieme (doo-zhl-ftmO, Fr, A twelfth. 

Downbeat. The accented part or parts of a 
bar at which in beating time the hand or 
footfalls. (K. ThMis.) 

Downbow. The drawing of the bow In play- 
ing a stringed instrument from the nut to 
the head. 

Downbow-itiipi. A sign used in violin mu- 
sic indicatiug that the bow is to be drawn 
down; thus, fl. 

DoxoloflTla (dSx-a-Wgl-a), Led. \ Dnxnloffv 
Doxologio (d0x-6i'd-zh6), i3r. jDo^cology. 

Doxology, Or. A form or expression of praine 
and honor to God, but more especially the 
*• Gloria in excelsis Deo " (*♦ Glory to God in 
the highest ") and the '* Gloria Patri et Filio 
et Spiritui Sancto " (•* Glory be to the Fath- 
er, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.") 
The former is called the Greater Doxology 
{Doxologia mc^or), the latter the Lesser (Dox- 
ologia minor.) Also versified forms ox the 

Drag. A digore in drum music. 

Draht»alte(drat'86i'te),G'er. Music wire; wire 

Drama. A poem accompanied by action; a 
play, a tragedy or comedy. 

Dramatic. A term applied to music written 
for the stage and to all other music repre- 
senting passion. 

Dramatlcamente (dril-m&-tl-ka-men'te), It. \ 
Dramatiquemente (dr^-m^-tek-manht), Fr. ) 

Dramatique (dra-mft-tekO, Fr. "|.n,.o™o+i.i 
Dramati5ch (dra-ma'lXsh), Gcr, | dramatic. 

Dramatis persoiue (dra-mil'tXs pSr-sd^nA), Lot. 
The characters of an opera or play. 

Dramaturge (drftm-& tiirzh), Fr. \ A drama- 
Dramaturgo (dra-ma-toor'gd), It. / tlst. 

Drame (dram), Fr. ) . ^^--Tnii^ 
Dramma (dram'ma). It. | ^ ^ra,mii. 

Dramma burlesca (drfim'm& boor-les'kfi), It. 
A comic or humorous drama. 

Dramma lirico (dr&m'm& Ig'rX-kd), *) 
Dramma per musica (dr&m-ma pSrVJ^ 
moo'zi-ka), J 

An opera or musical drama. 

Drammatlcamente (dr&m - TnR-tI-k&-m€n't6) , 
It. Biamaiically, in a declamatory style. 

Dranjmatlca (dr&m-m3,'tl-kd), It. Dramatic. 

Drawstops. The knobs or buttons by means 
of which the organist brings on or takes off 
certain ** stops " or sets of pipes. See Stop, 

Drehorgel (dra'org'l), Oer. Barrel organ. 

Drehsessel (dra'sfis-s'l), q„ \x m\^\o.Rtnn\ 
Drehstuhl (dra'stool), ^^- ]• A music-stool. 

Dreher (dra'6r), Oer, A slow waltz, or ,Ger- 
mau dance. 

Drel (dil), Oer, Three. 

Dreiachtel (drl-ftkh'tl), Qtr. Three qnaven, 

Drelachteltact (drl-&kh't'l-tftkt), Oer, Measure 
in 3-8 time. 

Drelhindig (dn'h&n-dIg).G'0r. For three hands. 

Dreiangei (drl'an-g*l), Oer. Triangle. 

DreichOrig (drlTcSr-igh), Oer. Three-choired. 
Applied to any piano having three strings 
to each note. Nearly all upright pianos, as 
well as grands, belong to this class. Also 
applied to compositions for three choirs. 

Dreigesang (dri'ghe-s&ng'),(;er Trio for three 

Dreiklang (drinciang), Oer. A triad, a chord 
of three sounds. 

Dreimal (drl'mfil), Oer, Thrice. 

DreUt (drist), Oer. Brave, bold, confident. 

Dreistigkelt (drls'tig-klt), Oer, Boldness, con- 
fidence, resoluiion. 

Dreistimmig (drI'sUm-mIgh), Oer. Three- 

Dreivierteltact (drI-fer't'l-t&kt),G^. Measure 
in 3-4 time. 

Dreizweiteltact (drl-tswrt'1-takt), Oer. Meas- 
uring 3-2 time, or a measure of three min- 

Dringend (dring^^nd), Oer. Pressing. 

Drltta(dr€ftfi), « ) Right; t?Minodr«to, the 
Dritto (dret'to), -'^* / right har' 

Dritte (drit'tC), Oer. 


Droite (drwftt), Fr. Right; main droiie^ the 
right hand. 

Drommete (drflm-ma'tfi), Oer. A trumpet. 

Drone. The two or three pipes of the bagpipes 
wbi^h furnish the fixed and unvarying ac- 
companiment to the melody of the chanter, 
the third or fourth pipe. A drone bass is 
often found in orchestral and other instru- 
mental works. ( V. Bagpipe.) 

Drdnen (dro'nSn), Oer. To give a low, dull 
sound; to drone. 

Driicker (dre'k'r), Oer. A sticker in organ ac- 

Drum. An instrument of percusfslon consist- 
ing of one or two skins stretched over a 
frame, frequently cylindrical in form and 
always circular at the top. There are a great 
many kinds of drums— the Tambourine, 
Sidedrum, Bass, or Big, Drum. Kettledrum, 
etc., the most important of which will be 
noted in their places. 

Drama (droo-nul), Iri. A drum. 

Drum, bass. A large drum used in military 
bauds. See Double drum. 

Drum bass. A term applied to the meie use 
of the tonic and dominant in playing upon 
the double bass. 

4.e(rM. & <»d<i, i oie^ %endt « eve, I iU, I ide, 5 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a hut, 11 Fr. sound, kh Oer. ch, nh wuaL 





fyrum mi^or. The principal drummer in a 
military band; the officer directing the 

|>,5. The initials of Dal Segno. 

Ductus (dook'toos), Lat. Melodic movement/ 
or order of successive notes, which may be : 
(1) rectus, direct, t. «., ascending ; (2) reversus, 
or reveriens, reversed, t. «., descending; or 
(3) circumcurreiM^ circumcurrent, i. e., as- 
cending and descending. 

Dudeler (doo'dlSr), (?er. One who plays or 
sings badly. 

Dudetkasten (doo'd'l-kSs-t'n), Qer. Barrel 
organ; a hurdygurdy. 

Dudelsack (doo'd'1-sfik), ^^ ) 

Dudelkastensack (doo'd*l-kfis-t'n-s&k), ^^' ] 

A bagpipe, a cornamuse, a hornpipe. 
Due (doo'S), Jl. Two ; in two parts. 

Due clarlnl (doo'6 kla-re'ne), It. Two trump- 

Due corde (doo'3 k^Jr-dS), B. Two strings. See 
A due corde. 

Due cori (doo'S kd-rl), It. Two choirs or 

Due pedall (doo'3 pe-d&OI), i2. The two ped- 
als a^e to be used. 

Duet. A compobition for two voices or in- 
struments, or for two performers upon the 
same instrument. 

Due trombe (doo'S trdmHsS), R. Two trump- 

Duett (doo-€f ), Qer, A duet. 

Duette (doo-€t't6), Qer. pi. \ t>„^x- 
Duettl (doo-et'a), l^uets. 

Duettino (doo-3t-t€'nd), It. A short and easy 

Duetto (doo-€f to), R. A duet. 

Due volte (doo'S vol'tC), R. Twice. 

Dulcet. Soft, sweet, musical ; an organ-stop. 

Dutcian (diU-se-anh'), Fr. A small bassoon, 
bee Doiciaiio. A dulciana stop. 

Dulciana stop. An 8- feet organ-stop; of a 
soft and sweet quality of tone. 

Dulciana principal. A 4-feet oigan-stop of 
delicate tone. 

Dulcimer. A very ancient instrument whose 
principal parts are a wooden frame, a 
soundboard with one or several sound- 
holes, two bridges, and appliances for the 
fastenlni; and tuning of tne wire strings 
with which it is strung. A dulcimer is 
played upon with two hammers. 

Dumb spinnet. Another name for the clavi- 

Dump! (doompf), ^ \ Of a dull, hollow, 
Dumpfig (doomp'flg),"^ j muffled sound. 

Dumpfiffkeit (doomp'f1?-kIt), Qer. Hollow- 
ness, dullness of sound. 

Duo (doo'6). It. Two ; in two parts ; a com- 

Sosition for two voices or instruments ; a 

Duo concertaiite (doo'd kon-tsh^Sr-t&n'tfe), 71 
A duo in which each part is alternately prin- 
cipal and subordinate. 

Duodecima (doo-6-da'tsht-mfl), » )The 
Duodecimo (doo-d-d&'tshl-mo),''^* j twelfth, 
the twelfth note from the tonic ; the name 
is also applied to an organ-stop tuned a 
twelfth above the diapasons. 

Duodeclma acuta (doo-d-d&'tsI-m& &-koo'ta), 
Lat. A twelfth above. 

Duodeclma eravl (doo-^d&'t^-m& grfi've), 
Lat. A twelfth below. 

Duodedmole (doo-6-da-tshI-m6'ie), R. A mu- 
sical phrase, formed by a group of twelv » 

Duodramma (doo-d-dr&m'm&), It. Duodrama. 
A dramatic piece for two performers ; more 
especially a spoken drama with musical ac* 
companiments, a kind of melodrama {q. v.), 

Duoi (doo-S'e), iif. Two. 

Duole. A group of two notes to fill the time 
of three of the same denomination, as in 6-8 
measure two eighth-notes with a figure 2 to 
occupy the time of three eighth-note» * 

I ^J equal to JJ2 

Duolo (doo-olo), R. Sorrow, sadness, griel 

Duomo (doo-o'md). It. A cathedral. 

Dupla (doo-pla), Lai. Double. 

Duple time. Double time. 

Duplex lonea (doo^plSz ldn'g&), Lai. M#^i- 
ma, one of the notes in the old system of 

Duplication. Doubling; where one or more 
of the intervals of a chord are repeatea In 
different parts. 

Duplo (doo-plo), R. Double. 

Dur fdoor), Qer. Major, in speaking of keya 
and modes ; as, C-dur^ C major. 

Dur (diir), Fr. Hard, harsh of tone. Major, av 
distinguished from minor. 

Duramente (doo-ra-m6n'tS), It. Harshly', 
roughlv ; also meaning that tbe passage i» 
to be played in a firm, bold style, and strongs 
]y accented. 

Durate {doo-ra't€), R. Hard, rough ; also im- 
plying false relations in harmony. 

Durchcomponlren (doorkhlcdm - po - ne'r'n), 
Qer. Lit., •* to compose through. • A durch* 
componirtes Lied, "a through - composed 
song," is a song of which each verse nas a 
setting of its own, whilst in other songs onv 
setting serves for all verses. 

Durchdrlnsrend (doorkh-dring'6nd),€fer. Peo^ 
etrating, piercing. 

Durohdrlngende Stimme (doorkh-drIng'€n-diS 
stlm'm^), Ger. A shrill voice or tone. 

DurchfiihrunsT (doorkh'fU-roong),Gfr. Devel- 
opment. Generally applied to the free fan- 
tasia serving for middle part of the main 
movement in sonatas and other serious 

lorvij & add, & ale, 6 end,, 3 eve, I ill, I Me, 6old, 6 odd, oo moon, tnU, ii. Fr, wund, kh Otr. ch, nh 





DurchsangstSne (doorkh'gaug8-t5n-eh), Qer, 
Passiug toues. 

Ourchgehend (doorkh'ga-<Snd). Ger. Passing, 
transient; passing through. 

Durte (dii-ra'), Fr. Length, duration of notes. 

Durement (dlir-manh), Fr, Hard, harsh. 

DureU (da-r6-ta0, Fr. See Durate, 

\)arezza (doo-r&t'za), It. Hardness, harshness 
of tone or expression. 

Dure (doo'rd), It Rude, harsh. 
DOster (diis'ter), Qer, Gloomy. 

Duten (doo-t'n), ri^^ \ A contemptuoni 
DUtcn (da-fn), ^^' / term, meaning to toot 
or blow on a horn. 

Dux (doox). Lot. Leader, guide ; the subject, 
or leading melody, of a fugue. 

Dynamics. This term in music has reference 
to expression and the diBerent degrees of 
power or intensity to be applied to notes. 

/6» called in France and Italy mi : the third 
note of the modem scale of Quido d' Arezzo. 

13, Bd (ad), It. And. 

H, The smallest and most acute string on the 
-violin and guitar. 

^bollimeiito (a-bdl-U-mSn'td), It, Ebullition. 

^Bccedente (€t-tsh^ddn'te), IL Augmented, in 
spM^Llng of interyals. 

BcclesU (Sk-kl&'zl-a), It and Lot. Church. 

Ecclesiastical. A term applied to all music 
written for the Church. 

Ecclesiastical modes. See Church modes. 

Bcdesiastico stilo (Sk-klft-zI-Ss-tl-kd ste'16), It. 
In the church or ecclesiastical style. 

Ecco (&k'kd), iK. Behold. 

Echappement (&-8hfip-mftnh), Fr. Release. 
Double Echappement, rcpeating-mechanism 
in a piano. 

Kichenriare (a-ked-jl-a^r^), It. To echo, to re- 

Echelle (&-shSU), Fr. The scale, or gamut. 

Bciielle ciiromatique (anshSll krd-mAt-ekO,i^r. 
The chromatic scale. 

Echelle diatonique (a shell dl-a-t6nh-ek0, Fr. 
The diatonic scale. 

Echo (a-kd), Fr. In organ music this term 
means a repetition or imitation of a previ- 
ous passage, with some striking modifica- 
tion in regard to tone. An echo. 

Echo comet. An organ-stop the pipes of 
which are of small scale, with a light, deli- 
cate tone. It is usually placed in the swell. 

Eclat (a-kla'), Fr. A burst of applause, ex- 
pressions of approbation. 

Bclatante (&-km-tfinhtO. Fr. Piercing, loud. 

Bclisses (a-kie8f>), Fr. The sides or hoops of 
a violin, guitar, etc. 

Eclogue {jSk-\6g),Gr. A pastoral song or poem. 

fico (ft'kd), It. Ad echo. 

Bcole (e-kol), Fr. A school, a method or 
course of instruction, a style formed by some 
eminent artist. 

Bcole de chant (a-kdl dah shanh), Fr. A sing- 

Bcossais (a-kds-saO, ry ) Scotch; a dance, 
Bcossaise (a-kOs-s&z), J tune, or air in the 
Scotch style. (2) An old dance of Scotch or- 
igin. It was of a grave character, and either 
in 3-2 or 3-4 time. (3) The modern ^ossaise 
is a lively contredause in 2-4 time, formerly 
popular in France, Germany, and other 

Bcosslise (a-kos-s&'zS), Oer. See EcosmUe. 

Bcoutants (a-koo-tanh), Fr, Auditors, listen- 

Bd(ad), 7^ And. 

Bdel (a'd'l), Ger. Noble. 

Bdlteur (a-dl-tar), Fr. Editor, publisher. 

E-dur (&-door), Oer. The key of E major. 

Effet (6f-fa). Fr. \ Effect ; the effect of mu- 
Effetto (gf-f&'to). It. J sic upon an audience. 

B-flat. The black key of the piano or organ 
next to the left of E. The flat of E. The 
fiat seventh of F, and the second fiat intro- 
duced in modulating by fourths from the 
natural diatonic scale. 

Egalement (a-g&l-manh), Fr. Equally, even- 
ly, smoothly. 

EgaliU (a-gal-i-taO» Fr. Equality, evenness. 

Eglise (a-glez), Fr. Church. 

Egloga (al'y^ ga), It. \ An eclogue ; a pas- 
Eglogue (a-glogOf Fr. j toral poem. 

Eguale (S-goo-aie), 7^ Equal, even, alike* 
also applied to a composition for several 
voices or instruments of one kind, as, male 
voices only ; female voices only. 

Bgualezza (a-goo-&-16t'za). It. Equality, even- 

Bgualmente (a-goo-ftl-m^n't^), It. Equally, 
evenly, alike. 

Eighth. An octave. 

&«NB. ft add, & o^ dend, eeoe, lOl, I itie, 6 old, odd, oo tnoofH tl bti^, il ^. scmnd, kh G^ 





an; one. 

Eighth-note. A quayer. 
BUend (lasnd), Qer, Hurrying. 

Binchftrig (in'k5r-I«h), Qer, One-choired. 
This term la applied (1) to any instrument 
which has but one string to each note ; (2) 
to a composition fur one choir, to distin- 
guish it from a composition for two or 
more distinct choirs. 

Biiifach(In'£&kh), Oer. Simple, plain, unoma- 

Blngang (In'gftng), Qer, Introduction, pref- 
ace, prelude. 

Bingestrichen (In'ghe-strl-kb'n), Qer. Kote 
oi the treble marked with one stroke. This 
refers to the octave from middle C to the B 
above. Called also " once-marked octave." 

Binheit (InOilt), Qer, Unity. 

Binhelfen (InOiei-f n), Qer. To prompt. ' 

Binigen (I'nI-ghSn), Qer. Some, any. 

Binigkeit (I'nlgh-klt), Qer. Unity, concord, 

Binklang (inlcl&ng), Qer. Unison. 

Binleitung (in'li-toong), Qer. Introduction, 

Binmal (In'm&l), Qer. Once. 

Binsang (in's&ng), Qer. A solo. 

Binschnitt (Iq'shnlt), Qer. A phrase, or in- 
complete musical sentence. 

BinMUzeichen (In's&tz-tsl-kh'n), Qer. (1) 
The sign which the leader gives to the va- 
rious performers to commence. (2) In a 
canon, the mark which siguifiefl the com- 
mencement of the imitating voice. 

Binstimmen (lu'stitm-m'n), Qer. To agree in 
tune, to be concordant. 

Binstimmigkeit (In'stitm-migh-kit), Qer. A 
concord, agreement. Literally, one-voiced. 

BintAnig (In'to-nigh), Qer. Monotonous. 

Eintretend (In'tr^t^nd), Qer. Entering, be- 

Bintritt (In'trit), Qer. Entrance, entry, be- 

EU (Is), Qer. The note E^. 

Bisteddfod (es'ted-fdd), WeUh. A bardic con- 

5:re6s. An assemblage of bards first held in 

Blectric piano. A piano invented in 1851, 
the wires of which were vibrated by ham- 
mers actuated by electro-magnetism. Sev- 
eral attempts of this kind have been made, 
but all have failed. 

Bl^gamment (€l&-gftm-mdnh), Fr. \ |^.. 
Blegantemente («l-^g&n-t^men't«). It. ] ^^^' 
gautly, gracefully. 

Blegante (ei-^-giln'te), B. Elegant, graceful. 

Eleganza (61-^g&n't8&), It. Elegance, grace. 

Blegia (61-6-je'fi), It. An elegyi or monody; 
music of a mournful or funereal character. 

Elegiac. Plaintive, mournful, sorrowful. 

Blegiaco (61-6-n-a'k6), It. \ Mournful, plain- 
Ei^giaque (61-a-«hi-ftk;, Fr. / tive, elegiac. 

Elegy. A mournful or plaintive poem, or a 

Elementary music. Exercises and studies 
specially adapted to beginners in the study 
of music. 

Elements. The first or constituent principles 
or parts of anything ; the principles or rudi- 
ments of musical science. 

Elevamento (61-6-v&-m6n't6), « 1 Grandeur, 
Elevatezza (Sl-6-va-tet'za), ^^' J sublimity, 
loftiness of expression. 

Elevato (61-^va't6), It. Elevated, exalted, sub- 

Bievazione (ei-^va-tsX-d'ne), It. Elevation, 

Blevatio (61-6-va'tsX-6), Lot. Elevation. (1) 
The upbeat in beating time. (2) The unac- 
cented part of a bar. (3) The rising of a 
melody beyond the ambitus (compass) of 
the mode. (4) A motet or any other vocal 
or instrumental composition performed 
during the elevation of the Host. 

Elevation. To the four meanings given in 
the preceding article is to be added this : 
(5) The obsolete English name of two orna- 
ments. As one of the "smooth graces," it 
is synonymous with an ascending double 
appoKgiatura ; as one of the " shaked graces " 
it IS more complicated. 

Elive (a-liv), Fr. A pupil. 

Eleventh. An interval comprising an octavw 
and a fourth. 

Elf leif), Qer. Eleven. 

Elfte (eif te), Qer. Eleventh. 

Eloge (&-16zh'), Ft. Praise, eulogy. 

Elegy. See Eulogy. 

Emiiellir (anh-b61-lerO, Fr. To embellinh, to 
adorn, to ornament. 

Emiiellissement (anh-b€l-less-m6nh),jFV. Em - 

Emiielllshment. Ornament, decoration, notes 
added for the purpose of heightening the 
efi'ect of a piece. 

Emiwttchure (^nh-boo-shoor). JV. The month- 
piece of a flute, hautboy, or other wind in- 
strument ; that part to which the lips are 
applied to produce the sound . It also refers 
to the position which the mouth must as- 
sume in playing the instrument. 

E-moll (&-mdll), Qer. The key of E minor. 

Empi^ter lea sons (Onh-pA-ta le sdnh), Fr. To 
slug or play in a masterly manner, without 
delects or imperfections. 

Empflndung (€mp-fin'doong), Qer. Emotion, 
passion, leeiing. 

4arm,&add,fta<6, (iend,(ieve, liU,li8U, 6old, 6 odd, oo moon Hbutt^Fr. sound, kh Qer.cJi, nh natal 





Bmpfindungsyoll (Smp-fin'doongs-fOll), Oer, 
Full of expression. 

Bmphase (Sm-f&'ze), Oer. Emphasis. 

Emphatlque (ftnh-fa-tfikO, i^. lEmnhatical 
Bmphatisch (6mp-fa'tlsb), Qer. | Empnaucai. 

Bmphatlquement (an-fa-tek'm&nh), Fr. Em- 

Emphasis. Marked expression; particular 
stretie or accent on any note, indicated thus : 
>Jz.,^., etc. 

Emphasize. To sing with marked accent. 

Bmptto (Sm-pfi'td), R. Impetuosity. 

Empituosamente (6m-pe-too-d-za-mfin'te), It. 

Bmporti (&nh-pdr-t&)f Fr. Passionate, hur- 

Bmportement (Anh-pdrt-manh), Fr. Passion, 

Empress^ (&nh-pre8-6&}, Fr. In haste, eager, 

Bmpressement (&nh-press-md,nh), Fr. Eager- 
ness, zeal. 

En (anh). Fr. In. 

Enarmonico (en-&r-md'nl-kd),/i(. Enharmonic. 

Encore (finh-kfir'), Fr. Again, once more; 
demand for the repetition of a piece. 

Ende (end'6), Oer. End, conclusion, conrlnd- 
ing piece. 

Energia (6n-fir-jg'a), R. \ Energy, force, em- 
Boergle (en-€r-zh§), Fr. j phasis. 

Energicamente (€n-er-je-kft-men'te), It. En- 
ergetically, forcibly. 

Energloo (Sn-ar'JI-kd), It. Energetic, vigors 
ous, forcible. 

Energlque (fin-fir-zh€kO, Fr. \ Energetic, with 
Energisch (fiu-ftr'ghlsh), Oer. j emphasis. 

Enertj^quement (£n-er-zhSk-m&nh), Fr. En- 
ergetically, forcibly. 

Enfant de chttur (&nh-f&nh dtlh kUr), Fr. 
Singing boy. 

Bnfasi (fin-f&'zl). It. Emphasis, earnestness. 

Enfaticamente («n-£&-tX-k£.m«n'te), It. Em- 

Enfatico (en-l&'tl-kd), It. Emphatical, wifh 

Enfiatamente (en-fl-a-t&-men'tfi), It. Proudly, 

Enfier (ftnh-fl&O, Fr. To swell, to increase the 

Enge (Sng-S), Oer. Close, condensed, com- 
pressed ; this term is applied to the stretto 
in a fugue. In speaking of organ-pipes, tt 
means narrow, straight. 

Enge Harmonie (fing-€ har-md-nd')> Oer. Con- 
tracted or close harmony, the intervals or 
sounds being close together. 

Engelstimme (Sng'Sl-stXm'mS), Ofr. Angel 
voice. Angelica. A full-reed stop in an or- 

Engfiihrung (fing'fiir-oong), Oer, "Narrow 
workini^.'^ The condensed canonic treat- 
ment of a theme in fugue. A stretto. 

English fingering. In pianoforte musie the 
use of a Sign (X) to designate the thumb, in 
distinction from the German fingering, 
where the thumb is designated as the first 

English horn. A species of oboe, a fourth or! 
a fifth lower than the instrument usually 
designated by that name. 

Enguichure (&nh-ghe-8htLrO, Fr. The mouth- 
piece of a trumpet. 

Echarmonic(6n-har-m6n1k). (1) In our pres- 
ent system of music, with its twelve equal 
semitones in the octave, those notes, in- 
tervals, and scales are called enharmonic 
which diff'erin notation but not in pitch. 
Enharmonic chords are chords which have 
in common one or several tones the same in 
pitch but difi'erent in notation. An enhar- 
monic modulation is one by means of such 
chords. (2) With the ancient Greeks the 
word " enharmonic " had an entirely differ- 
ent meaning. In their enharmonic genus 
the tetrachord presented Itself as a progres- 
sion of two quarter-steps and a major third ; 

for instance, e e-H f a (a development 
from the trichord e f a). 
Enharmonic intervals. Such as have only a 
nominal difference ; for instance, the minor 
third, C, £t?,and the extreme second, C, D#; 
or, the extreme fifth, C, G^, and the minor 
sixth, C, A[7, etc. 

Enharmonic organ. An organ in which the 
octave, instead of being limited to a division 
of twelve intervals, contains from beventeen 
to twenty-four. An organ capable of play- 
ing in ptrrfect tune within limits of the dia- 
tonic modes. 

Enharmonlcus (6n-hfi,r-m<ynI-koos), Lot.') 
Enharmonique (auh-h&r-mOiih-SkO, Fr. > 
Enharmonisch (Sn-h&rmd'ulsh), Oer. j 

Enoncer (ft-nOnh-sa), Fr. To enunciate, to 

Ensayo (Sn-sft'yd), Sp. Rehearsal of a piece. 

Enselgnement (anh-san-m&nh), Fr. Instruc- 

Enselgner (SAh-sanh'y&), Fr. To instruct, to 

Ensemble fanh-s&nh'bl),JV. Together. Taken 
substantively this word signifies: (1) Per- 
fect harmony between different parts of a 
whole; (2) mutual understanding and en- 
tire agreement between the performers in 
rendering a composition. A morceau d'en> 
semble is a composition for two or more 
parts, more especially quintets, sextets, sep- 
tets, etc., in an opera, oratorio, or similar 

Entgegen (6nt-ga'gh*n), ^_. ) 

Entgegengeset2t(6nt-ga'g'n-gh«-86tzt>, ^^' f 
Contrary, opposite, speaking of motion. 

tarm, &add, & ale, dend, e eve, Iti<,Ii82e, old, 6 odd, oo moon, a 6u^, tt i^. sound, kh Oer. ch^JihwutiL 





Bnthousiasme (&nh-too-zl-&3m), Fr. \ 
Bnthusiasmus (^n-too-zI-ajs'niooB), Qer, J 

BnthuslastUch (to-too-zX-&s'tl8h), Oer, En- 

Entr'acte (&nh-tT'-&kt), Fr. Between the acts; 
music played between the acts of a drama. 

Bntrante (fin-tran'te), ") An entrance, in- 
Entrata (en-tra'ta), It. ^troduction, pre- 
Entrada (Sn'tra'da), ) lude. 

Bntrte (anh-tr&O. Fr. Entry, entrance, begin- 
ning. A pompous introduction in march 

Entacheiduiiff (^nt-shl'doong), Oer. Decision, 

EntAchieden (Snt-she'd'n), Oer. Decided, in a 
determined manner. 

BntAchlafen (Snt-shlaTn), Qer. To die away, 
to diminish. * 

Ent5chios5eii (ent-shlds's'n),Oer. Determined, 

Entachluss (Snt-shlooss'), Oer. Resolution. 

Entusiasmo (€n-too-zl-as'md), Ji(. Enthusiasm. 

Bntwurf (6nt-woorf ), Ger. Sketch, outline of 
a compobition. 

Enunciate (a-noon-tshl-a'to). It. Enunciated, 

Envoy. The postscript, or ending, of a ballad. 

Epic. A poem in the narrative style, deal- 
ing with heroic incidents upon a large 

Eplcedlo (6p-I-tsha'dX-o), It. \ An elegy, 
Epicedium (€p-I-se'dI-Um), Eng. j dirge, fu- 
neral-song, or ode. 

Epigronlon (6p-i-g6'nl-6n) Gr. ) An ancient 
Bpigronium (ep-X-go'ni-oom), Lot. j Greek in- 

strumeut with forty strings, so named from 

Epigonius, its inventor. 

Bpiloffue. A speech or short poem addressed 
to the spectators by one of the actors after 
the conclusion of the play. 

Epigrone. An imitator. 

Epinette (a-x>e-ngtO, Fr. A spinet. 

Bpiniclon (Sp-I-ne'sI-^Jn). A triumphal song, 
a song oi victory. 

Episode. An incidental narrative or digres- 
sion ; a portion of a composition not found- 
ed upon the principal subject or theme. 

Episodic (gp-I-so'dl-d), It. Episode, digres- 

Bpisodidcti (Sp-I-sd'dXsh), Ger. In the man- 
ner of an episode. 

Bplstroplie (Cp-I-stro'fe), Gr. A repetition of 
the concluding melody. 

Bpitalamio («p-l-t&-la'ml-d). It. \ Epithala- 
Bpitlialme (fip-i-t&l-mS), Fr. \ mium. 

Bpltlialamion (epMh&-l&'ml-dn), Or. 
Bpittialamiuni (6p-X-tha-la-mX-oom), Gr. 
Bpittialaniiuni, Eng. 
Epltliaiamy, Eng. 
A marriage- song ; a nuptial-song or ode. 

Epode (6-p6'd6), Gr. Conclusion of a chorus ; 
a short lyric poem. 

Epode. In lyric poetry, the third or last part 
of the ode; that which lollows the strophe 
and antistrophe. The word is now used 
for any little verse or verses that follow one 
or more great ones ; thus a pentameter af- 
ter a hexameter is an epode. 

E pol (a i)d'g , It. And then. 

E pol la coda (a po'e la ko'da). It. And then 

Epopee (6-p6'p&), Or. An epic poem. 

EptacOrde (ep-t&-k6rd), Fr. A heptachord, a 
lyre with seven strings. 

EquAbile (€-kwa'bMe), It. Equal, alike, uni^ 

Equabllmente (e-kwa-bll-mfin'te), It. Equal- 
ly, smoothly, evenly. 

Equal counterpoint. A composition in two, 
three, four, or more parts, consisting of notes 
of equal duration. 

Equal temperament. That equalization or 
tempering of the different sounds of an oc- 
tave which renders them all of an equal de- 
gree of purity, the imperfection being di- 
vided among the whole. 8ee Temperament 

Equal voices. Compositions in which either 
all male or all female voices are employed. 

Equisonant. Of the same or like sound ; a 
unison. In guitar music the term is used to 
express the different ways of stopping the 
same note. 

Equisono (a-kwe'zd-no), It. Having the same 

Equivocal. Such chords as may by a slight 
change in the notation belong to more than 
one key. 

Er^rlffen (ar-griff'n), Ger. Struck, affected, 

Erhaben (&r-hant>'n), Ger. Elevated, sublime, 
in a lofty and exalted style. 

Eriieben (&r-ha'b*n), 6Vr. To raise, to elevate, 
to lift up the hand in beating time. 

Eriitthen (&r-hd'€n), Oer. See Erhd>en. 

Erhtthung (ftr-hd'oong), Ger. An elevation. 

Erli5liungszeichen (ftr-ho'oongs-tsl'kh'n), Ger. 
Sharps or double sharps. 

Ernfedrlsung (ar-n6'dri-gboong). Ger. The de- 
pression of a note by means of a flat or nat* 



kh'n), Ger. A flat, or other sign, lor lower 
ing a note a semitone. 

Ernst (amst), q \ Earnest, seri- 

Ernsthaft (arnsfhaft), jous ; in a grave 

and earnest style. 

^mnHf &add, &ate, iiend, eeve, liU, I isle, 6o2d, 6odd, oo moon, tl&u<,(i J^.«ound, kh Qer, cA. tthMotol 





Srasthaftlffkeit (ftmstOifif-tlg-klt), Get. Ear- 
nestness, seriousness. 

Brnstlichkeit (ftrnst'Ukh-kit), Oer, Earnest- 

Ernst und mit steifender Lebhaftlgkeit 

(ftmst oond mXt strghSii-d^r lab'h&f-tigh- 
klt), Oer. Earnestly, and with increasing 
vivacity. - 

Bmtelied (ftm't€-lM), Oer. Harvest-song. 

Brttffnung (&r-dfnoong), Oer. Opening, be- 

Brttffnungsstttck (&r-5f noongs-stak), Oer. Ov- 

Eroico (6-r61-k6), Or. Heroic. 

Erotic {Qt-6VIc). An amorous composition or 

Brotical (Sr-Ot'I-kftl}. Pertaining to love. 

Brotioa (6-rd'ti[-k&), II. Love-songp, amatory 

Erotic songs. Love-songs. 

Erst (arst), Oer. First. 

Erstemal (ftrs'te-mal), Oer.. First time. 

Brtdnen (ftr-to^nto), Oer. To soi7.nd, to re- 

Erweckung (ftr-w^k'oong), Oer. 'Animation, 

Erweltert (&r-w!'tert), Oer. Expanded, de- 

Es (6s), Oer. The note E|7. 

Esacordo (^za-kor'dC), It. Hexachord. 

Esatta (€-z&t'ia), It. Exacts strict- 

Esatta intonazione (d-zSt'ta Xn-td-nat-sX-d^n^), 
It. Exact intonation. 

Es-dur (6s-door), Oer. The key of E^ major. 

Bsecuzione (Sz-e-koot-sl o'nd). It. Execution, 
facility of performance. 

Esempio (6-z3m'pX-d), II. Example. 

Bsercizio (^zAr-tshe't^-d), It. An exercise, a 

"^is-es (&-^), Oer. The no*p E-double-flat 


Esitamento (6-zl-ta-m6n't6), r, \ Ti^oif„*i«„ 
Bsitazione (6-z§-tat-sX-6'u6)/'- j Hesitation. 

Es-moll (68-m611), Oer. The key of Eb minor. 

Bsonare (e-zo-na^rS), It. To adorn, to embel- 

Bspace (fis-pfis), Fr. A space; the interval 
between two lines of the sUiff. 

Bspagnol (6s-pftn-y61), Fr. \ Spanish, 

Bspagnuolo (€s-x>an-yoo o'ld). It, j in the 
Spanish style. 

E<»p*rto (es-par'tO), It, Skillful, expert. 

Bspirando (te-pe-rHn'ckd), Sp. Diminishing to 
the end. 

Bspirando (Ss-p^nln'^dC), It. Breathing deep- 
ly ; with great endeavor. 

Bspress. } -A^^^reviations of Espressivo. 

Bspresslone (te-prte-d-d'nS), H. Expression, 

Espressivo (es-prte-sS'vG), It. Expressive, to 
be played or sung with expression. 

Espringale (es'prln-ga-l^), It. Spring dance. 

Bssemplo (es-s€m'pl-d), It. See ^empio. 

Essential harmonies. The three harmonies 
of the key : tonic, dominant, and subdom- 

Essential notes. The real, component notes 
of a chord ; in contradistinction to all mere- 
ly accidental, passing, or ornamental notes. 

Estemporale (ds-t6m-pd-ra']€), „ \ 

Estemporaneo (68-t6m-p6-r8L'n6-6), * j 

Estinguendo (^-tin-goo-€n'dd), > Becom- 
E8tinte(es-ten'tg), It.[ ing ex- 

Estinto (Cs-ten'td), ) tinct, dy- 

ing away gradually in'time and strength of 

Estravagante (6s-tTarva-gan't6), « \ Extrav- 
E8trayaganza(Ss-tTarV&-gan'tsa), ' j agant 

Estremamente (€s-tra-ma-mdn't6), R. Ex- 

Esultazione (€s-ool-tat-sI-d'n€), It. Exultation. 

Et (et), Lat. And. 

Etelnte (g-tftnht), Fr. See E»tinte. 

Etendre (^-tanhdr), Fr. To extend, to spread. 

Etendue (6-tfinh-d\i), Fr. The extent or com- 
pass of an iustrument or voice. 

Et incarnatus (St In-k&r-n&'toos), Lat. " And 
was boru," €lc. A portion of the Credo. 

Etouff^ (&-toof-f&), Fr. Stifled, smothered ; a 
word used in harp-playing to signify a dead- 
ening of the tones, extingui^hiug the vibra- 
tion by touching the string ; in pianoforte 
music it means an exceedingly soft style of 

Etouffer (a-toof-fa), Fr. To stifle, to deaden 
the tone. 

Etouffoirs (a-too-fwar), Fr. pi. The dami>er8. 

Etre en repetition (atr Smh rSp-^te'sI-Onh), 
Fr. To be in rehearsal. 


Et resurrexit (St rS soor-rSx'Xt), Lat. 
rose again." A part of the Credo. 

Etta(eft&), Ty \ Little; an Italian final 
Etto(6t't6), ^^' I diminutive; as, trorrbetta, a 
little trumpet. 

Ettachordo (St-ta-kdr'dd), It Instruments 
having seven strings. 

Etude (ft-tttd), Fr. A study. Strictly s>>eak- 
ing, a composition for practice in whic the 
overcomiug of some one technical diflaculty 
is aimed at. There are, however, also Etudes 
which are studies in expression or in phra^L- 
ing. Further, during the last half century 
il has been the fashion to write etudes de 
concert, concert studies, {. e., studies in- 
tended not merelv for private practice, but 
also, perhaps chiefly, for public display. 
Not a few of these etudes de concert are in- 
deed Works of imagination and exquisite 

4ann,4<idd» kak, 6end, «eiic. iiU,liae,6old,6od/t.. rH}mo<m,ilbut,iXFr. sound, kh Oer. ch, nhnoMt. 





Btttdler (ft-ta-dd-&), Fr. To study, to practice. 

Bt vitaiii (et vS'tftm), Lot, " And life ever- 
lasting." A part of the Credo, in the Mass. 

Btwas (et'y&s), Oer. Some, somewhat, a little. 

Btwas laiiffsaiiier {6V\ia Ulng'sft-mSr), Qer, A 
little slower. 

Bufonia (&-oo-fd-nd'a),/i(. Euphony; an agree- 
able sound. 

Bttfonico (ft-oo-fd^nl-kd), //. Harmonious, 

Buphone (<ih-fdn), Fr. A reed-stop in an or- 
gan, of l&-feet scale. 

Bnphonle (<ih-f6-nS')i ^- \ Euphony, sweet- 
Buphonie (oi-fd-nS')> ^^* ) ness of tone. 

Sounds agreeable to the ear. 

Buf^ony. Agreeable sound; an easy, smooth 
enunciation of sounds. 

Buharmonic. Producing harmony or oon- 
corUaut sounds. 

BttharmonlG or^an. An ingenious instru- 
ment of American origin, invented by H. 
W. Poole about the year 1848. It contains 
three or four times the usual number of dis- 
tinct sounds within the compass of an oc- 
tave, furnishing the precise intervals for 
every key. The name was wrongly chosen, 
in place of enharmonic. 

Buottae. A collocation of the vowels con- 
tained in and indicative of the words " Se- 
culorum, Amen." According to the old 
form of the letters, Evpvae. 

Buphon (yoo-fdn) . A kind of glass harmonica 
with a compass from c to r". invented by 
the great physicist, E. F. F. Cnladni, about 
1790. The tone of this instrumeat is pro- 
duced by rubbing with moistened fingers 
strips of glass, which communicate their vi- 
brations to rods of metal. 

Buphoniad (yoo-fd^nl-Ad). An instrument of 
American origin, containing thirty kevs 
with their semitones, and combining In its 
tones thof>e of the organ, horn, bassoon, 
clarinet, and violin. 

Buphonlotts (yoo-fo'nl-tis). Smooth and melo- 

Buphonittm. A bass wind instrument of mod- 
ern invention, used in military bands. It 
has two tubes, played at will Irom a single 

Bnterpe (oI-tftr'p€), Gr. The seventh muse, 
celebrated for the sweetness of her singing. 

EveU16 (&-v&-y&), -FV. Lively, gay, sprightly. 

Evlrati (d-v^r&'te), It. Men with soprano 
voices among the Italians, who formerly 

took the treble parts in the church and 
theater. They are now nearly, if not quite, 

Bvolutio (S-vd-loo'tsi-d), Lat. Inversion of tha 
parts in double counterpoint. 

Bxteutant (6x &-koo-tftnh), Fr. A performer, 
either vocal or iusiruuieutal. 

Bxequte (ex-1l'kwI-&), Lat. Dirge. 

Bxequien (Sx-ft'kwl-^n), Ocr. Masses for the 

Bxerclce (Sz-^r-sess^), Fr. Exercise. 

Bxerclce de I'archet (ex-«r-s«ss' dOh riir-sh&), 
Fr. Practice of the bow in violin-playing. 

Exercise. A musical composition calculated 
to improve the voice or fingers of the per- 

Bxploslve tone. A tone produced by sound- 
ing a note suddenly and with great empha- 
sis, and suddenly diminishing ; indicated 
thus: >, or;^. 

Bxpreasif (^z-prfts-sSf ), Fr. Expressive. 

Expression. That quality in a composition 
or performance which appeals to ourieel- 
ings ; taste or judgment displayed in ren- 
dering a composition and imparting to it 
the sentiment of the author. 

Express! vo (fix-pres-sS'vd), It. See Eapresaivo. 

Extemponuieotts. Without premeditation. 

Extempore (6x-tem'p5-re), Lat. Unpremedi- 
tated, improvised. 

Extemporize. To perform extemporaneous* 
ly, without premeditation. 

Extended harmony. See Dispersed harmony. 

Extended phrase. Whenever, by repeating 
one of the feet, or by any other variation ol 
the melody, three measures are employed 
instead of two, the phrase is termed extend- 
ed, or irregular. 

Extended section. A section containing from 
five to eight measures. 

Extraneous. Foreign, far-fetched, belonging 
to a remote key. 

Extraneous modulation. A modulation into 
some remote key, far distant from the orig- 
inal key and its relatives. 

Extravaganza (ex-tr&-v&-g&nt's&), It. A car 
dence or ornament which is in bad taste ; an 
extravagant and eccentric composition. 

Extreme. A term referring to the most dis- 
tant parts, as the treble and bass. Relating 
also to intervals in an augmented state; as 
extreme sharp sixth, etc 

'.arm, & add, kale,ii end, S eve, I iS, I itie, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a but, \i Fr. anund, kh Gtsr . c/i. ilh muiO, 



f*. The name of the fourth note in the nat- 
ural diatonic scale of C. A perfect fourth 
above C. 

Pi. A syllable applied In sol-faing to the 
fourth degree of every scale. 

fa Mmol (la b&-mdl), Fr. The note Ft?. 

Pa-burden. A term applied by the old Eng- 
lish musical writers to a certain species of 
counterpoiut.cousisting of thirds and sixths 
added by ear to a cantus iirmus. Later it 
signified any kind of improvised accompani- 
ment. See FaJbiO boraone. 

Paces d'un accord (mss d'Qn fik-k6r), Fr. The 
various posi lions of a chord. 

Pach (fakh), Ger. Ranks; thus, funffach, five 

Pacile (m-sel') , Fr. ) r j ^^^ 
Pacile Cfa-tshSae), It.\^^^^^' ®"y- 

Pacilita (fa-tsheli-ta). It. ) Facility ; an easier 
Pacilit6 (f&-sel-I-ta), Fr. j arrangement or 

Pacilement (fft-sel-manh), Fr. 1 Easily, with 
Pacilmente (fa-tshel-m^u'tS), It. j facility. 

Packeltanz (fak'l-tfints), Ger. Dance with 

Facture (f&k-tiir)» Fr. The composition, or 
wo^rkmauship, of a piece of music. 

Pa di^e (fa d!-&z), Fr. The key of Fi(f. 

Pa dl^5e majeur (fa dXaz' m&-zhar'), Fr. The 
key of F^ major. . 

Pa didse mineur (f& dX-az' ml-ntlr'), Fr. The 
key of F$ minor. 

Pa diesis (f& de-a'zXs), i^. Fa-sharp. F^. 

Pagott (fii-gdtt'), Ger. A bassoon. 

Pagottino (fii-gdt-te'nd), It. A smai. bassoon. 

A performer 
on the bassoon. 

Pagotto (fH-gdftd), It. A bassoon, also an or- 

Pagotto contro (fa-got'to kdn'tr6). It. A large 
bassoon, an octave, a fifth, or a fourth lower 
than the common bassoon. 

Pagottone (fa-gdt'td-n€), II. A large bassoon 

formerly in use, an octave lower than the 

Pahnenmarsch (^'nen-m&rsh), Ger. The 

march or tune that is played when the 

colors are lodged. 

Paible (f&'bl), Fr. Weak, feeble, thin. 
Paiblement (f&'bl-manh), Fr. Feebly, weakly. 
Palre (f&r), Fr. Te do, to execute. 

Pagotti5t (fa-got-tlsf), Ger. \ 
Pagottista (fiL-gdt-tes'ta), II. j 

Paltesbien aeiitirlaiii6lodie(f&tbl-&nh'8ftnh- 

ter' 1& m&'lo-de), Fr. Play the melody ver> 

Pa, la. The burden, chorus, or refrain of 
many old songs. Fa, la, etc., were much in 
fashion in the seventeenth century, and are 
to be found in the works of some eminent 

Palalella (fg-lft-lfilOfi), It. A nonsensical song. 

Pall (fal), Ger, A cadence. 

Palsa (BVuSi), It. \ False, wrong, inharmo* 
Palsch (falsh), <?er.| nious. 

Palsch aingen (f&lsh sing'dn), Ger. To sing 
out of tuue. 

Palse. Thofie intonations of the voice that 
do not truly express the intended intervals 
are called false, as well as all ill-adjusted 
combinations. The term false is applied in 
music to any violation of acknowledged or 
long-established rules, or to anything im- 
perfect or incorrect. 

Palae accent. When the accent is removed 
from the first beat of the bar to the pecond 
or fourth, it is called false accent. 

Palse cadence. An imperfect or interrupted 

Palae fifth. An old term for an imperfect or 
diml Dished fifth ; a fifth containing only six 
semitones, as C, Gb. 

Palae relation. The principal and most ob- 
jectionable kind of false relation arises 
where a note which has appeared in one 
part reappears immediately after in another 

8 art chromatically altered— i. «., a semitone 
attened or sharpened (a). As numerous 
examples in our biest composers show, such 
progressions have by no means always a bad 
efi'ect. Another kind of false relation is the 
occurrence of the tritonus (an augmented 
fourth or diminished fifth) between the first 
note of the one and the second note of the 
other of two progressive parts. Hence the 
strict probibition by the old theorists of the 
progression of two major thirds {b). The 

Sracticeand teaching of more modern times 
eals with this matter in a high-handed 

(a) . (*) 




^ ; V " i ' 


Palse triad. The diminished triad, formerly 
so called on account of its having a false 

II arm, & add, & ale, e end, € etw, 1 iU, I isif, d old, 6 odd, oo tnocm, ft &u<, a ^. sound, kh ti>er. eA, x^ 





Paiaett {m-s&t'), Oer. ) Falsetto. (1) The 
haisetto (fal-s6t'td), It. jhead voice, as distin- 
guished from the chest voice. (2) A singer 
who sings soprano or alto parts with such a 
voice. Imsetti must not be confounded with 

Palsette. ) A false or artificial voice ; that 
PalAetto. j part of a person's voice that lies 
above its natural compass. 

PaUo (fal'sd), /^ False. 

False bordone (fal'sd b6r-dd-ne), It, What the 
French call Fauxrhourdon and the English 
FaAmrden, There are several kinds of falso 
bordone. The most important are : (1) The 
early«manner of accompanying a melodv 
(cantus firrous) in thirds and sixths, with 
the exception of the first and last note, with 
which the highest part tooic the octave and 
the middle part generallv the fifth of the 
tenor— i. «, the part which * 'holds'* the 
cantus firmus. Or the melody (cantus 
flrmus) was in the highest part, and was ac- 
companied by fourths and sixths below, ex- 
cept at tbe close, where the lowest part took 
the octave. (2) Rhythmically unmeasured 
vocal compositions in simple counterpoint, 
consisting of progressions of consonant 
chords, wnose even course, however, is in- 
terrupted at the cadences by prepared sus- 

Pa majeure (fd, m&-zhtirO, p^ \ The key of F 
Pa majore (fa m&-zhOr'), i major. 

Pli mlneur {Vk ml-ndrO, Fr. Key of F minor. 

Panatico (f&-nlL'tI-kd), It, A fanatic or passion- 
ate admirer. 

Pancies. An old name for little lively airs or 
tunes. See FarUasia, 

Pandango (f&n-dan'gd), 8p, A dance much 
used in Spain, in 8-4, 3-8, and also 6-8 meas- 
ure, generally accompanied with castanets 
and having a strong emphasis upon the sec- 
ond beat of each oar. Its characteristic 
rhythm is this : 



n I 

Panfare (fanh-far). Ft. A short, lively, loud, 
and warlike piece of music, composed for 
trumpets and kettledrums. Also short, live- 
ly pieces performed on hunting-horns in the 

Pantalsie ff&n-ta-ze}, FrA Fantasy, fancy, 
Fantasia (mu-ta-ze'a). It. [-caprice, whim. (1) 
Faiitasie(fan-t&-seO«<?er.j The name of Fan- 
tasia is given to various kinds of composi- 
tion—to preludes consisting of a few arp^- 
gios and runs, to lengthy works full of 
thought and learning, to potpourris of oper- 
atic tunes, etc., which, however, all agree in 
being free in style, not restricted by any defi- 
nite form. (2) An improvisation. (3) The 
instrumental pieces called Fantasias (also 
written Fantazias and Phantasias), Fancies 
(or Fansies), etc., were at first mostly of a 
luga) nature. Thoso which Dr. Burney had 
in his possession were for viols, and " con- 

sisted more of motets, madrigals, and in 
nomines (a. v.)>originally designed for voices, 
than of mntasie made expressly lor instru- 
ments." Christopher Simpson writes in 
1667 that " this kind of music is now much 
neglected, by reason of the scarcity of audi- 
tors that understand it; their ears being 
better acquainted and more delighted with 
light, airy music." He names as the best 
composers of Fancies in England, Alfonso 
Ferabosoo, Coperario, Lupo, Mico, White, 
Ward, Dr. Colman, and Jenkins. (4) We find 
the term Fancies also applied to vocal com- 
positions and to short, lively tunes. 

Fantasloso (fan-t§p-zl-6'zo), H. Fantastic, ca- 

Fantasiren (fan-lfi-ze'r'n),'Gfr. To improvise, 
to play extemporaneously. 

Fantasticamente (fan-tfis-tl-ka-m€n't6), It, Jr. 
a fantastic style. 

Pantastico (fSn-tfis'tl-kd), It ) Fantastical, 
Fantastique (fan-tas-tek'), Fr. Vwhlmsical,ca' 
Fantastisch (fan- tils' tish), Qer. \ priciousin re* 
lation to style, form, modulation, etc. 

Parandole (fft-ranh-dsn, « ) A lively 
Farandoule (fa-r^nh-dciol),) dance in 6-8 
time, peculiar to Provence. 

Farce. A short, extravagant comedy, inter- 
spersed with airs or songs with instrumental 

Paraa (fSr'sa), It. ) ^a-^., 
Farsa (far'sa), Sp.^^^^' 

Parsa In musica (f&r'sS. In moo^zl-kft). It. Mu» 
sical farce ; a species of little comic opera^ 
in one act. 

Pajcie (fas'tshl-g). It. pi. The sides, or hoop», 
of a violin, viola, etc. 

FastoAamente (fas-t6-za-m€n'tS), J<. Pompons 
ly, proudly. 

Fastoso (fas-to'zd). It. Proud, stately, in a 
lofty and pompous style. 

Paucette (f6-86t'), ry Ip-lM^tto 
Fausset (fo-s&O, J i^aisetto. 

Faux (fo), Fr. False, out of tune. 

Faux accord (fo z&h-kOrdO, Fr. A dissonance. 

Faux bourdon (fd boor-ddnh), Fr. See Fa- 

P clef. The bass clef ; a character placed on 
the fourth line of the staff so that i &v 
the two dots are in the third and ^^' 
fourth spaces. ' 

P-dur (6f-door) , Oer. The key of F major. 

Feathering. A term sometimes applied to a 
particularly delicate and lightly detached 
manner of Dowing certain rapid passages on 
the violin. 

Feeders.- Small bellows sometimes employed 
to supply th large bellows of an organ 
with wind. 

Fclcr (fi'6r), Qer. Festival, celebration. 

Pelergesang (fi'er-ghd-s&ng), Oer. Solemn 
hymn, anthem. 





f elerlich (fl'^r-Ukh), Qer. Solemn, festire. 

Peierllchkeit (fi'Sr-Ukh-klt), Oer. Solemnity. 

Pelgned voice. A falsetto voice. 

Felne Stlmme (fi'nS stim'me), Oer, A fine 

I'eint. A figure in drum music. 

ii-%lnte. An old name for a semitone ; an ac- 

/'eldflttte (feid-fld'tS), Qer, A peasant fiute. 

i^eldkunstpfeifer (feid-koonst'pfi-f^r), Ger, A 
military musician. 

Peldmusik (fSld'moo-^k), Oer, Military mu- 

^eldrohr (fSld'rdr), Oer. A rural pipe of oboe 

f eldton (fSld'tdn), Oer. The tone or keynote 
of the trumpet and other military wind in- 

Feldtrompete (feid-tr6m-pa't^) Oer. Military 

Ferma (fftr'nift), M, Firm, resolute, steady. 

Pennamente (f&r-m&-men't^), It. Firmly, 

Fermata (f&r-mfi't&), Jl. \ A pause or hold 
Permate (far^ma'tS), Oer. /marked thus, /tn. 

Permate (f&r-ma'tS), » \ Firmly, steadily, 
Permato (far-ma'td), ^'" j resolutely. 

Permement (far-md-m&nh), Fr. Firmly, res- 

Fermo (far'md), M. Firm, resolute. 

Peme (f&r'nfi), Oer. Distance. 

Pernwerk (f6m'w6rk), Oer. Distant, or re- 
mote, work , term applied to a particular 
row of keys in German organs. 

feroce (fft-r6'tsh6), „ ) Fierce, 

Perocemente (f&-r5 tshe-mSn'tS, ^'^' / with an 
expression of ferocity. 

c'erocita (fa-ro-tshl-t&O, R* Fierceness, rough- 

I^ertiff (fSr'tXgh). Oer, Quick, nimble, dexter- 

i'ertigkeit (fSr'tiCgh-kIt), Oer. Quickness, dex- 

tf'ervemment (f&r-v&-m&nh), Fr. Fervently, 

Fervente (f&r-vSn'tS), It. Fervent, vehement. 

Perventemente (f&r-vSn-t^m€n't6), „ \ Fer- 
Pervidamente (farve-da-m€n't€), j vent- 

ly, vehemeutly. 

Pervido (far'Ti-dd), It. Fervent, vehement 

Fes (ffis), Oer, The note Fb. 

Peses (fa's&), Oer, F-double-flat. 

Pest (ffist), Oer. Feast, festival; also firm, 

Pestigkeit (fSs'tiCg-klt), Oer. Firmness, steadi- 

JPastlvamente (f&-t6-v&-m«n't6), B, Gaily, 

Festlvito (f&s-tS-vI-tftO. -R- Festivity, gayety. 

Festive (fte-te'vo), B. Merry, cheerful, gay. 

Festlich (f^stOIkh), Oer, Festive, solemn. 

Pestlichkeit (ftefUkh-klt), Oer. Festivity 

Festlied (fSsflSd). Oer, A festive song; 

Pestoso (fes-td'zo), It. Merry, cheerful, gay. 

Festouvertttre(f&fd-ver-tu'r«), Oer. Festival 
overture ; an overture in a vigorous, bril- 
liant style. 

Festzelt (fgst'tsit) Oer. Festival-time. 

P. F. Fortissimo ; very loud. 

F. P. P. Very fortissimo ; as loud as possible. 

Feuer (foi'Sr), Oer. Fire, ardor, passion. 

Feurig (foi'rlgh), Oer. Fiery, ardent, passion- 

Piacca (fS&k'kfi), „ \ Feeble, weak, languish- 
Flacco (fe-ak'kd), ^^' / ing, speaking of the 

Fiasco (fS-as'ko), B. The technical term for a 
failure; a complete breakdown in a mu- 
sical performance. 

Fiato (fe-a'to). It. The breath, the voice. 

Fiddle. A common name for violin. 

Fiddler. A common name for violinist, usu- 
ally applied to a poor player. 

Fiddlestick. A violin-bow. 

Fides (fe'd«8), Lot. (1) A catgut string ; (2) A 
stringed instrument. 

Pidicen (fe'dX-tsSn), Lai. A harper ; one who 
plays upon a stringed instrument. 

Pidicina (fe'dX-tse'na), Lot. A woman who 
playH upon a stringed iubtrument. 

Fldlcula (fe-dS'koo-l&). Lot. A small lute or 

Fiducla (fX-doo'tshl-a), It, Confidence. 

Fiedel (fe'd'l), Oer, A fiddle, a violin. 

Fiedelbogen (fe'd'l-bd'g'n), Oer, A fiddle- 
stick, a violin-bow. 

Fiedelbrett {&d'l-bret), Oer, A squeaking 

Fiedler (fedl^r), Oer, A fiddler. 
Fiel. An old name for the fiddle, or violin. 

Field music. Music for military instruments ; 
martial music. 

Pier (fe-i'). J^* Proud, haughty. 
Fieramente (fe-Sr-a-m^n'te), It. Fiercely, ve- 
hemently, boldly. 

Pldre (fi-ar), Fr, Proud, lofty, fierce. 

Fiirement (fl-&r-manh), Fr, In a fierce man- 

Fieramente assal (fe-&-r&-m«n'te as-s&l), It, 
Very bold and energetic. 

Plero (f^&'rO), It. Bold, energetic, lively. 

Fiert6 (fSr^t&O. Fr. Fierceness, boldness. 

Fife. A simple cross fiute {v. Flute), generally 
either in the key of F or B^, and chietiy 
used in military music in combinatior 






w^th the slde-drnm In what ait. called 
dram-and-flfe bands. 

Pifer. One who plays on the fife. 

PiffliEirb (fe'f&-r6), It A fife. 

Plfre (fdir), Fr. A life, also a flfer ; the name 
is also applied to one of the stops in a har- 

Pifteenth. An interval of two octaves: also 
the name of an organ-stop, tuned two oc- 
taves above the diapasons. 

Pifth. The interval from any tone of the scale 
to the fifth above or below, the extreme 
tones themselves being counted. 

PIfth, augmented. An interval containing 
four whole steps. 

Pifth, diminished. An interval containing 
two wQole stepH and two half-steps. 

Pifth, perfect. An interval containing three 
whole sieps and one ^alf-step. 

Pifths, consecutive. Two or more perfect 
fifths immediately following one another in 
two parallel parts of the score. 

Pifth , sharp. An interval consisting of eight 

Pigur (fi-goorO, Oer, A musical figure, phrase, 
or idea. 

Pigufa (fe-goo-r&O. -R. Note employed as an 

Piguralgesang (fl-goo-r&l'gh^-s&ngO, Oer. 
variea and ornamented chant, as opposed to 
plain chant. 

Pigurantes (fe-gO-r&nhtO, Fr. Those dancers 
in a ballet who do not dance singly, but in 
groups and many together. In the drama, 
I>eopie who figure without having anything 
to say. 

Plguration. An ornamental treatment of a 
passage, by introducing passing tones, ap- 
poggiaturas, etc, in one or more of the 

Pigurato (fe-goo-ra't6), Jf. ) Figured, florid. 
Pigur^ (flt-ga-rft'), Fr, / embellished. 

Pigured. Free, florid ; a term applied to an 
air which, instead of movina: note by note 
with the bass, consists of a free and florid 
melody. It also means indicated or noted 
by figures. 

pigured liass. A shorthand S3rstem of noting 
harmonies. It consists of a bflss part witn 
figures which indicate the principal inter- 
vals of the intended chords. In the case of 
triads, unless thev are inverted, the bass is 
generally left without figures. Accidentals 
afibct the corresponding intervals of the fig- 
ures beside which thev stand. An acci- 
dental standing by itself Affects the third 
above the bass note. A stroke through a 
figure shows that the interval is sharpened 
a semitone. An oblique stroke unaer or 
above a bass note indicates that not the note 
thus marked, but the following one, is the 
basis of the harmonv to be taken; horizon- 
tal lines indicate that a harmony has to 

be continued whilst the bas»proceed8, \nd 
the words tasto solo or the sign o indicate 
that nothing but the bass notes is to be 

Pigures of diminution. Numerical charac- 
ters which diminish the duration of the 
notes over which they are placed. Th^ 
notes with a figure three are called triplets , 
where there are two triplets a figure six is 

PUar la voce (f§ l&r l& vd'tsh^). It. To spin 
out, to prolong the tone, gradually aug- 
menting and diminishing the sound of the 

Pilarmonico (f^l&r-md'nX-kd), It. Philhar- 
monic, music-loving. 

Pilcr (fi-la), Fr, To spin, to draw out. 

Piler le son (H-la Itlh sdnh), Fr, See Filcur la 

Pllet de voix (fl-la dtlh vwft), Fr. A very thin 

Pileur (fi-lUr), Fr, A spinner ; a stringmaker, 

Pilum {f^loom], Lai. A name formerly given 
to the stem of a note. 

Pin (fanh), Fr. The end. 

Pin al (feu &1), It, End at ; play as far as. 

Pinal. The final is in the church modes wjiat 
the tonic is in our modern musical system. 
In the authentic modes the final is on the 
first degree, in the plagal modes on the 
fourth degree of the scale. Besides these reg- 
ular finals (i. e.j "concluding notes") there 
are also irregular ones (confinals), which oc- 
cur frequently in the endings of the Psalms 
and in the sections of the Responsories, 
Uraduals, and Tracts. 

Pinal close. Final cadence. 

Pinale (fe-n&MS), f^ (1) The concluding move- 
ment of a sonata, symphony, etc., and the 
concluding divisions of the acts of an opera. 
This latter kind of finale is a culminating 
ensemble piece, many-membered in move- 
ment and matter, and generally with 
chorus. (2) A final (9. v.). 

P In alt. The seventh above G in alt; the 
seventh note in alt. 

P In altissimo. The octave above F In alt 
the seventh note in altissimo. 

Pin a qui (fen & kwe), It. To this place. 

Pine (fe'nS), It. The end, the termination. 

Pine del aria (fe'nS del &'ri-a). It, The end of 

the air. 
Pine del att6 (fe'nS dSl &Vtd), It, The end of 

the act. 

Pinement (fftnh-m&nh), Fr. Finely, acutely. 

Pingerboard. That part of a stringed instru- 
ment on which the fingers press; the key- 
board, or manual, of a pianoforte, organ, etc. 

Pingered. A term applied to piano m^ja^c, 
signifying that figures or other charfM^iK^rs 
are applied to the notes to show the me«i»od 
of fingering. 

aarm. & add, & ofe, d end, 8 eve, I itt, 1 isle, 6 old, 6 odd, 00 moon, H btU, H Fr. sound, kh (?er, ch, nh 




Pinserfngr* Amertcan. The use of the slj^n 1 
(X) to indicate the thumb in pianoforte- 
playing, in diBtinction from the German or 
foreign flngerinff. in which the thumb is 
called the first finger. 
Piagerififf, foreign. ) A method of finger- 
Pinsering, Oerman. j ing piano music which 
designates the thumb as the first finger. 

Fingerleiter (flng'Cr-li'ter), Qer. Finger-cuides. 
Flnsern (flng'6ni), Qer, To play, to finger. 
Pingersatz (flng'Sr-sfttz), Qer, Fingering. 

Pinished. A term applied to those Tooal or 
instrumental performers who have attained 
an advanced and artistic execution. 

Pinita (fe-ne't&), „ \ Finished, ended, con- 

Pinlto (fe-ne't6), ^^* /eluded. 

Pinite canon. A canon which is not repeated. 

Pino al (fe'nd al). It, Play &.i far as, stop at, 

end at. 
Pin qui (fen kwe), i2. To this place. 

Pint (f§nt), > Feigned, false, interrupted, 
Pinto (fen't5), J in respect to cadences ; a feint, 
or deceptive, close. 

f!2S (**")'. ^ } ="""' *»"'*• '«*"*• 

Plochezza {ih-&-VQt'z&), It. Hoarseness. 

Pioregglante (fS-d-red-jX-an'te),7/. Too ornate, 
decorated with roulades, cadeuces. etc. 

Fiorettl (fe-6-ret'te), It, Little graces, or or- 
nament& in vocal music. t 

Piorljcente (fS-6-rI-8h6n't6, « ) Florid, 
Piorlto (fe-o-re'tC), ■*'• f abounding 

with ornaments. 

Plorlta cadenza (fe-5-r€'t& ka-d^nt'eft). It. A 
cadenza whose last note but one is divided 
into many notes. 

Ploritezza (fS-d-rI-tSt'8&)» It. Embellishment, 
a florid style of performance. 

Ploritnra (fe-C-rl-too^rft), It. Literally, "a 
flowering." A florid melodic ornament. 
Fioreggiare, the corresponding verb, sisriii- 
fies to ornament (flower) a melody bv »-oU'- 
ing its principal elements into a multiptic- 
ity of shorter notes of varied pitch. FiorUure 
is the pluiai of ftoritura. 

First. A word applied to the upper part of 
a duet, trio, quartet, or any other composi- 
tion, vocal or instrumental; suc^ -paatA 
generally express the air. 

First bas5. High bass. 

First Inversion. A term applied to a chord 
when the bass takes the third. See InvenUm, 

First soprano. The high soprano. 

First tenor. The high tenor. 

FU (fls), Qer, The note Ftf. 

Pls-dur (fis-door), Oer. The key of Fj^ major. 

FIs-fij (fis-fXs) Qer, The note F-double-sharp. 

Pii^moU (fl8'moll>, Qer, The key of F# 

Plstel CfYs'tel), Qer, Feigned voice; falsetto. 

Plstota (fis'tiWa). It. X J. __a ^ -j.-^ 
Fistula (fis'too-la). Lot. I ^ '®*^» * ^^^^ 

Fistula dulcis (fis'too-m dool'tsls}, IxU. This 
was once a common flute, and was blown 
at the end. See FlUte d bee. 

Fistula Qermanlca (fIs'too-l& ger-mll'nl-k&). 
Lot, German flute. 

Fistula Pauls (fis'too-la p&'nls\ Lot, The 

Pandean pipes; wind instruments of the 

Fistula pastoralis (flR'too-lft pfts-to-raHis), Lot, 

The Pandean pipes ; wind instruments of 

the ancients. 

Fistula pastorica (fIs'too-l& p&s-td-rl-kfi), Lot, 
Name glveu by Cicero and other classical 
writers to the oaten pipe used by the audi- 
ence in the Roman theaters to express 
their disapprobation. 

Plstulator (fls'too-la'tor), LaL \ A piper, a 

Pistulatore (f6s'too-la-t6'r6), It. j player on a 
flute or flageolet. 

PIstullren (fIs-too-lS'r'n). Qer, (1) To sing or 
speak witn the head voice. (2j In speaking 
of organ-pipes, to overblow, t. e. to sound 
one of the upper partial notes instead of the 
fundamental note. 

Plthele. The old English name for the fid- 

Fixed syUables. Syllables which do not 
change with the change of key. The Ital- 
ians use fixed syllables. 

RachflOte (fi&kh-flo'te) . Oer, Shallow fiute; 
flageolet; also an organ-stop of rather thin 

Flageolet (fla-zh6-6-la'), Fr, 1 A smallflfttea 

Flageolet (fla-gh6-6-16t'). Qer. J bee, that is. 
astraight flute, with a plug in the mouth- 
piece which leaves only a narrow slit for the 
breath to pass through. (2) An organ stop. 
(3) Flageolet tones are those ethereal pounds 
produced on stringed instruments (violin, 
harp, etc.) by lightly touching a string in 
certain places with a finger, and then set- 
ting it in vibration by drawing the bow 
over it or plucking it. ( V. Harmonics.) 

Flageolet, double. A flageolet having two 

Plagloletta (flft-jI-6-16t'ta). It, (See Flaaeolet.) 

Flam. In drum music a grace note or stroke 
corresponding with the appoggiatura in 
other compositions. There are two flams, 
the open and the (>lose. The latter is made 
as rapidlv as possible, so that the two notes 
are almost together. «The open flam is not 
so clobe. 

Plaschinett (fl&sh1-n6t), Qer. The flageolet 

Plat. A character which lowers a note one 
semitone (1?). 

Plat, double. A character composed of two 
flats, indicating a depression of two semi- 
tones (bW. 

Platter la corde (flftt-t& la kfird), Fr, To play 
the violin, etc., in a soft, expressive man- 

ft«rm, &add, aole, fi^nd, e eve, liU,ii8le,6old, 6 oddtOomoon, H btU, il Fr, iound, kh Cfler, ch, nhnataJL 




Plautando(fldrOO-t&n'd6)» jf \ Flute-like tone; 

Plautoto (M-oo-t&'td), ^^' j that quality 
of toue obtained by drawing the bow 
smoothly aud gently across the strings over 
that end of the fingerboard nearest the 

Plautina (flfi-oo-t^na), 77 ) A small flute, an 
Plautino (fl&K)0-te'n6), ^^' ] octave flute; a 

Plaotista (fl&K>o-t88't&), R, A performer on 
the flute. 

PlautI nnlsonl (fl&'oo-tS oo-ne'86-n€), R. The 
flutes in unison. 

Plauto (fl&'oo-t6), le. A flute. 

Plautb • becco (fl&'oo-td & bSklcd), It. A 
beaked flute. A flute having a mouth- 
piece like a flageolet. 

Plauto ad libitum (fl&'oo-to). /(. The flute 
part may be played or omitted. 

Plauto alto (flft'oo-to al'td), It. A tenor flute 
used in bands. 

Plauto amablle (fl&'oo'td &m&'bl-ie), It. The 
name of an oigan-stop of soft and delicate 

Plauto amoroso (fl&'oo-td &-md-r<Vzd), It, A 
4-feet organ-stop of delicate tone. 

Plauto dolce (flfi'oo-to ddl'tshfi), R. An organ- 
stop of soft, agreeable tone. 

Plauto piccolo (fl&'oo-t6 peklcd-ld), R. An 
octave flute, a small flute of very shrill 
tone ; a flageolet 

Plauto tacere (fl&'oo-td t&-tsha're), R. The 
flute is not to play. 

Plauto tedesco (fla'00-td te-dSslcd), R. A 

German flute. 
Plauto terzo (fl&'oo-to tSrt'sd), R. The third 


Plauto transverso (fl&'oo-td tr&ns-vfir'so), » > 
Plauto traverso (fla'oo-t6 tra-vfir-so), ^^' ] 
The transverse flute— thus named because 
it is held across, and blown at the side, 
contrary to the fltite & bee ; it is also often 
called uie German flute. The name is also 
applied to an organ-stop. 

Plebile (fl&'b!-ie), R. Mournful, sad, doleful. 

Plebilmente (fla-bll-m^n'te), R. Mournfully, 

Plessiblle (fl^s^'bl-lS), It. Flexible, pliant. 
Plesslbllito (fle-sl-b«-ll-t&0» R- Flexibility. 
P-Ukher (SMokh'^r), Qer. The f holes, or 
soundholes, of a violin, etc. 

PlOn-flon (flOn-flOn). Ft. Bad music; trash. 
Also the Durden of certain old vaudevilles. 

Plorld. Ornamental, flgured, embellished. 

Plorld counterpoint. Figured counterpoint. 

PMHchen (flot^kh^n), Qer, A littie flute, a 
pipe, a flageolet. 

P10te (flo'te). Qer. A flute. 

PlOten (flS't'n), Qer. To play upon the flute. 

PlOtenspieler (flS't'n-speaSr), Qer. A flute- 

PlOtenstimme (fleyt'n-stlm'me), Qer. A so/I, 
sweet voice ; the part for the flute. 

PlOtenzug (flo't'n-tsoog), Qer. A flute-stop / A 
an organ. 

PI0te traverso (fld^te trft-vfir'so), Qtr. The 
German flute ; also an organ-stop. See 
FlatUiO traverto. 

Pltttist (fld-tlstO, Qer. A flute-player. 

PIdurish. An appellation sometimes given 
to the decorative notes which a performer 
adds to a passage, with the double view of 
heightening theefiect and showing his own 
dexterity and skill. 

Plfichtig (fltikh'tlgh), Qer. Lightly, nimbly. 

PlOchtigkeit (fliikh'tlgh-kit), Qer. Lightness, 

PIfigel (flii'g'l)* Qfr. A wing ; a harpsichord, 
a grand piano. 

FItigel (flQ'g'l), Qer. Lit., " wing." A grand 
pianoforte. Formerly a harpsichord. 

Plttgelhorn (flu'g'1-hdm). Qer. (1) A bugle. 
(2) A keyed brass instrument which is made 
in various keys and forms. The Kenthom, 
Klappenhom, and Cornet belong to the 
genus Flilgelhorn. 

PIuit(floit),2)u<. ) A flute. 
Fluta (fioo'ta), Lai.] ^ "^^ 

Phiepipes. Those organ-pipes (metal as well 
as wooden) which are made to sound by 
forcing the wind through a slit (the wino* 
way) at the top of the foot, and against a 
sharp edge (the upper lip>, which divides 
the wind, part of which only enters the body 
of the pipe. The flueiaork is the aggregate 
of such pipes. 

Piute. An organ-stop 1 1 the flue species, the 
tone of which resemb' es that of the flute. 

Piute. There aretwoktnds of flnte: theflflte 
& bee (beak flute), or direct flute, and the 
flOte traversidre, or cross flute : the former 
has a plugx^ed mouthpiece atone end of the 
tube, the latter is blown through a lateral 
hole. Excepting the flageolet, the flttte & 
bee has entirelv disappeared, at least among 
the art-producing European nations. The in- 
strument understood wnen we now speak of 
the flute is the cross flute, also called Ger- 
man flute. It is generally made of wood, 
sometimes of metal, and consists of a conical 
tube, stopped at its wider end, and provided 
with six flugerholes and a number of keys. 
As improved by Boehm, it has a compass 
from <r to &"'. Music for this instrument, 
which is one of the most important mem- 
bers of the orchestra, is written as it sounds. 
A small, or octave, flute, the flauto piccolo 
(with a compass from d" to a.""; written 
a'—&'") is also sometimes used in the orches- 
tra. In military bands flutes in Et? and in 
F, and small flutes an octave higher, are to 
be met with. Now flutes are also made cy 
lindrical and of ebonite. The so-called flute 
of ancient Greek music was not a true flute, 
but a sort of imperfect oboe. Of the same 
nature, probably^ were the double tLvttub, 





fignired upon ancient monuments, consist- 
ing of two tubes, diverging from each other 
at an acute angle. It is not certainly known 
whether both tubes were sounded simulta- 
neously, and if so, whether the resulting ef- 
fect was that of a melody with harmony or 
a melody with a drone bass, but the latter is 
regarded as more probable from the circum- 
stance of similar flutes being still exiaut in 
Abyssinia and elsewhere. 

Rute, Fr. The same as flautando and flau- 
tato (9. v.). 

Flute k bee (floot a b€k), Fr. " Beak flute." 
A direct flute. It has a beak-shaped mouth- 
piece with a plug which leaves only a nar- 
row aperture for the breath to pass through. 
There was a whole family of fltites i bee, 
bass, tenor, alto, etc. ( V. Flute.) 

Piute allemande (floot ftl-manhd), Fr. The 
German flute. 

Flute, Boehm (b5m). A perfected flute, in- 
vented by M. Boehm, 01 Germany, in 1832. 
It difibrs from the common flute in having 
the size and location of the holes arranged 
in their natural order with keys. 

Flute conique (floot kdn-ek), Fr. Conical 
flute; an organ-stop. 

Fluted. A term applied to the upper notes 
of a soprano voice when they are of a thin 
and flutelike tone. 

Flute d'allemande (flute d'&l-manhd), Fr, A 
German flute. 

Flute d'amour (floot d'&moor), Fr. A flute 
the compass of which is a minor third be- 
low that of the German flute ; the name is 
also applied to an organ-stop of 8- or 4-feet 

Flute, diatonic. A flute capable of producing 
all the diff'erent tones of the major and mi- 
nor diatonic scales. 

Flute dolce (floo'te dol'tsh^), It. A flute with 
a mouthpiece like that of a flageolet. 

Flute douce (floot doos), Fr. Soft flute ; the 
flOte k bee ; there were four kinds, the treble, 
alto, tenor, and bass. 

Mutte (floo-tH), Fr. Soft, sweet. 

I'lute harmonique (floot hftr-mdnh-ek), Fr, 
See Harrnonic Jlute. 

Flute, octave. A flute the tones of which 
range an octave higher than the German 

Flute octaviante (floot 6k-t&-vl-anht), Fr. Oc- 
tave flute, an organ-stop. 

Flute Guvcrte (floot oo-var), Fr. An organ- 
stop of the diapason species. 

Flute, pastoral. > A flute shorter than the 
Flute,shepherd's. j transversefluteand blown 
through a lippiece at the end. 

Fluter (floo-ta), Fr. To play the flute. 

Flute travcrsl^re (floot trav-fir-sl-ir), Fr. The 
transverse, or German, flute. 

F-moll (6f-m611), Oer. The key of P minor. 

Foco (f6-kd), II. Fire, ardor, passion. 

Focosamente (fd-kd-za-mSn'tS), It, Ardently, 

Focosissimo (fo-ko-ze'd-md), H. Very ardent- 
ly, with a great deal of passion. 

F0C050 (fd-kd'zd), It. Fiery, passionate. 

Foglietto (fdl-ye-€t'td). It. A name given to a 
first- violin part which contains all the ob- 
ligato passages of the other parts. A fogli- 
etto is used bv the player who assists at the 
rehearsals 01 ballets, sometimes by con- 
ductors instead of a score, and also hy the 
leader of the orchestra. 

Fols (fwa), Fr. Time. 

Fois premiere (fwa pr^m-i-ftr), Fr, The first 

Fois deuxidme (fwa dti-zl-am), Fr. The sec- 
ond time. 

Folia (fo'lX-a), Sp. A species of Spanish dance. 

Folio, music A case for holding loose sheets 
of music ; a wrapper used in a music-store 
for the convenience of classifying the music. 

Follia di spasma (fdl'vl-a de span-y&), £^. A 
species of composition invented by the 
Spaniards, consisting of variations on a 
given air. 

Fondamentale (fOn-da-meu-taa£), It. Funda- 
mental; fundamental bass. 

Fondamentd (fon-da-mSn'to), It. The funda- 
mental bass ; the roots of the harmony. 

Fond d'orgue (fdnh d'org), Fr. The most im- 
portant stop in an organ, called in England 
th e open d iapason , 8-f ee t scale. In Germany 
this is called the 8-feet principal. 

Foot. A certain number of syllables consti- 
tuting a distinct metrical element in a verse. 
In very old English music it was a kind of 
drone accompaniment to a song which was 
sustained by another singer. 

Form . The arrangement of material in a tone 
poem into symmetrical and effective order. 
The plan of a music-piece with reference to 
its verses, cantos, and division ; in short, its 
metrical structure. The laws of musical 
form have in view clearness and oompre- 
hensibility in musical works, as well as sym- 
metry pure and simple. There are certain 
typical forms which are UROd oftener than 
others, and which are often approximated 
closely by forms apparently novel and free. 
These are the Fugue Song, Song-form with 
Trio, Variation, Rondo, and Sonata-piece. 
(See Introduction.) 

F6rlana(f5r-m'na), J<.') A lively Venetian 
Forlane (fOr-lan'), Fr. ] dance in 6-8 time. 

Fortement (fort'manh), Fr. \ Loudly, 
Fdrtemente (for-te-mfin't^), It, j powerfully, 

Fortezza (idr-tfit^z&), It, Force, power, 

8 (118) 




Porte-planb (fdr-te-pe-&'nd), It. ) The piano- 

Forte-pianA ( fdrt-pi-a'nd), Fr, V forte ; a key- 

Porteplano ( rdr'te-pX-&'nd), Ger. ) ed 1 n s t r u- 

ment oi German invention, so called from 

its capability of expressing different degrees 

of power or intensity of tone. 

Porte possibile (for'tS pds-se'bi-lS), It. As lond 
as posbible. 

Portias. An abbreviation of Fortissimo. 

Fortissimo (for-tes'sX-mo), It. Very loud. 

Portissimo quanto posslblle (fdr'tes'sl-mo 
kwan-id pds-8€'bi-l€), It. As loud as possi- 

Portschreitufiff (fort'shil-toong), Oer. Pro- 
gression (ill barmony). 

Portsetzung (fdrt'sSt-soong), Ger. A contin- 

Forza (fdrt'sa), It. Force, strength, power. 

Forzando (for-tsan'do), » "I Forced ; laying a 

Porzato (for-tsa'to), j stress upon one 

note or chord ; sometimes marked V A >. 

Porzar la voce (fdrt'sar la vd'tshS), It. To 
force the voice. 

Porzare (for-tsa'rfi), //. To strengthen. 

Pourcliette tonique (foor-shdt tdnh-gk), Fr. 
A tUuiugfork. 

Pour-part son^. A song arranged for four 

Pourtli. A distance comprising three dia- 
tonic intervals; that is, iwu tohes and a 

Pourtli flute. A flute sounding a fourth 
higher than the concert time. 

Fourth shift. The last shift in violin-play- 

Prancalse (frfinh-saz')> Fr. A graceful dance 
in S-4 time. 

Pranchezza (frS,n-k€t'zS.), It. Freedom, confi- 
dence, boldness. 

Prancalse (frS-^-saz'), Fr. i Frenoh ; in 

Pranzese ifran-t8a'z6), /<. > the French 

Pranzttslsch (frau-tso'zish), Ger.j style. 

Prappe (frS.p), Fr. Stamping, striking; a T>e- 
culiar manner of beating time or striking 
notes with force. 

Frapper (fr&p-pa), Fr. To beat the time ; to 

Prase (frfi-zS), R. A phrase; short musical 

Prasi. Phrases. 

PrasegfSrlare (fra-F6d-jl-ar'6), It. To phrase; 
to<leliver a melody or idea properly, i. c, 
with expression. 

Prauenstlmme (frou'Sn-stlm'mS), Ger. A fe« 
male voice. 

Preddamente (frM-d&-men'te), It. Coldly, 
without animation. 

Preddezza (frdd-d€t'tsfi). It. Coldness, frigid- 

Preddo (frfid'dS), It. Cold, devoid of senti- 




Predon (f r6-d6nh), Fr. Trilling ; a flourish ox 
other extempbraneous ornament. 

Predonnemente (fr^don-m&nh), Fr. Hum- 

Predonner (fr&-d6nh-ni'). Fr. To trill, to 
shake ; also to hum, to sing low. 

Free composition. In a free style; a com- 
position not ill strict accordance with the 
rules of musical art. 

Freemen's songs. Little compositions for 
three or four voices, in use about 1600. 

Free reed. A reed-stop in an organ, in which 
the tongue by a rapid vibratory motion to 
and fro produces the sound. The tone of 
a free reed is smooth and free from rattling, 
but n< ft usually I so strong as that of the 
striking reed. 

Freeiare (fra-ji-a'r6). It. To adorn, to em- 

Fregiatura (fr&-j!-&-too'r&). It. An ornatnent, 
an embellishment. 

Prei (frl), Ger. Free. 

Pr^missement (fr&'mess-m&nh), Fr. Hum> 
ming. Ringing in a low voice. 

French horn. See Horn. 

French sixth. One form of an 
bugmeuttd sixth ; a chord 
composed of a major third, 
extreme fourth, and extreme 

French treble clef. The G clef on the bottom 
line of the staff, formerly much used in 
French piusic for violin, flute, etc. 

Fresco (frfis'ko), „ \ Freshly, 

Prescamente (frSs-ka-mSn'tS), j vigorous* 
ly, lively. 

Fretta (fret'ta), It. Increasing the time; ao* 
celerating the movement. 

Frets. Thin strips of wood, metal, or ivory, 
inserted transversely in, and slightly pro- 
jecting from, the fingerboard of various 
stringed instruments— the old viols, lutes, 
theorboes, and the still flourishing guitar-- 
in order to facilitate correct stopping. Cat* 
gut fret<«. too, are found on old instruments. 
Strings bound round the necks of Instru- 
ments were, indeed, the earliest frets. 

Preude (froy'dfi), Ger. Joy, rejoicing. 

Preudengesang (froy'd'n-gfi-sang'), Oer, A 
song of joy. 

Freudig (froy'dlgh), Oer. Joyfully. 

Freudigkeit (froy'dlgh-kit), Oer. Joyfulness, 

Fr I (fri), Oer. Free, unrestrained as to style. 

Freie 5chreibart (fn'€ shrib'&rt), Ger. Free 
style of Ciim position. 

Priedensmarsch (fre'd'ns-marsh), Oer. A 
march in honor of peace. 

Frisch (frish), Ger. Freshly, briskly, lively. 

Priska. The quick movement in the Hun« 
gar I an national dances called CsArdiU. 

^See C.) 

ii arm, & add, a ale, 6 end, S eve, liU,\ isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, U Fr, sound, kh Qir. eh, nh naaoL 




Prly6lo (fr6'v6-16), Jt, Frivolous, trifling, 

f*r6hgestMg (frd'ghS-sang'),' Oer. A joyous 

Pr5hlich (frSaikh), Oer. Joyous, gay. 

PrOhiichkelt {fr(yiXkh-kIt), Ger. Joyfulness, 

Prohnamt (frdn'&mt), Oer. High Mass. 

Pro«cta (fr6sh), Gcr. The lower part, or nut, of 
a violin- bow. 

Prottdla (frdt'td-lS), 11. A ballad, a song, gen- 
erally of erotic sentiment. Mosically it was 
between the artistic madrigal and the en- 
tirely simple folksong called Villanella. 
Current in Italy during the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. 

Prtihlingslied (fruaXng8-led),G'er. Spring-song. 

Prfihmesse frtlh'm6s-s6), y^^ ) Matins, early 
Prtih»tiick (fni'stiik), ^^' / Mass. 

P-5chliMsel (ef-shlQs's'l), Oer. The F or bass 

Puga (fuo^gil), II. A flight; a chase. See 

Puga authentica (foo'gH out€n'tI-k&), Lot. A 
fugue with an authentic theme or subject. 

Puga caiionica Kfoo'g^ kft-no^nX-ka), Lot. A 

Puga contraria (foo^gfl kdn-trcl'ri-£), Xa^ A 
fugue ia which the answer is generally in- 

Puga dopQla. (foo'gH dop'pX-fi), It. A double 

Puga Irregularis (foo'ga Ir-rfig-oo-la'ris), Lot. 
•An irregular fugue. 

Puga libera (f oo'ga IXVe-ra). Lat. A free fugue. 

Puga mlj^ta (foo'gil mXz'tfi), Lai. A mixed 

Puga obligate (foo^g&6blX-ga-t&), Lot. A strict 

Puga parrlalis (foo'g^ p&r-tsX-a'lIs), Lat. The 
common form of the lugue intermixed with 
passages of a different character. 

Puga propria (foo'gS prd'prl-a), Lat. A regu- 
lar fugue Strictly according to rule. 

Puga plagale (foo'ga pl&-gGl'ie), It. A fugue 
with a plagal theme or subject. 

Puga rlcercate (foo'ga re-tshSr-k&'ta), It. An 
artificial fugue. 

Puga sciolte (foo^gft she-ol't^). It. \ A free 
Puga solute (foo-g£l so-loo'ta), Lai. j fugue. 

Puga totalis (foo'gE to-ta'lls), Lai. A canon. 

Pugara (foo-g^'r^), Lai. An organ-stop of the 
gamba species, of 4-feet tone. 

Pugato (foo-ga'to), It. In the style of a fugue. 

Puge (foo'ghfi), Oer. A fugue. 

Page galante (foo'ghd gH-I&n'te), Oer. A free 
fugue in tne style of chamber music. 

Pughi^ (foo'g^l), It, A fugue. 
Pughette (foo'get'ta). It. A short fugue. 

Puglrtes (foo-ger'tte), rj^ \ In the fugue 
Fuglrt (foo-gert), ***^' j style; fugirt is 

also applied to the ranks of a mixture stop 

in an organ. 

Pugltlve pieces. !Eiphemeral, short-lived com- 

Pugue. This word is derived from the Latin 
fugat flight, and a certain kind of musical 
composition has been called thus because 
" one part, as it were, tries to flee and escape 
from the others ; but it is pursued by them, 
until they afterwards meet in an amicable 
way, and finally come to a satisfactory un- 
derstanding." The technical description 
must necessarily be less simple than this 
poetical one. 

There are fugues for instruments,for voices 
and for instruments and voices combined. 
A fugue may be in two. three, lour, five, and 
more parts. The word fugue had not always 
the same meaning as in our time and since 
the days of J. S. Bach and Handel, the mas- 
ters of masters ; but it always signified an 
Imitative form— a canon or something more 
or lesis like what we call a fugue, various 
kinds of fugues are enumerated under fuga 
with its accompanying epithets. A fugue, 
in its final evolution, consists of an exposi- 
tion and two or more developments, which 
generally are connected by episodes. In a 
fugue in four parts the exposition is some- 
what likethis: One part propost^sthesubject; 
a secoud part follows with the answer (i. e., 
the imitation of the subject at the fifth above 
or fourth below); a third part resumes the 
subject an octave higher or lower than the 

Eart which commenced : and a fourth part 
ri ngs up the rear with tne answer an octave 
higher or lower than the part which was sec- 
ond in the order of succession. The coun- 
terpoint with which the part that first enun- 
ciates the subject accompanies the answer 
is called conn tersublect, out it is properly 
so called only when it recurs as an accom- 
paniment with the subsequent enunciations 
of the subject and answer. Sometimes the 
subject and countersubject are simulta- 
neously introduced. When after an epi- 
sode, snort or long, the first development 
begins, the subject is taken up aud answered 
by the parts in another order of succession. 
Supposing the alto to have begun before, 
the tenor or soprano or bass will begin 
now. Further^ the imitations will be at 
different intervals of pitch and time. The 
drawing closer together of the subject and 
its answer, so that the latter begins before 
the former has completed its course, is called 
the stretto. This contrivance is especially 
resorted to in the last development. Other 
contrivances that may be utilized are the 
augmentation, diminution, inversion, and 
retrogression of the subject. The stretto is 
frequently followed by a pedal-point, on 
which the subject is piled up in various lay- 
ers, so as to form a striking conclusion to 
the whole. The matter out of which the 
episodes are wrought may be new, but 
oftener (in order to insure unity) is derived 

iorm, &add, a ofe, ^end, 8 eve.liU,li8ley6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a bu^, iifV. tound, kh Oer. ch, nhnaaaL 



DlCnOlf Atlt^ OF MtJSiO. 


from the subject, countersubject, or other 
accompaniments of the sublect. 

An important diviffion of lugnes remains 
yet to be noticed, namely, that Into real and 
tonal fugues. A real fugue is one in which 
the answer is an exact transposition of the 
subject ; a tonal fugue is one In which the 
answer is an imitation of the subject slight- 
ly modified for the purpose of keeping with- 
in the same key. 

Two words often heard In connection with 
fugues may be here explained. Coda, or 
codetta, is the name giyen to the notes 
which are appended to the subject when at 
Its conclusion the answer does not strike in 
at once. Repercussion is the reappearance 
of the subject and answer in a new order 
with regard to succession and pitch in the 
various developments of a fugue. 

Double, triple, and quadruple fugues are 
fugues with two, three, and four subjects. 
Two kinds of double fugue have to be dis- 
tinguished : (1) That in which two subjects 
are first separately worked out and only 
subsequently combined. (2) That In which 
the second subject enters at once with the 
first subject as a constant countersubject. 
See, also, under Fttga, 

Puguet counter. A fugue in which the sub- 
jects move in contrary directions. 

Fugue, double. A fugue on two subjects. 

Puflrue renverste (fdg rfinh-v^r-saO, Fr. A 
fugue, the answer in which is made in con- 
trary motion to that of the subject. 

Fugue, strict. A fugue in which the fugal 
form and its laws are strictly observed. 

Fugue, perpetual. A canon so constructed 
that its termination leads to its beginning, 
and hence may be continually repeated. 

Fugue, simple. A fugue containing but a 
single subject. 

Fuguist. A composier or performer of fugues. 

Filhrer (ftih'r6r), Oer, Conductor, director; 
also the subject or leading theme in a fugue. 

Pull. For all the voices or instruments. 

Pull antheiii. An anthem in four or more 
parts, without verses or solo passages ; to be 
sung by tue whole choir in chorus. 

Full band. A band in which all the instru- 
ments are employed. 

Full cadence. See Perfect cadence. 

Pailflttte (faVflo-tej, Ger. Filling-flute; a 
stopped orgau-r^^ister of 4-feet tone. 

J Full orchestra. An orchestra in which all 
the stringed and wind instruments are em- 

Full organ. An organ with all its registers 
or stops in use. 

Full score. A complete score of all the i>arts 
of a composition, vocal or instrumental, or 
both combined, written on separate staves 
placed under each other. 

Pull service. A service for the whole choir 
in chorus. 

Failstimmen (fOll'stitm-men), Qer, "Filling 
voices.'* Parts added for giving resonance 
and fullness to the chords, without charaO' 
ter as independent voices. 

Fundamental. Properly speaking, the root 
of a series of partial tones. The tone of 
which all tones in a harmony chord are 
partials. The root of a chord. 

Fundamental tones. A name sometimes 
applied to the three roo^tones of a key, 
namely, the tonic, subdominant, and dom- 

Pundbre (fft-nCbr'), Fr, *) imnflreal 

Funerale (foo-nfi-rftae), R, t J^S^^I^ 
Funereo (foo-na'r6-6). 7«. J mournful. 

Fttnf (fttnf), Ger, Five. 

Panffach (fanffiUch), Ger, Fivefold; five 
ranks, speaking of organ-pipes. 

Panfstlmmig (ffinfstlm-mlg), Qer, For five 

Fanfte (fanfte), Qer. Fifth. 

FOnfzehnte (fUnf tsan-t^), Ger. Fifteenth. 

FunzlonI (foon-tsI-d'nS), II. pi. Oratorios, 
masses, and other sacred musical perform* 
ances in the Roman Catholic Church. 

Puoco (foo-d^Ld), It. Fire, energy, passion. 

Puocoso (foo-O-kd'zd), R, Fiery, ardent, im* 

FUr (f\ir), Ger. For. 

Far beide Hftnde zusammen (fQr bl'dS h&n'dfi 
tsoo-z&m'men), Ger. For both hands to- 

Far das ganze Werk (fOr ) 

da.s Kau'tse w&TlL), 6^. I For the full organ. 
Ffar das voile Werk (fUr f 

dfis fdl'ie w&rk, Ger. ) 

par die llnke Hand allein (fiir de Unlcfi h&nd. 
&l-liuO, Ger. For the left hand alone. 

par die rechte Hand allein (far dS rekh'tis 
hand &l-linO, Ger. For the right hand 

Puriant (foo'il-&nt), Ger. A quick Bohemian 
dance with sharp accents and changing 
varieties of measure. Called also Furie. 

Purlbondo (foo-rl-bdn'dd), II, Furious, mad, 
extreme vehemence. 

Furie (fii-re), Fr. Fury, passion. 

Furieusement (f\l-niz-m&nh\ Fr, \ 
~ " - - 5n't6),2l. ; 


Furidsamente (foo-ri-d-z&-m6n' 

ously, madly. 
Furiosd (foo-rl-d'zd). It. Furious, vehement, 


Purlandd (foor-Uln'dd), » ) An antiquated 
Furlano (foor-ia'n6), -*** J dance. 

Furniture st6p. An organ-stop, consisting 
of several ranks of pipes, of very acute 
pitch. A mixture stop. 

&arm,&ad(l, &ai0, Send, %eve, Iti{,l<sI«,Oo(d, odd, oo moon, tt&u^, a J^r. sound, kh Ger. eh. nh nataL 





Furore (foo-id^r<0, M. Fury, rage, passion. 

)P<ir zwei Manuale (fdr tsvrV in&-noo-&ae), 
Qer. For two manuals, in organ-playing. 

Fusa (foo'sil), Lai, A quaver. 

Pvste (fa-z&), Fr. A very rapid roulade or 
passage ; a skip, etc. 

Pojella (foo-seilft), Lot. Name formerly ap- 
plied to the demisemiquayer. 

Puss (fooR), Oer, Foot ; the lower part of an 

FOsse (fOs^sC), Oer. pi Feet 

PfiAsiff (ftbi'sig), Gtr, Footed : ^futtigt at, 
achtju89ig, of 8-feet size, or scale. 

Passtbn (fooB-t6n), <J^er. The tone or pitch; 
as, S-Fuaaton, or, Ach^fuasUm, a pipe of 8-feot 

Put (fooe), Fr. The barrel of a drum. 

Pz. An abbreviation of Fonandu 

O. The name of the fifth note in the nat- 
ural diatonic scale of C. to which is applied 
the syllable sol ; it is also one of the names 
of the highest, or treble, clef. Abbreviation 
of goMetie, left hand. 

Qobol (g&'Vl), Ger. A fork. 

OiVllarda (gftl-yl-&r'd&), i2. AgaUiard. 

QMTliardamente (gfil-yl-&r-d&-men'te), H. 
Briskly, gaily. 

Clagllardo (g&l-yl-Hr'dd), It. Brisk, merry, gay. 

Qal (ga), Fr. Gay, merry. 

Qaiement (flr&-m&nh), ,^ \ Merrily, lively, 
Oaiment (g&-m&uh), -^^'jgay. 

Qalllardo (gi^yfirdO, Fr. Merry, brisk ; also a 

Oaillardemeiit (g&-yard'm&nh), Fr. Merrily, 

Halo (g&1-6), Jt With gayety and cheerful- 

Qaita (g4r6-t&), 8p. A bagpipe ; also a kind 
of flute ; a street organ. 

Qajamente (gft-yft-mfin'te), R. Gaily, cheer- 

<Wlaiite (gft-l&n't«), „ \Gal- 

Oalantemente (ga-lftn-te-mSn'tfi), ^^' j iantly, 

Oalanterlefuge (gft-lftn-td-rd^foo-ghfi), Oer. A 
fugue in the free style. 

Qalanterlen (g&-l&n-t^r6'te), Oer. pi. The or- 
naments, turns, trills, etc., with which the 
old harpsichord music was embellished. 

Pieces in the free ornamental style. 

Qalanterstyl (gftrl&nt'er-stdl),Gim Free style, 
ideal style. 

Qalliard. A lively old dance in triple time, 
formerly very popular. Of Italian origin. 

Qalop (gfil'd), Fr. A quick round dance, in 
2-4 time. 

QalopMSe (gftl-d-pAdO, Fr. 
Qalopp (g&'ldp'), Oer. 
Qaloppo (ga-ldi/pd). It. 


A galop. 

QalOabi (ga loo-b&). ^^ 1 
Qaloubet (ga-loo-bft'), '^' f 

A small flute 
with three holes, 
sometimes to be met with in France, espe- 
cially in Provence. 

Oamba (gftm^bft), it The viol di gamba, or 
bass viol. See that term. 

Qamba-baM. A 16-feet cigan-stop, on the 

Oamba major. A name given to a 16-feet or- 
gan-stop, or double gamba. 

Qambe (gftmnoS), Oer. Viol di gamba. 

Qambeta (gftm-b6>t&')> 8p. An ancient Span- 
ish dance. 

Qambette (gftm-b€t^t£), Oer. A small, or oc- 
tave, gamba stop in an organ. 

Oambviole (gftmb-fS-Aae), Oer. An instru- 
ment resembling the violoncello. 

Oamma (g&m'm&). It. \ The Greek name of 
Qamme (s&m), J^. /the letter G (F). In 
musical terminology the word gamma has 
been employed variously. (1) As the name 
of the lowest note (G) of the Guidonian 
scale. (2) Asthename of that scale. (3) In 
the sense of scale, or gamut, generally. (4) 
In the sense of compass of a voice or instru- 
ment, the succession of notes from the low- 
est to the highest. See following. 

Oamma ut, or^ F nt. The name of the note 
G, the lowest note in the old solmisation. 
From this name is derived the English word 

Oamme chromatique (gftm krO-mfl-tekO, Fr. 
The chromatic scale. 

Oamme descendante (gftm dS-s&nh-d&nht), 
Fr. Descending scale. 

Oamme de sol majear (gftm dtlh sdl mft-zhtir), 
Fr. Scale of G major. 

Oamme d*ut majeur (gftm d'ttt mft-shilr), J^. 
Scale of C major. 

Aorm, ftodd, h ale, H end, h eve, liU,lide,6oUi,6 odd, oo moon, Hbut, H Fr.iound, kh Oer. cA. nhfuual 





Qauiides en bemols (gftm ■tok ba-mOl), Fr, 
Scales wiih flats. 

Oamme m^ieure montante (g&m mftrzhdr'. 
mOnh-tiaint')>-FV. An ascending major scale. 

Oammet. Exercises on the scpie. 

Qamot. The scale of notes belonging to any 

Oamut Q. That G which is on the first line 
of the bafis staff. 

Gamut, Quido*s. The table or scale intro- 
duced by Guido, and to which he implied 
the syllables ut, ra, mi» fa, sol, la. It con- 
sisted of twentv notes, namely, two octaves 
and a major sixth, the first octave distin- 
guished by the capital letters, G, A, B, etc., 
the second by the small letters, g. a, b, etc., 
and the major sixth by double letters, gg, 
aa, bb, etc. 

Qanasclone (gft-nft-shl-d^nfi), It. An Italian 

Gang (s&ng), Oer, Pace, rate of movement or 

Qanlles (g&'nM&s), 8p. Fauces, organs of the 

Qanz (gftnts), Oer, Whole* entire; also all, 

Ganz langsam (g&nts l&ng'sftm), (^, Very 

Ganze Note (g&n'tM u&US),Oer, A whole note, 
or semibreve. 

Ganzer Ton (g&n'tser t6n), ^^ > A whole 
Ganzton (gauts-tCn), ^"^- /tone. Im- 

E roper expression for " a whole step." The 
iterval of a major second. 

Ganzes Werk (g&n'ts&i w&rk), Oer. The full 

Ganzschiuss (ganz shloos), Oer. Real close 
of a piece as opposed to the HalbachlusSf or 
half close. 

Ganzverha]lend(g&nts'f€r-hfil1tod),G'0r. En- 
tirely dying away. 

Garbatamente (g&r-b&-t&-mto'te), It. Grace- 

Garbato (g&r-bft'to), H. Graceful. 

Garbo (g&r'bd). It. Simplicity, grace, elegance. 

Garlbo (g&'rl-b6), It. A dance, a ball. 

Garlgllone (gft-rel-yl-d^nC), M. Chime, mu- 
sical bells. 

Gamir un violin de cordes (gar-nSr' tlnh v%-6- 
l&nh dah kOrd), Fr. To string a violin. 

Garrfre (gftr-re'rS), It. To chirp, to warble like 
a bird. 

Gastrollen (gSsf rOl-rn), Oer. A term applied 
to a singer or actor on a starring expedition. 

Gauche (g6zh), Fr. I^eft. 

Gauche main (g6zh m&nh), Fr. The left hand. 

Gaudente (gft-oo-deu't&). It. Blithe, merry, 

Gaudentemente (gft-oo-deu-t6-meu't£),7^ Joy- 
fully, merrily. 



Gaudloso (gft-oo-dl-d'zO). It Merry, jcyful. 

Gavot (gft-vdf), Fng. ) A dance consisting 
Gavotta (g&-vdVt&), H. roi two light, lively 
Gavotte (g&-vdt), Fr. ) stn\lus in common 

Gaymente (ghS-mSn'te), Sp. Gayly briskly, 

Gaytero (ghS-t&'rd), Sp. One who pl&yf on r 
bagpipe; a piper. 

Gazzarra (g&f e&r-r&). It. Rejoicings will 
music nd caunon. 

Gclef. The treble clef; a character oomposec 
of the letters G and 8, for the sylla- 
ble sol, whi h in modern muRic in- 
variably turns on the second line of 
the staff. Tt was formerly used upon 
other degrees. 

G dOubl , or, Double G. The octave below Q 


G-dur*(gft'door), Oer. The key of G major. 

Geberdenspiel (gh^b6r'd'n-spel), Ger. Panto- 

Geblase (ghe-bl&'sS), Oer. Bellows, \pparatua 
fur blowiug. 

Gebrochen (ghd-brdlih'n), Oer. S^ken. 

Gebrbchene Akkorde (gh&brd1ch*-.i«S &k- 

kfir'de), Oct. 
Gebrochener Accord (ghd-brd'kh'-nV &k- 

kord), Oer. 

Broken chords, chords played in arpeggio. 

Gebrochene Stimme (ghd-br01di'-ne stitm'* 
me), Oer. A broken voice. 

Gebunden (ghd-boon'd'n), Oer. Connected 
syncopated, in regard to the style of playing 
or writing. 

Gebundeae Note (ghe-boon'd^nS nd^t^). Oet. 
A tied note, a note which is to be held and 
not repeated. 

Gebundener 5tyl (gh^boou'd^nCr stSl), €^er, 
Style of strictly connected harmony ; style 
of counterpoint 

Geburtsiied (gh^-boortsled). Oer. Birthday- 

Gedackt (ghC-d&ktO, r^ ) Stopped, in oppo* 
Gedeckt (Khfi-dekf^, ^^' / sition to flie 
open pipes in an organ. 

GedacktflMe (ghS-d&kt-flo'te), Oer. Stopped 
fluie, in an organ. 

Gedact. See Oedackt. 

Gedeckte Stimmen (gh^dek'te stim'm&i), 
Oer. pi. Stops with covered pipes, as the 
stopped diapason. 

Gedehnt (gh&Klant'), Oer. Lengthened. 

Gedicht (gh^dikht), (rer. A poem, tale, fa- 

GefMhrte (ghS-fftr'te), Oer. The answer in a 

Gef&lllg (gh^f&iaig), Oer. Pleasingly, agree- 

Gefledel (ghe-fS'd'l), Ger. Fiddling, playing 
on the fiddle. 

iDrm, & add, & ale, d end, 5 n«, I ttt, I is2e, 6 <>kl,d odd. oo moon, 11 &ii^, tl J^. sound, khO^ ' 





OeWhl (ghe-flUOi Oer, Sentiment, expres- 

Qeg«n (ghft'g'n), Qer. Against, contrasted 
with, opposed to. 

Qegeabewegunff (ge'g'u-b^we'goong), Qtr. 
(x>ntrary motion. 

Oegengesang (g^g'n-gft^&ng'), Qtr. Antiph- 

Oegenhall (ge^g'n-hiUr). a*^ ) Resonance. 

Qegvnschall (gC'g'n-sball'), *^* J echo. 

Qegenpunkt (gd'g'n-poonktO, Qer, Ck>unter- 

Oegenstlmme (ge^g'n-stitm'm^), Oer, Counter 
tenor, or alto, part. 

Oegenstlmmiff (gfi'g'n-sflm'mlg), Gfer. Disso- 
nant, discordant. 

Oegenaubject (g^g'n-soob-yekf), Gtr. Coun- 
teniubject, in a fugue. 

Qehend (ga'^nd), Ger. A word referring to 
movement, and having the same meaning 
as andante. 

QeMrlehre (gh^hdi'lA-re), Qer, Acoustics. 

QeMrsptelea (ghfi-hdr'sp^rn), Qtr, To play 

by ear. 
Oelge (gl'ghe), Qer, The violin. 
Qelgen (gl'ghSn), Qer, To play on the violin. 

Qeigenbiatt (sl'ghen-bl&tt), Qer. The finger- 
board of a violin. 

Qelgeabogen (gl'ghen-bo'g'n), Qer. Violin- 

Oeigenclavicymbel (gl'ghen-cl&-vl-tslm'b«l), 
Ger. An instrument similar to a harpsi- 
chord or pianoforte. 

Qeigeoftfrmiff (gl'ghSn-fdr'mlg), Qer. Having 
the form ol a violin. 

Qelgenfutter (gt'ghen-foot'tSr), Qer, Case for 
a violin. 

Qelgenhals (gl'ghSn-h&ls), Qer, The neck of 
a violin. 

Qeiffenharz (ifl'gheu-hfirts), Qer. Spanish res- 
iD.hard resin. 

Qeigenholz (gi'ghen-hOlts), Qer. The wood 
used in making violins. 

Qeigenmacher (gl'ghen-m&'kher), Qer. A vio- 

Oelgenprincipal (grghSn-prlu-td-p&lO, Qer. 
A German ofgan diapason stop, with a tone 
like that of the gamba, but fuller. 

OeigeiiMlte (gi'ghfin-s&rte), Qer, VioUn 

OelgeoMttel (gl'ghen-s&t't'l), ^^ ) The 
Qelsensteg (gi^ghen-st&gh), "^' J bridge 
ofa violin. 

Qeigenschule (gi'ghto-shoo'ie), Cfer. A violin- 
school, or method of instruction. 

Qelgenstrich (gi'ghto-strikh), Ger, A stroke 
of the violin-bow. 

OelgenstOck (gl^ghfo-stOk), Qer. A tune for 
the violin. 

Qelgenwerk (gl'ghta-wftrk), Qer. The celes* 
tina, an organ-stop of 4-feet scale. 

aelgenwirbel (gl'ghen-wirn>>l), Qer. A violin- 

Qelgenzug (gl'ghfin-tsoog), Qer, A violin- 

Qelger (gi'ghSr), Qer, Violin-player. 

Qeistlich (gistllkh), Qer. Ecclesiastical, der* 

Qelstliche Qesinge (gistai-khe ge-sftn'g^), ) 
Qeistliche Lieder (glst-U-khe l^dSr), Qer. / 
Psalms, hymns, spiritual songs. 

Qelstreich (i^ist'rlkh), ri^ \ Spirited, full of 
QeUtvoll (g^st'fOl), *^* ; life and ani- 

Qekllnffel (ghfi-kllng'a), Qer, Tinkling, ring- 
ing ofa bell. 

Oelassen (gh^lfts's'n), Ger, Calmly, quietly. 

Qelassenhelt (gh&-]&s's'n-hlt), Qer, Calmness, 

Qeliufe (ghe-loy'fe), ^^ \ Running pas- 
OeWufen (gh^lov'fen), ^^' / sages, scale 
passages, rapid movements. 

Qeliuflg (gh^loy'figh), Qer, Easy, fluent, 

Qelittflgkeit (gh&-loy'figh-kIt), Qer, Fluency, 

Qelittt (Rhd-loyt), Qer, A peal of bells, ring* 
lug of bells. 

Qeiinde (gh^lln'de), Ger. Softly, gently. 

aeIlndigkeit(ghe-lIn'dIgh-kIt).Ger. Softness, 
gentleness, sweetness. 

Qellen (g^Prn), Ger. To sound loudly. 

Qellenfltfte (gm'n-flo'te), Qer, Clarionet. 

Oeltung (g^rtnong), Qer. The value or pro> 
porilou of a note. 

Qemichlich (ghC-makhaikh), ^^ ) QuieUy; 
Qemachsam (gh«-m&kh's&m), ^^^' ] in a 
calm, slow manner. 

Oemilhllg (gh€-m&aig),Ger. Gradually, by de* 

Qeiiilis5l8t(gh&-m&s'slgt),(?0r. Moderate, mo- 

Qemisch (gh&-mlsh'), Qer, Mixed ; mixture* 
or compound, stops in an organ. 

Qemsenhom. An instrument formed of a 
small pipe made of the horn of a chamois, 
or wild goat. 

Qemshom (ghems'hdrn), Qer. An organ-stop 
with conical pipes. The tone is light, but 
very clear. • 

Qemshornquint (ghems'hdrn-kwint),Gfer. An / 
organ-stop with conical pipes, sounding a 
fifth above the foundation stops. 

Qemttth (gh^mat'), Ger. Mind, soul. 

Qemathlich (gh^-mfit'llkh), Qer, Agreeable, 

Genera (g^nft'rft), r^ 1 A term used by the 

Qenu5 (r&'uoos), ^^*^' ) ancients to indicate 

the modes according to which they divided 

aorm, AoddfAote, fi«fid,6ev€, liU, I Me, ^old,6odd, oo moon^ ti but, U Fr. 9<mnd, kh Qer. ch, uh natai, 





their tetrachords. The dlffierent methods 
of diyiding the octave: When hoth tones 
and semitones are employed, according to 
the natural arrangement of the diatonic 
scale, it is called the diatonic or natural 
genus; when it is divided by semitones 
only, it is called the chromatic genus, and 
the enharmonic genus when quarter tones 
also are used. 

Qeneralbass (ghen'^r-al-bSs), Oer. Thorough 

General paiue, A general cessation or silence 
of all the parts. 

Oeneralprobe (ghSn'^r-^l-prO^bS), Oer. A gen- 
eral rehearsal. 

Oenerateur (zha n^-ra-tdr'), Fr. The funda- 
mental note of the common chord. 

Generator. The principal sound or sounds 
by which others are produced ; the funda- 
mental note of the common chord. 

Geoere (ja'n^re). It. See Genera, 

Generoso (ja-nfi-ro'zd), It. Noble, in a digni- 
fied manner. 

Genialia (ga-ni-a1i-&). Lot. The name given 
by the ancient Romans to cymbals, because 
they were used in the celebration of wed- 

ssi: ifK if- } *'°i'". t«i~t. "p"*'- 

Genre (zh&nhr), Fr, Style, manner. 

Genre chromatique (zh&nhr kro-nui-tek'), Fr. 
The chromatic genus. 

Genre dUrtonique (zhanhr dI-&-tdnh-ek), Fr. 
The diatonic, or natural, genus. 

Genre enharmonique (zhanhr &nh-h&r-mdnh- 
ek'), Fr. The ennarmonic genus. 

Genre expresslf (zh&nhr 6s-pr^-sef ), Fr. The 
expressive style. 

Gentll (zh&n-t^lO, Fr\ Pleasing, graceful.ele- 
Gentile Uen-teae), It. J gant. 

Gentllezza (jto-tel ISt'za), It. Grace, elegance, 
refinement of style. 

Gentllmente (jen-tel-men't€). It. Gracefully, 

Genus (g&'noos). Lot. See Genera. 

Genas chromaticum (ga'noos kro-ma'tl- 
koom), Lot. The chromatic genus or mode. 

Genus dlatontoum (g&'noos di-a-td'ni-koom). 
Lot. The diatonic genus or mode. 

Genus enharmonicum (ga'noos ^n-hHr-md'ni- 
koom). Lot. The enharmonic genus or 

Genus loflatlle (ga'noos In-fl&'tit-lfi), Lat. 
Wind instruments. 

Genus percussibile (ga'noos p€r-koos-se'bM€), 
Instruments of percussion. 

Genus tensile (g&'noos teu'sMfi), Lat. Stringed 

Gerade Bewegung (ghe-r&'d« be-v&'goong), G^. 
Similar motion. 

Gerade Taktart (ghd-ra'dS tfikt'&rt), Oer. Ck)m- 
mon time. 

Gericeel (gh«-r«'z*l), Oer, A soft, murmuring 

German fingering. A method of fingering 
piano music inrmch designates the thumb as 
the first finger, in distinction from the Eng- 
lish or American-mode, which indicates the 
use of the thumb by a sign. 

German flute. See Flauto traverse. ' 

German scale. A scale of the natural notes 
consisting of A, H, C, D, E. P, G, instead oi 
A, B, G, etc., the B being always reserved to 
express B\f. 

German sixth. A name given n 1_^ 

to a chord composed of a ma- -af- jl^j~ ~ 
jor third, perfect fifth, and I t^U j"^ -- 
extreme sixth, as, t^ 

German soprano clef. The G clef placed on 
the first line of the staff for sopmno, instep'^ 
of the G clef on the second line of that part 

Ges (ghfis), Oer. The note G[>. 

Gesang (ghfi-sang'), Oer. Singing ; the art or 
singing ; a song, melody, air. 

Gesangbuch (ghd-s&ngni)ookh), Oer. Song^ 
book, hymn-book. 

Gesang der Vtfgel (gh^s&ng' dSr t&g*l), Oer. 
Singing of birds. 

Gesftnge (gh6-sang'6), Oer. pi. Songs, hymns. 

Gesangsgruppe (ghfi-sftngs'groop-De), Oer, 
Song group ; the second subject of a sonata 
movement, so called in contradistinction 
from the leading subject, which is thematic 

Gesangswelse (ghd-s&ngs'wi-zS), Oer. In the 
style of a song. 

Gesangverein (gh^8ang'fer-In),G^. A choral 

Gesangwelse (ghe-sang'wi-ze), Oer. Melody, 

Gesause (ghe-sou'z^), Oer. Humming, whis- 

Geschlck (gh^shlk'), Oer. Skill, dexterity. 

Geschleclit(ghe-shiekhtO, <?0r. Genus. 

Geschleift (ghS-shlift'), Oer. Slurred, legato. 

Geschmack (gh^schmak'), Oer. Taste. 

Geschwanzte Noten (ghS-shw&nts'tii nd'ten), 
Oer. A quaver, or flag notes. 

Geschwind (ghfi-shwlnd'), Oer. Quick, rapid. 

Geschwindigkeit (ghS - shwlndlg - kit), Oer. 
Swiftness, rapidity, speed. 

Geschwindmarsch (ghS-shwind'm&rsh), Oer, 
A quickstep. 

Ges-dur (ghte-door), Oer. The key of G^ 

Geses (ghCs-Cs), Oer. G-double-flat. 

Gesinge (gh^slng'6), Oer. ConsUnt singing, 
bad singing. 

Gestossen (gh^-stos's'n), Oer. Separated, d& 

Qestrichene (ghe-stri'kh^n€), Oer. A quaver. 
Getron*. } ^^^ n»nies for the cittern. 

ft om, & odd, & ate, d end, 6 0M, I «, I iile, d oM, odd, oo moon, (i &ii<, a /y. found, kh <7er. c^ nh n^^ 





Qethellt (ghfi-tlltO. Qfr. Divided. QetheOte 
ViMntn, the same as vUMni divitL 

Oetidn (ghe-tonO, Oer- Repeated sounds, 

Oetrasen (ghd-trii 'gh'n), Oer. Well sustained, 

Qetrost (gb^trdstO» Ger. Ck)nfldently, reso- 

Qeiibtere (gh^db't^rS), Oer, Expert perform- 

Oewlrbel (gbd-wlrls'l), Oer, The roll of 

QewUs (ghd-vls'), Oer. Firm, resolute. 

Oewlssheit (gh&-w!s'hlt), Oer. Firmness, res- 

Oeziert (ghfi-tsert), Gar. With affectation. 

O-flat. The flat seventh of At? ; the flfth fiat 
introduced in modulating by fourths from 
the natural diatonic mode. 

O gamut. The G on the first line of the bass 

Qhijyhe. An old name for the fiddle. See 

QhiriMzzi (ghg-rl-bet'zi), H. tJnexpected in- 
tervals ; eccentric, fantastical passages. 

Qhlribizzoso (ghS-rl-be-tso'zo), It. Fantas^ 
tical, whimsical. 

Qhlronda (ghe-rdn'd&). It, A hurdygurdy. 

Qhittem. An old name for the cittern. 

Qicheroso (je-k^rd^zd), It. Merry, playful. 

Qiga (jd'^), J^ > Ajig. A very lively old 
Qigue (zheg), Fr. > dance in duple, or 
Qig«e(ge'g€), Oer. > quadruple, ternary 
time— as 12-8 (or 4-4 with quaver triplets), 6-8, 
6-4, and also in 12 16 and 24-16. Examples 
in simple ternary time (3-8) are compara- 
tively rare, and a jig in ^ with triplets is 

something exceptional. Nothing certain 
can be said about the origin of this dance. 
The name is supposed to be derived from 
the German word Geig, or Geige, meaning 
a fiddle, as the music is particularly adapt- 
ed to instruments of that class. 

Olgellra (ie-ja-irrft), M, A xylophone, or 
Strohfieoel (q. v.). 

Qighardo (je-gilr'dd), It, A sort of Jig. 

Q In alt. The first note in alt ; the octave 
above the G, or treble clef note. 

O In aKIssimo. The first note in altissimo : 
the fifteenth above the G or treble elef 

Olnglarus. A small Egyptian fiute. 

Otochevole (jo-ka'vC !€}, It. Merry, sportive, 


^iochevol^iente (Jd-k&-vdl-m€n'te), 
Oiscolarmente (jd-kd-lar-m6n'tS), 
Merrily, sportively. 

Qlocondamente (jd-kon-da-mSn'te), It. Mer- 
rily, joyfully, gayly. 

Ulocoiiido (jo-kdn'dO), H, Cheerful, merry, 



Qlocosamente (jd-kd-z8pm€n't6), » ) Humor- 
Qlocoso (j6-k6'a6), "'*• J ously* 


Qloja (jd'ya), IL Joy, gladness. 

Olojosamente (jd-yd-za-men'te), it Joyfully, 

Qlovlale Qd-vl-ft'l^), It. Jovial. 

aiovlalita Q6-yrl-^\l-i&% It, Joviality, gai« 

Giraffe (ji-rftffO. A species of ancient spinet. 

Qia (ghls), Oer. The note G#. 

ai5-moll (gh!s-mdll), Oer. The key of G^ mi- 

Qittana (je-t&'n&). If. A Spanish dance. 

Qittem (jit'tfim). A species of cittern. 

Qltteth (jit'teth) Heb. An instrument which 
David brought from Gath, of the harp kind. 

Qiubblloso (joob-bl-ld'zo), It. Jubilant, ex- 

Qlubllazione (Joo-bi-mt-sl-d^ne), ^ JubiU- 
QlublUo (joo-bl-ie'd). It, Uion, re- 

Qiubilo (joonsMO), J joicing. 

Qiucante (joo-k&n't€), » \ Merry, joy- 
Qiuchevoie (joo-ka-vdlS), ''^' Jful. See Oto- 

QiuUvamente (joo-U-va-mto't^), B, Joyfully, 

Qiulivisslmo (joo-U-ves'si-md), B. Very joy- 

Qiulivo (joo-lS'vd), It. Cheerful, joyful. 

Qiullarl (jool-l&'re). It. Bands of dancers, ac- 
tors, or singers. 

Qiaocante (joo-6-k&n'te), B. With sport and 

Qiuoco (joo-dlcd). It, An organ-stop. 

Qiuocoso (joo-d-kd'sO), B. See Oiocoto, 

Qiustamente (joos-t&-men'te), B. Justly, with 

Qlustezza (jooB-tet'z&), B. Precision. 

Qlusto (Joos'td), B. A term signifying that 
the movement indicated is to be performed 
in an equal, steady, and just time. 

Qiven bass. A bass given, to which the har- 
mony is to be added. 

Qlving out. The prelude by which the or- 
ganist announces to the congregation the 
tuue they are to sing. 

Qlal5 (gla), Fr. The passing bell. 

QIals fun^bre (gl& fa-nabr), J^V. A funeral- 

QIaplssant (glft-pls-sftuh), J^. Shrill, squeak- 

Glasses, musical. An instrument formed of 
a number of glass goblets shaped like finger- 
fflasses, tuned by filling them with more or 
less water, and played upon with the fingers 

ttorm« A add, ft ale, d«fid, S a«, I ifl, I iile, d okf, odd, oo mo<m, a &u<, tt fV. wHind, kh 6^^ 




QUitt (gl&t), Qtr. Smooth, even. 

Olitte (gl&ftC) , Qtr. Smoothness, eyennen. 

QV» A vocal composition in three or four 
parts, generally consisting of more than one 
movement, the subject of which may be 
grave, tender, or gay and bacchanalian. The 
glee in its preoent form first appeared in 
the middle of the elRhteenth century, and 
is a composition peculiar to England. 

Cleemen. An ancient name for minstrels. 

Qleich (gllkh), Ger. Equal, alike, consonant. 

Qlelchklang (gllkh'kl&ig), Qer. Consonance 
of sound, unis jn. 

Qieichschwebende Temperotur (gllkh*shw&- 
b€u-(ie t^m-p^rH-toor'), Qer. Equal temper- 
ament. The division of the octave into 
twelve equal parts in such a way as to afford 
the nearetit possible approximation to cor- 
rect intervals with the imperfections equal- 
ly distributed in all keys. 

Qlelchstlmmig (gllkh'stlm-mlg), Qer. Har- 
monious, accordant. 

Qielten (gll't'n), Qer, To slide the fingers. 

ail(gl§), J<.pl. The. 

Glide. Portamento. 

Qlidtng. In fiute-playing, a sliding move- 
ment of the fingers for the purpose of blend- 
ing the tones. 

Oiled (glSd), C^€T, Link ; the term is used to 
express a chord, as, Einglied, one chord ; 
Zweiglied, two chords. 

QlisMide '(gliB-s&dO, Fr. Gliding; the act of 
passing the fingers in a smooth, unbroken 
manner over the keys or strings. 

QlisMUido (gles-sftn'dO), It. ) Slurred, 
QlisMto (gles-s&'td), It. V smooth, 

Qlissement (gles mdnh), Fr. ) in a gild- 
ing manner, by sliding the fingers along the 

Qllsser (glSsws&O. Fr. An embellishment 
which is executed by turning the nail and 
drawing the thumb or finger rapidly over 
the keyboard. 

Qlissez le'pouce (glis-sft' Itlh poos), Fr. Slide 
the thumb. 

Ollssicando (giesHd-k&n'dd), » ) Slurred. 
Olissicato (glls-sl-k&'td), ^^' f smooth, in 
a gliding manner. See, also, Glister. 

Qll stromentl (gl§ strd-mSn'tS). It. The in- 

Qlitschen (gllt'shen), Ger, To glide the fin- 
ger, hjee Glister. 

Qlfickchen (glok'kh'n), Ger. A UtUe bell. 

Qlocke (gldk'€), Qer, A bell. 

aUtekeln (gldOc^ln), Qer, To ring little bells. 

Olockengeliute (gid'it'n-ge-loy'te), Ger. The 
ringing ur chiming of bells. 

Olockenlst (RlOk'to-Ist), ri^ \ Player on 
QlOckner (gi5k'uer), ^^* / the chimes, or 

Olockenklang (gldk'en-kUlng), G^cr. The sound 
of bells. 

Qlocken8plel(glOk'en-Bp€l),<?0r. Chimes; also 
a stop in imitation of bells in German or* 

aUkkleinton (gldkain-t6n), Qer. An organ* 
stop of very small scale and wide measure. 

Qloria (glCrl-a), L^\ ** Glory be to God on 
high.'' A principal movement in the Biass. 

Olottis (glOt'tls), Qr. The narrow opening at 
the upper part of the trachea, or windpipe, 
which Dy its dilation and contraction con- 
tributes to the modulation of the voice. The 
name is also applied to a kind of reed used 
by the ancient fiute-players, which thev 
held between their lips and blew through 
in performance. 

Qiahend (gia'€nd), Ger. Ardent, glowing. 

Q-moll (ga-mdl), Ger. The key of G minor. 

Qnacchera (nftk-k&'rft), R. A tambourine, a 

Qnugab (noo-sftbO, Ger. The name given by 
the undent Hebrews to the organ. 

Qola (gfi'lft), It. The throat; also a guttural 

Ooll trompo. A trumpet used by the ancient 

Irish, Danes, Normans, and English. 

Qolpe de muslca (g61-p6 d& moo'jd-kfi), 8p. A 
bund of music. 

Qondellied (gdn'd'llSd), Qer, A gondolier- 


Qondoliera (g6n-dd-l§-&'rft), It, A gondola- 
song ; a soiig with an easy-rocking motion, 
& la the movement of a gondola. 

Qondolier-5ongs. Songs composed and sung 
by the Venetian gondoliers, of a very grace- 
ful and pleasing style ; barcarolles. 

Gong. A Chinese instrument of the pulsatil« 
kind, consisting of a large circular plate ot 
metal, which, when struck, produces an ex- 
ceedingly loud noise. 

Qorgheniamento (gdr-g&d-jI-&-m€n'tO), It, 
Tnlliug, quavering. 

Qorghegglare (gOr-g&d-JI-ft'rC), It. To triU, to 

Qorghegglo (g5r-ff&d'jl-d), It, A trill, a shake 

oithe voice in singing. 

Qottt (goo), Fr, Taste, style, judgment. 

aoverninff key. The principal key ; that key 
in which a piece is written. 

Qrabgeaang (grftb'g6-B&ng), r,^ ) Diige ; 
Qrabfied (gra&led), ^^' / funeral, 


Grace note. Any note added to a composi- 
tion as an embellishment. 

Graces. Ornamental notes and embellish* 
ments, either written by the composer or 
introduced by the performer. The princi- 
pal embellishments are the appoggiatura,the 
turn, and the shake or trill. 

Gracieux (gr&rsX-tlh), Fr, Graceful. 

Gracile (griL'tshl-U), n. Thin, weak, small: 
referring to the tone. 

Gradoso (grft-thl-d'zO), 8p, Graceful. 

&arm, ft add,&afe, d«fid, eeve, 1 iU,li8U,6old, 6 ocfd, oo moon, tl &uj, ti Fr, aotind, kh Qer, ch, nhnoMt 





Ond (RTftd), Oer, Steps, degree. See Qrado. 

Qradare (gi§rd&'re), H. To descend step by 

Qradatamente (ffrft-d&-ta-men'te), It.-) By de- 
Gradation (gra-dk-Re-dnh), Fr. Agrees, a 

<Qradazione (gra-dft-tsi-d'ae), It. j g r adu- 

al increase or diminution of speed or inten- 
sity of tone. 

Qradevole (grarda'v6-16), n \ 

Oradevolmente (gr&-da-ydl-mto'te), ^^' j 
Gracefully, pleasingly. 

Oradire (grft-de're), B, To ascend step by 

Qradltameote (grft-dl-tarmto'tfi), B. In a 

pleasing manner. 

Qraditissiino (gril-di-tes'sl-md), IL Very 
sweetly, most gracefully. 

Qradlelter (grad'U-tSr), Ger, A scale. 

Qrado (grft'dd), 'It. A degree, or single step, 
ontbostafif; digrado means that the mel- 
ody moves by degrees, ascending or descend- 
ing, in opposition to dl salto, oy skips of 
greater intervals. 

Qrado ascendente (gr&'dO ft-sh^n-dSn'te), It. 
A descending degree. 

Qrado descendente (gr&r'ddd&-shen-den'te), M. 
A descending degree. 

Qradotf (grfirdos), Sp. Musical intervals. 

Qradual. That part of the Roman Catholic 
service that is sung between the Epistle and 
the Gospel, and which was anciently sung 
on the steps of the altar. 

Qradualmente (grft-doo-fil-men'te) ja \ 
Qraduatamente(gra^oo-a-t&-mto'te), ^^* f 
Gradually, by degrees or steps. 

Qradus ad Pamassum (grft'doos ftd pftr-n&s'- 
soom), Lot. The ruad to Parnassus. This 
name was applied by the contrapuntist Fuz 
to his elaborate textbook in counterpoint. 
Also by dementi to his collection of 100 
pieces for the higher art of piano-playing. 
The latter work is very important. 

Qradual modulation. Modulation in which 
some chord is taken before the modulating 
chord, which mav be considered hb oelong- 
ing to the original key or the new key. 

Qraduare (grBrdoo-&'re), II. To divide into de- 

Qraduazlone (grft-doo-fi-tsl-^'ne), II. See Qra- 

Qraduellem^nt (grSrdw&l'm&nh), Fr. \ Gradu- 
Qradweise (grad'wi-ze), Qer. ) ally, 

by degrees. 

Qrail (gral). The Gradual. 

Qraillement (gr&-m&nh), Fr. A hoarse sound. 

Qrammar, musical. The rules by which mu- 
sical compositions are govemeo. 

Orammatical accent. The common-measure 
accent, marked by the length of the words, 
and a regular succession of strong and weak 

a?Silfg"rL'de). ■«• lOreat. grand. 

Qran cantora (giftn k&n-t<yre), JJL A ilii«> 

Qran cassa (gr&n kfis'sft), R. The great drum. 

Qrand-barr6 (gr&nh-bftr-r&O, Fr. In guitai^ 
playing this means laviug the first finger of 
the left hand upon all the six strings of the 
guitar at once. 

Qrand bourdon. Great or double bourdon^ 
an organ-stop of 32-feet tone in the pedal. 

Qrand chantre (gr&nh shftntr), J^. A pre^ 

Qrand choeur (grftn ktir), Fr. Full organ; 
all the stops. 

Qrand choir. In organ-playing, the union of 
all the reed-stops. 

Qrand cornet. Th is name Is sometimes g^ven 
to a reed-stop of 16-feet scale on the manuals 
of an organ. 

Qrande messe (gr&nhd m&ss), Fr. High Mass. 

Qrande mesure a deux temps (^rftnhd m&- 
zhiir & dii tauh), Fr. Common time of two 
beats in a bar, marked 2-2, or someiimes 4-4, 
or g. See, also, AUa eappella. 

Qrandezza (gran-d€t'sfi)« It. Grandeur, dig- 

Qrandloso {gTSi.ii-dl-&z6), It. Grand, noble. 

Qrandisonante (gr&n-dl-zo-n&n'tS), Jt. Very 
sonorous, full-sounding. 

Qrand Jeu (gr&n zhUh), J^. Full organ. Ap- 
plied to harmoniums. Also the name of a 
stop which brings on all the reeds at once. 

Qrand opera. Italian opera ; a full opera with 
an intricate plot and full cast of performers. 

Qrand orgue (gx&nh dorg), Fr. Great organ. 

Qrand pianof6rte. A pianoforte in which 
nearly all the octaves nave three strings to 
each tone, tuned in unison, and struck at 
once by the same hammer. 

Qrand sonata. An extended sonata, consist- 
ing generally of four movements. 

Qran gusto (gr&n goos '^), It. In a lofty, ele- 
vated manner, a full, rich, high-wrought 

- composition. The manner of a fine and 
great singer is said to be in the gran gusto. 

Qran prova (grtln prO^yS.), It. The last rehear- 

Qran tamburo (gr&n tfim-boo'rd). It. The 
great drum. 

Qrappa (grlLp'pS,), It. The brace, or character, 
used to connect two or more staves. 

Qratias agimus (gra'tsl-as&'gl-moos), Lot. Pari; 
of the Gloria in a mass. " We give thanks 
to Thee." 

Qrave (gr&'vS), It. A slow and solemn move- 
ment ; also a deep, low pitch in the scale o« 

Qravement (grav-manh), i^r. ) Withgrav 
Qravemente (gra-vS-m€n't6), It. j ity, in a dig 
nified and solemn manner. 

inum, SkOdd, i ale, € end, S eve, I iZI, 1 islefi old, 6 odd. oo Tnoon, H but, il Fr.sound, kh Qer, ch, niti nasai 





Qr«v«zza (^-T6tftsft),i2. Gravity, Bolemnity. 

QravicembalO (grrft-ve-tshem'ba-W), « 1 An 
Qravicembolo (Rra-vo-tsh«m'b6-16), '^'" j old 
name for the narpsichord. 

Gravis (grft'vls), Lot. Heavy, ponderons. The 
name of one of the acceutus eodeBiaatioi. 

Qravlsonante (gra-vl-a6-nftn't6), IL Lond- 

Qravlta (grfi-vI-tftO, ^- ) ^ _._ , ^ 
Qravltlt (gra-fi-tfttO, Oer. ^Gravity, majeaty. 

OraviU (gra-vl-taO, Fr. ) 

Oravity . That modification of any sound by 
which it becomes deep or low in respect to 
some other sound. The gravity of sounds 
depends in general on the mass, extent, and 
tension of the sonorous bodies. The larger 
and more lax the bodies, the slower will oe 
the vibrations and the graver the sounds. 

Qraziosamente (gTa-tsX-d-z&-mto'te),/i(. Grace- 
fully, smoothly. 
QraziOM (gra-tsl-o'zo), H. In a graceful style. 

Greater scale. Major scale. 

Greater sixth. A name sometimes given to 
the major sixth. 

Greater third. A name sometimes given to 
the major third. 

Great octave. The name giv en in Germ any 
to the notes between C and | ^j ft; 
B iuclusive. These notes -^c? 
are expressed by capital let- ^ 

ters. "^^ 

Great organ. In an organ with three rows of 
keys, usually the middle row, so called be- 
cause containing the greatest number of 
stops, and having its pipes of large scale and 
voiced louder than those in the swell, or 
choir, organ. 

Great sixth. The appellation given to the 
chord of the fifth and sixth when the fifth 
is perfect and the sixth major. 

Greek modes. The ancient Greek modes or 
scales were twelve iu number ; of these, six 
were authentic aud six plagal. The sounds 
are supposed to have been somewhat simi- 
lar to tnose in the scale of C, and the dif- 
ferences in mode due to the selection of a 
point of repose. 

Qregorian chant. A style of choral music, 
according to the eight celebrated church 
modes introduced by Pope Gregory in the 
sixth century. 

Gregorianlsch (gre-g6-ri-ftn1sh), Qer. Grego- 

Gregorlanischer Gesang (gr&«d-rl-an1sh-er), 
Ger. The Gregorian chant. 

Gregorian modes. ) The eight tunes, or 

Gregorian tones. ) tones, authorized by St. 

Gregory for use in intoning the religious 

offices. Part of them are still in the plain 

song (g. v.). 

Greii (greil), Qer, Shrill, acute. 

Greilhelt (greililt), Oer, Sharpness, shrill* 

Grelot (gra-lo), Fr, A small bell. 

Grlffbret (grifif'bret},G'er, The fingerboard of 
a violin, violoncello, etc 

Griffloch (grindkh), O'er. The holes of a flute 
and like instruments. 

Qrillig (grIl'Ug), Oer. Capricious, fanciful. 

Gringotter (gi&nh-gG-t&O, Fr, To quaver, to 

Grisoller (gr$-K6-l&0, Fr. To sing like a lark 

Grob (grob), Oer. Deep, low voice, bass. 

Grobgedackt (groVghS-dakhtO, Oer. Laigv 
stopped diaiwson of full tohe. 

Groppetto (grdi>-pdt'td). It. See Oruppetto. 

Qroppo (grop'pd), B. A group of notes, a rapid 
vocal passage. 

Gros-fa. A name formerly given to old 
church music in square notes, semibrevea^ 
and minims. 

Grossartig (grds^ftr-tig), Oer, Grand. 

Grosse (grds'sS), Oer. Major, speaking of inf 
tervals ; also grand in respect to style. 

Grosse calsse (gros kass), Fr. The great drum. 

Grosse Nazard (grds'sS n&-ts&rdO , Ger. An or* 
gan-stop, sounding a fifth above '.^he diapa> 

Grosse Quinte (gros'sS quin'tfi), ) 

Grosses Quintenbass (grds'stequln't'n- V Oer, 
bass), I 

An organ-stop in the pedals sounding a 
fifth or twelfth to the great bass of 82 feet of 
16 feet. 
Grosse Sonate (grOs'se sd-na'te),G'er. pi. Grand 

Grosses Principal (grds'sSs prin-tsi-pal'), Oer. 
An organ-stop of 32-feet scale of the open 
diapason species. 

Grosse Terz (grds'se t&rtz), Oer. Great third. 
The major third. 

Grosse Tierce (grOs'sS tiei'B&),Oer. Great third 
sounding-stop in an organ, producing th« 
third or tenth, above the foundation stops. 

Grosse Trommel (grds'sS trOm'm'l), Ger. The 

great drum. 
Grossgedackt (grOs'ghe-d&kf ), Oer. Double* 

stopped diapason of 16-feet tone in an organ 

Grosso (gros'so), H, Full, great, grand. 
Grossvatertanz (gr66'fa-ter-t&ntB'),6«r. Grand 

father's dance ; an old-fashioned dance. 
Gros tambour (gr6 t&nh-boor), Fr, The greal 


Grottesco (gr6t-tfi8lcd), J2. Grotesque. 

Ground bass. A bass consisting of a few sim- 
ple notes, intended as a theme, on which, 
at each repetition, a new melody is con- 

irnii, ft odd, a ofe, 6 end, e etw, i itt, i i«te, 6 oW, 6 odd, oo iiwon, ti 6«r, a ly. sottiK^ 




8tructed» so that the entire composition 
rests upon this single foundation. Example: 
Bach's Passacaglia in C minor, for organ. 

Qroup. Several short nptes tied together. 

Qrundakkord (groond'ak-k6rd), 6«r. An unin- 

vertea chord. 
arttndstiinme(groond'stIm-m6),(?er. The bass 


Omndtoa (gTOond-t6n), Oer. The bass note ; 
fundamental, or principal, tone. 

Qruppetio (groop-pSt'td), B. A turn ; also a 
smaU group of grace, or ornamental, notes. 

Qruppe (groop'pS), Oer, [ A group of notes ; 
Qruppo (groop'pd). It. j formerly it meant a 
trm, shake, or turn. 

a-Schlllssel (gi'shlti«-s'l), Oer. The G, or 
treble, clef. 

Quaradia (gw&'r&k'&), Sp. A Spanish dance. 

Ouaranita (gw& rft-n^tft), Sp. A variety of the 
Spanibh guitar. 

Ouamer ius (frwar-n&'rl-tls) . A make of violin 
highly prized, so called from the name of 
tiie manufacturer. 

Quddok (goo-ddk^, Rw. A rustic violin with 
three strings, used among the Russian peas- 

Querrlero (goo-€r-xI-a'r6), It. Martial, warlike. 

Quet (g&), Fr. A military trumpet piece. 

Quia (ghS-&), Sp. Fugue, conductor, leader. 

Ouida (gwS'dS). It. Guide; also the mark 
called a direct av. 

Qttlde. That note in a fugue which leads off 
and announces the subject. 

Oulde-main (gbSd m&nh), J^. The hand- 
guide, an instrument invented by Kalk- 
breuner for assisting young players to ac- 
quire a good position of the hands on the 

Ouidon (ghe-ddnh), Fr. The mark called a 

Ouidonian hand. The figure of a left hand 
used b> Guido, and upon which was marked 
the names of the sounds forming his three 

Quldonlaii syllables. The syllables ut, re, 
mi, fa, Mol, la, used by Guido d' Arezzo, and 
called the Aretinian scale. 

Quido's gamut. The table, or scale, intro- 
duced by Guido Aretinus about 1050, and to 
the notes of which he applied the syllables 
ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. It consisted of twenty 
notes, viz., two octaves and a major sixth, 
the first octave being distinguished by cap- 

ital letters, the second by small letten* and 
the sixth by double smail letters. 

Ouigue (goo-e'ghfi), It, See Oig<i, 

Quilteni. QeeOiUem. 

auimbarde (ghem-b&rdO, Fr. A jew's-harp. 

dnion (ghe-dn), 5p. A sign ilndicating that 
the piece or passage is to be repeated. 

Guitar. A long-necked instrument whieh in 
modem times has been strung generally 
with six strings, and whose fingerboard is 
provided with frets. The strings, which are 
plucked with the fingers of the right hand, 
are tuned in £ A d g b e', but as guitar mu- 
sic is written an octave higher than it 
sounds, their notation is as follows : 




Oultare (ghi-tarO, Fr. ") 

Guitar re (ghe-tar're), Sp.yA guitar. 

Qultarre (ghl-t&r'r«),6er. j 

Quitare d'amour (ghg-t&r d'&-moor), Fr. An 
instrument (invented by Georg Stauler, of 
Vienna, in 1823) with six strinss, tuned like 
those of the guitar, but played with a bow. 
In some of its features it resem bles the gui tar 
in others the violoncello. It has, not inapt- 
ly, been described as a viola bastarda. The 
Germans call it, also, Bogengnitarre (bow- 
guitar), Knieguitarre (knee-guitar), and Vi- 
oloncellguitarre (violoncello-guitar). 

Quitare d'amour (gh§-t&r d'&-moor'), Fr, A 
modification of the German guitar. 

Qultarre lyre (ghS-t&r ISrh), Fr. A French 
instrument having six strings and formed 
somewhat like an ancient lyre. 

Quiterne (ghe-t&mOf Fr. An ancient species 
of lute or guitar. 

Qunst (goon8t),Ger. Grace, tenderness, favor. 

Quracho (goo-r&-kd), Sp. See Qitaraehe. 

Qusto (goos'tO), It. Taste, expression, 

Qttstosamente (goo6-td-z&-m&i'te), It. Taste- 
fully, expressively. 

Qustoso (goos-t6'zd). It. Expressive, tasteful. 

Q ut. A name applied by Guido to the tone 
large G, because this tone was the lowest of 
the whole system of tones. 

Qutdttnken (goot'dfin-k'n), Oer. At pleasure, 
according to the taste of the performer. 

Quttural. Formed in the throat, pertaining 
to the throat. 

Qutturalmente (goot-too-r&l-men'tS), R. Gut- 





H. Thia letter is used by the Germans for B- 
natural. which note is called by the French 
and Italians «i. Abbreviation for Hand. 

Habanera (h&-b&'ne-rfi,), Sp. A slow Spanish 
dance in 3-4 time; a dance. 

Haberrohr (h&'b^r-rGr), Oer. Shepherd's Ante. 

Hackbrett (hfik'brSt), Ger. The dulcimer. 

Halb (h&lb), Ger. Half. 

Halbcadence (h&lb-k&-den'tse), Ger, Half-ca- 

Halbgedackt (h&lVge-d&kt), Ger. Half-cov- 
ered. Applied to the rohrflote and clarinet- 
flute stops in organs. 

Halbnote (halb-no'tS), Ger. A minim, or half- 

Halbprincipal (h&lVprln-tsI-p&lO, Ger. An 
onran-stop of four-feet pitch, and conse- 
anently an octave higher than the pitch of 
the open diapason. 

Halbton (halb'tOn), Ger. Half-tone, semi- 

Half-cadence. An imperfect cadence, a close 
on the dominant. 

Half-note. A minim. 

Half-note rest. A pause equal in duration 
to a half-note. 

Half-shift. The first shift on a violin ; that 
on the fifth line. 

Half-step. The smallest interval used in 

Hall (hall), Ger. Sound, clangor, clang. 
Halle (hfiiaS), Ger. Hall. 

Hallelujah (hftl-ie-loo'yah}, Heb. " Praise ye 
the Lord "; a song of thanksgiving. 

Hallelujah meter. A stanza in six lines of 
iambic measure, the syllables of each being 
in number and order as follows : 6, 6, 6, 6, 8, 8. 

Hallen (h&ll'n), Ger. To sound, to clang. 

Halltrompete (h&ll'trom-pd'te), Ger. A power- 
ful trumpet. 

HalmpfeHe (h&lm-pfi'fe), Ger. Shepherd's 

Hals (h&ls), Ger, Neck of a violin, viola, etc. 

Halt (h&lt), Ger. A pause ; a hold. 

Hammer. That part of the action or mech- 
anism of a pianoforte which strikes the 
springs and thus produces the sound. 

Hammer, tuning. An instrument bv which 
pianos and harps are tuned, by tightening 
or loosening the strings. 

Hammerklavier (hfirn'mfir-kHl-ferO, Ger. The 
modern piano. 

Hanakische (hfi-na'kl-she), Ger. A hanacea. 
A Moravian dance in 3-4 measure, some- 
what resembling a polonaise, but quicker. 

Hinde (h&n'de), Ger. Hands. 

Handlage (hand-la'gS), Ger. The position of 
the hand. 

Handieiter (hand-li't€r), Ger. Handguide. 
See Guide. 

Hand organ. A portable instrument consist- 
ing of a cylinder, on which by means of 
wires, pins, and staples are set the tunes, the 
revolution of the cylinder causing the pins, 
etc., to act on the ieys and also to give ad- 
mission to the wind. 

Handstiicke (h&nd'stil-ke), Ger. Hand pieces, 
exercises for training the fingers in piano^ 

Hardiment (hfir-di-m&nh), Fr. Boldly, firmly. 

Harfe (har'fe), Ger. A harp. 

Harfen (h&r'f'n), Ger. To play on the harp. 

Harfenbass (h&r'fen-bass), Ger. A bass like a 
harp; broken chords. 

Harfensalte (har'fen-sal't^), Ger. Harp-string. 

Harfenspieler (har-fn-spe1€r), Ger. Harp- 

Harmonia (har-mo'nl-a). Lot. A daughter of 
Mars and Venus. Her name was first used 
to indicate music in general. 

Harmonic. Concordant, musical. 

Harmonica. A musical instrument invented 
by Benjamin Franklin, consisting of glasiies, 
sometimes globular and sometimes flat. 
The tODe is produced by rubbing the edge 
of the globular glasses with a moistened fin- 
ger, or striking the flat ones with small 
hammers. The name is also applied to an 
organ-stop of delicate tone. 

Ger. A mixture stop of very delicate scale 
in German organs. 

Harmonical trumpet. An instrument very 
much like a trumpet, except that it is long- 
er and consists of more branches ; the sack- 

Harmonic figuration. The progression from 
one toDe to another of the same chord by 
means of passing tones, thence passing in 
the same manner through successive diffier- 
ent chords. 

Harmonic flute. An open metal organ-stop, 
of 8- or 4- feet pitch ; the pipes are of double 
length, that is, 16 or 8 feet, and the bodies 
have a hole bored in them midway between 
the foot and the top ; the tone is exceeding- 
ly full, fluty, and powerful. 

Aorm, Sioddf & <de, ^end, 6 eve, iiU, I isle, 6old, 6 odd, oo moan, H hut, ti Fr. »ound, kh Ger. ch, nh natoL 





Harmonichord. An InBtrumenfe having the 
form of an upright piano, but a tone some- 
thing like that of a violin, produced by the 
friction of a cylinder covered with leather 
upon the strings. It was invented in 1785 
by Fr. Kaufman. 

Harmonlci (h&r-mo'nl-tshS), It. pL HarmoU' 
ics in violin music. 

Harmonic mark. A sign used in violin, harp 
music, etc., to indicate that certain passages 
are to be played upon such parts of the 
open strings as will produce the harmonic 
sounds, O. 

Harmonicoii. A small instrument held in 
the hand, the sounds being produced from 
small metal springs set in motion by blow- 
ing from the mouth. 

Harmonics. (1) The sounds produced by the 
vibrations of divisions (aliquot parts) of a 
string, column of air, etc. Simple sounds 
are very rare. What we r^;ard as one sound 

. is in reality a compound ofa multiplicity of 
sounds produced bv a multiplicity of vari- 
ous simultaneous vibrational forms. If, for 
instance, an impact is jgiven to a string, it 
vibrates not onlV in its full length but at the 
same time also in divisions. The vibrations 
of the full length of the string give the fun- 
damental tone, the doubly-quick vibrations 
of the halves of the string give tue octave 
above the fundamental tone, the trebly- 
quick vibrations of the string the fifth above 
the octave, and so on. The several tones 
which make up the compound sound are 
called partial tones, or partiais ; the lowest 
of them is called fundamental tone, prime, 
or principal tone ; those above the funda- 
mental tone are called the upper partial 
tones, upper partiais, overtones, or harmon- 
ics. The fundamental tone is generally 
the loudest of the partial tones, and with it 
the upper partiais blend so as to be iudis- 
tinguimable, or only in part distinguish- 
able under certain conditions. The num- 
ber and relative strength of the partial tones 
vary in the different classes of instruments 
and voices and in the different individuals 
of the same class ; it is ou the number and 
the relative strength of the partiais that the 
timbre (quality, character of tone) of instru- 
ments and voices chieflv depends. In the 
following illustration, which shows the first 
sixteen partial tones of the sound C, the fig- 
ures indicate the sequence of the partiais in 
the series, and also tbe relative number of 
their vibrations in a given time. As the ac- 
tual sounds of the 7th, 11th, I3th, 1 'th, and 
15th partiais can only be approximately rep- 
resented, they have been distinguished by 
asterisks. ^^ ^ 


10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

(2) Harmonics is also the name given to 
certain tones produced on the violin, harp, 
and other stringed instruments, tones whi^ 
owe another name— fiageolet tones— to their 
peculiar character. By touching a vibrating 
string verv lightly in the middle, or at a 

Sointa third, fourth, fifth, etc., of its length 
istant from one of its ends (i. €., from the 
nut or the bridee) it is made to vibrate in 
two, three, four, five, etc., divisions, and the 
result are notes respectively an octave, 
twelfth, fifteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, 
etc., higher than the tone obtained from the 
open string— t. e., by its full-length vibra- 

Harmonic stops. Organ-stops whose pipes, 
owing to greater pressure of wind, do not 

Sroduce their fundamental tones, but the 
rst harmonic— i. f., the tone an octave 
above the fundamental tone. Such stops 
are the Fldte octaviante and Fltkte harmo' 

Harmonic triad. The common chord, con- 
sisting of a fundamental note, its third and 

Harmonie (hai>-m6-ne'), Fr. \ tt._„^„„ 
Harmonie (har-mo-ne') , Oer. / Harmony. 

Harmoniemusilc {hiiT-irL6-n&moo-ze\L.'),G€r. A 
militHry band consisting of brass instru- 
ments. The brass in the orchestra. Music 
for wind instruments only. 

Harmoniea^ement (har-md-nl-tks-manh), Fr. 
Harmon iuusly. 

Harmonieux (har-md-nl-tih0» Fr. Harmo- 

Harmonioas. A term applicable to any two 
or more sounds which form a consonant or 
agreeable union. 

Harmonlphon. A small instrument with a 
keyboard like a pianoforte, invented in 1837, 
and intended to supply the place of haut- 
boys in an orchestra. The sounds are pro- 
duced from small metal tongues acted upon 
by a current of air through a flexible tube. 

Harmonique (har-md-nek), Fr. Harmonic; 
the relation of sounds to each other; also 
applied to organ-pipes of double length. 

Harmoniqaement (har - mo-nek-manh), Fr. 

Harmoniren (har-md-nS'r'n), Ger. To harmo- 
nize, to be in unison. 

Harmonisch (har-md'nish), G'tfr. Harmonious, 

Harmonische Theilung (h&r-mo'nl-she tl- 
loong), Ger. Harmonical division. 

Harmonist. One acquainted with' the science 
of harmony. 

Harmonium. A keyboard wind instrument 
of the reed-onran xind, the tones of which 
are produced by the vibration of free reeds. 
{ V. lieeds.) Tbe bellows are worked, except 
in very large harmoniums, by the performer 
by means of two pedals (treadles). Small 
harmoniums have only one set of reeds, i. e., 






one reed to each note: larger harmonlnms 
have several sets. These different sets of 

shutu off the ivlnd-reseryoir, and thus the 
whole maua^meot ol the wind is given 
into the hands (literally, to the feet) of the 
pierformer, who, by the greater or lesser 
quantity of wind furnished by him, can play 
more or less loud, increase and decrease the 
tone at pleasure. The harmonium differs 
from the reed organ in having a pressure- 
bellows, forcing the air out through the 

Harmonize. To combine two or more parts 
according to the laws of harmony. 

Harmonized. A melody is said to be har- 
monized when additional parts are sub- 
Joined in order to give it more fullness. 

Harmonometre (hftr-md-nd-m&tr'), J^. An in- 
strument to measure tbe proportion of 
sounds ; a species of monochord. 

Harmony. The agreement or consonance of 
two or more united sounds. The art of 
combining sounds into chords and treating 
those chords according to certain rules. 

Harmony, figured. Harmony in which, for 
the purpose of melody, one or more of the 
parts of a conrposition move, during the 
continuance oi a chord, through certain 
notes that do not form any of the constitu- 
ent parts of that chord. 

Harmony, natural. The harmonic triad of 
common cbord. 

Harmony, 'suspended. One or more notes 
of a cbord retained in the following chord. 

Harp. One of the most ancient stringed in- 
struments, the tones of which are produced 
by plucking the stringfs (mainly of cat- 

EatJ with the fingers of tne rignt ana lett 
ands. The harp has a diatonic scale. On 
account of the absence of the chromatic 
tones the performer was, of course, unable 
to modulate. To remedy this defect vari- 
ous contrivances have oeen resorted to. 
The most perfect insirument hitherto con- 
structed is Erard's ** double-actiou pedal 
harp," a development of the single-action 
pedal harp. It has seven pedals by which 
the string^ may be raised either a semitone 
or a whole tone, and thus all the keys be- 
come practicable. This double-action harp 
has a compass of more than six and a half 
octaves— from €^[7 to t""^, and, as each string 
can be raised two semitones, even to f"% 
The seven pedals act respectively through- 
out all tbe octaves, each on one of the seven 
degrees of the Cb major scale, this being the 
key in which the harp is tuned. The single- 
action harp was in the key of £b. aud.its 
compass extended from F/ to a"". The 
harp of tbe ancient Egyptians was without 
a "pillar" for supporting the pull of the 
strings. It was simply a bow, patterned 
after the hunting-bow, and in the earliest 
Umes had only five strings. 

Harp, iCoilan. An instrument consisting ol 
wire or cal^^ut drawn in parallel lines over 
a box of thin wood and placed so that a 
current of air may cause the strings to vi- 

Harp, couched. Name originally given to 
the spinet. 

Harp, double-action. A harp with pedals 
that can be Used in two positions, the first 
raising the instrument a naif-step, and the 
second a whole step. 

Harpe (hfirp), Fr, A harp. 

Harpechorde (hftrp-kOrd), Fr, An old Frend) 
name for the harpsichord. 

Harpe Eolienne (hilrp &-d-lX-ton), Fr. iEollan 

Harpegsriate (h&r-p«d-jlft'te). It In the stylfr 

of^a harp, arpeggiately. 
Harpegsriato (h§,r-p£d-jl-&'td). R. Causing the 

KOuuUs of a chord to be played not togetbef 

but distinctly one after anoUier. See ^.r* 


Harpeggiren (hftr-p&gh^'r'n), Oer, Arpeggl 

Harafst. } "^ performer upon the harp. 

Harpicordo (har'pl-kdr-dd). It, A hArpsf* 

Harp, Jew's. A small instrument made of 
brass, or steel, with a flexible metal tongue, 
played upon by placing it between the teeth 
and vibrating the tongue by striking it with 
the finger; tne action of the breath deter- 
mines the power of the tone. Known in 
the music irade as the " Irish harp.'* 

Harp lute. An instrument having twelve 
strings, and resembling the guitar. 

Harp pedal. The pedal of a pianoforte, some' 
times called the soft pedal. 

Harpsecol. See Harpsichord. 

Harpsichord. A keyboard instrument, one 
of the predecessors of the pianoforte. The 
strings, instead of being struck by tangents, 
as iu tbe clavichord, or by hammers, as in 
the pianoforte, were plucked by quills or 
pieces 'of hard leather. (K Jfack.) The 
spinet and virginal are varieties of the 
harpsichord, differing from it in size and 
form. The form of the harpsichord is in- 
dicated by the German name of the instru- 
ment— i^upeZ, wing, the same as the mod- 
ern grand piano. The harpsichord had 
often more than one keyboard, and also 
was provided with stops by which the 
tone could be modified. 

Harpsichord, double. A harpsichord with 
two unison strings and an octave. 

Harpsichord, harmonica. A harmonica, the 
sounds of which are produced by meanv of 
keys similar to the pianoforte, invented at 

Harpslcon. An old name for the harpsichord. 

Harp, slnsrle-action. A harp whose pedals 
can be used iu one position only, raising 
the sounds of the instrument a naif ite^jb 

ftorm, Aadd, laU,^end,^effe, litt, lMe,6old,6odd, Qomo(m,iXbut,iXFr. sound, kh G^. cA. nhtuucri. 





Harp style. In the arpeggio style. 

Harp, triangular. An ancient iustmment of 

Phrygian Invention. 
Harsur (h&r-soor), or^ Hasur (h&-zoor). J7«&. 

An instrument of ten stringti, used by the 


Harte (hftr'tS), (3er. Major, in respect to inter- 
vals and scales. 

Hartkllnsrend (hftrtOcUng'end), Qer, Hard- 
sounding; harsh. < 

Hate (hawt), Ft. Haste, speed. 

HatiboU (h6-bw&), Ft, An oboe. 

Haupt (howpt), Qer. Head, principal. 

Haapt|re5ftnge(howpt'ghe-sang-6), rt^ \ 
HauptmelodTe (howpt'm61-6-dfi), ^^' ] 
The principal melody. 

Hauptklrche (howptOcIr-khe), G(er. Cathedral. 

Hauptmanual (howpt'm&-noo-ai), Qtx. The 
great, or principal, manual ; the great or- 

Hauptnote (hnwpt'nd't^), Qtr. The principal 
note in a shake or turn ; that note over 
which the >w^^ or the it, is placed. 

Hauptperiode (howpf pfi-rl-ydfi), Gtr, Princi- 
pal period ; the principal period in a mu- 
sical phrase. 

Hauptprobe (howpf pr5-bS), Qer, The final, or 
general, rehearsal. 

Hauptsatz (howpt's&tz), Qtr. The principal 
theme, or subject; the motive, or leading 

Hauptschlu85 (howpt^shloos), 6er. A final ca- 

Hauptstimme (howpt'stlrn'mfi), Qer. Princi- 
cipul voice ; principal part. 

Hauptthema (howpf t&-m&), Qer, The princi- 
pal theme. 

Hauptton (howpt'tdn),6'«r. Fundamental, or 
principal tone ; the tonic. 

Haupttonart (howpt'tdn-ftrt), Qtr, The prin- 
cipal key of a composition. 

Hauptwerk (howpt'w&rk), Qer. Chief work, 
or manual; the great organ. 

Hausse (hdss), Fr, The nut of a bow. 

Hauaser (hd6-8&0> ^' To raise, or sharpen, 
the pitch. 

Haut (hO), Fr, Acute, high, shrill. 

Hautb. An abbreviation of Hautboy. 

Hautboia (hd-bwft), Fr, The oboe, or hautboy. 

Hautbols d'amour (h6-bw& d'a-moor'), Fr, A 
species of hautboy, with a pleasing tone, but 
difficult to play in tune, and now nearly ob- 
solete ; albo an organ-stop. 

Hautboy (hdl>oy). Oboe. A portable wind 
instrument of the reed kind, with a double 
reed, consisting of a tube gradually widen- 
ing from the top toward the lower end, and 
furnished with keys and circular holes for 
modulating its sounds; the tone is pene- 
trating and slightly nasal, and peculiarly 
adapted to express soft and plaintive pas- 

sages. The name is also given to an 8-feet 
organ reed-stop, the tone of which resem- 
bles that of the hautboy. 

Hautboy-clarion. Bee OdUvot AaicOoy. 

Haute-contre (hdt-kdntr), Fr, High or ooan- 
ter tenor. 

Haute-desaus (hdt-dte-sil), IVV. High treble, 
first treble. 

Hautement (hdt-m&nh), fiV. Haughtily, in 

a dignified manner. 
Haute-taille (hdt-ta-yflh), Fr, High tenor. 
H-bes (h&-b£s), Qtx, B-double-flat. • 
H-dur (hft-door), Qtr, B major. 

Head. That part of a note which determines 
its position on the staflf, and to which the 
stem is joined. 

Head tones. Tones produced by the upper 
register of the voice. 

Head voice. The upper or highest register 
of the voice ; the falsetto in men's voices. 

Heerhom (h&rlidrn), Qtr, A military trum- 

Heerpeuke (h&r'pow-ke), Qtr, Kettledrum, 

Heerpeuker (h&r'pow-k^r), Qtr, Kettledrum- 
mer, military drummer. 

Heftlg (hertlg), Qer, Vehement, boisterous. 

Heftigkeit (h€f Og-klt), Qer, Vehemence, im- 

Heimlich (himlikh), Qer, Secret, furtive, 

Helss (hiss), Qer. Hot, ardent. 
Helter (hrtSr), Qer, Serene, bright. 
Heldenlied (herd*n-l§d), Qer, Heroic song. 
Heldenmiithig (hei'd'n-ma'tlg), Qer, Heroic 
Hell (h«), Qer, Clear, bright. 

Helle Stimme (h^iae stXm'm«), Qer, A clear 

Hemi (ii&'mi), Qr, Half. 

Hemidemisemiquaver. A sizty- 
fourth note. 

Hemidemisemiquaver rest. A sixty- 
fourth rest. 

Hemidiapente (hem1-dS-&-pen't«), Qr, Di- 
minished, or imperfect, fifth. 

Hemiditonos (h^m-l-de-td'nds), Qr, Lesser or 
minor third. 

Hemlope (hft-m§'d-p^), Qr, An ancient fiute, 
consisting of a tuoe with three holes. 

Hemiphrase. A member of a phrase consist- 
ing of only one bar. 

Hemltonium (hft-ml-Uyni-fim), Qr, A semi- 
tone or half-tone. 

Heptachord. A scale or system of seven 
sounds. In ancient poetry verses sung or 
played on seven chords or difi'erent notes ; 
a lyre or cithera having seven strings. 

Heptachordon (h^p'til-kOr'dOn), Qr. The ma- 
jor seventh. 

Aorm, ft add, ft ale, d «fid, $ eve, i i<I, I i82e,5 o2d,d odA^ oo motm^ 11 bu^, ti Fr,¥3fVL-nd^ kh Qer, eh, nh noBoL 
9 (129) 





Heptameris (h€p-t&-m&'ri8), Or. In ancient 
music tlie seventh part oi a meris, or forty- 
third part of an octave. 

Herabstrlch (har&b'strikh), /3^ ) Adown- 
Heratrich(hftr'striJch), ^^' /bow. 

Heraufsrehen (h&r-oufga'n), Qtr, To ascend. 

Heroisch (ha-rolsh), Qer. Heroically. 

Herunterstrich (h^r-oon't'r-strll^h), Qer. A 
dowubow upon the violin. 

Hervorffehoben (har-f6r's:h6-h6'b'n), 

Hervornebend (h&r-fdr'ha'b€ndj, Get. 

Hervortretend (hftr-for'tra-tdDa), 
Play the notes very prominently and dis- 

Herzlich (hftrtsllkh), Qer. Tenderly, deli- 

Has (hte), Qer. Bb. Used when the tone is 
supposed to come from B-uatural, or H, as 
the Germans call it. 

Hexachord (hex'&-kOrd), Or. A scale, or sys- 
tem, of six sounds ; an interval of a siztli ; 
a lyre having six strings. 

Hexachorde (hSx-ft-kdrd'). Fr. A hexachord. 
See that word. 

Hexameron (hSx-ftm'd-r6n), Or. Set of six mu- 
sical pieces, or songs. 

Hexameter. In ancient poetry a verse of six 
feet, the first four of wnich may be either 
dactyls or spondees, the fifth always a dac- 
tyl, and the sixth a spoudee. 

Hexaphonlc. Composed of six voices. 

Hiatus (hiS.'toos), IM. A gap, imperfect har- 

Hibernian melodies. Irish melodies. 

Hidden canon. A close canon. 

Hidden fifths and Hidden octaves. In the ar- 
ticle "Consecutives " it has been stated that 
progrei^sious of perfect fifths and octaves are 
prohibited. Hidden fifths and octaves— 
which occur when the second of two inter- 
vals formed by two parts nrogressingin sim- 
ilar motion is a perfect nfth or octave— are 
likewise prohibited, but not so strictly. 
Many of these progressions are indeed quite 
harmless. They are, barriug some excep- 
tions, least objectionable i;( hen the upper of 
the two parts proceeds a degree upward or 
downward, and the lower takes a leap of a 
third, fourth, or fifth. The more or less of 
their innocuousness depends upon the close- 
ness of the harmonic connection and the 
progression of the other parts. Much, more- 
over, is permissible in the middle parts 
which would incur censure in the extreme 
parts. These progressions are prohibited 
and called hidden because the ear fills up, 
as it were, the gap or gaps between the ac- 
tual sounds, and hears fifths or octaves 
which otherwise are not obvious. For in- 
stance, if the actual sounds are as at (a), the 
ear hears as at (6). 




g g - 















Hiefhom (hefhOrn), Qer. Bugle-horn, hunt- 

Hicf(hef), f,^ \ Sound given by 

HIefstoas (hefstoss), ^^- /the bugle or hunt- 

Hierophon (hS'rd-fdn), Gr. A singer of sacred 


Hisrgalon selah (hIg-g&'On sa-lah), Hd>. A 
term employed in ancient Hebrew music to 
indicate the use of stringed instruments 
with the trumpet. 

Hiflrh. Acute in pitch, speaking of sounds. 

High bass. A voice between bass and tenor, 
a baritone. 

Higlier rhythm. A rhythmical form com- 
posed of several smaller ones. 

High Mass. The Mass celebrated in the 
Roman Catholic churches by the singing 
of the choristers, distinguishing it from the 
low Mass in which the canticles are read 
without singing. 

High soprano. The first soprano. 

High tenor. Counter tenor voice ; the high« 
est male voice. 

High treble clef. In old French music the 
. G clef placed on the first line. 

Hlmno (him-nd), Sp. A hymn. 

Hlnaufstrich (hin-owfstrikh), r^^ \An up- 
Hinstrich (hin'strlkh), *^- / bow. 

Hirtenfl5te (hir't'n-fld'te), Qer. Shepherd's 

Hirtengedicht (hIr't'n-ge-dikhtO, Qer. Pas- 
toral poem, idyl. 

Hirtenlled (hXr't'n-led), Qer. A pastoral song. 

Hlrtlich (hlrt'likh), Qer. Pastoral, rural. 

Hlrtenpfeife (hXr't'n-pfi'fe), Qer. Bural pipe. 
pastoral pipe. 

HU (his), Qer. , The note B#. 

Hlsls (hlsls), Qer. B-double-sharp. 

H-moll (ha'mol), Qer. The key of B minor. 

Kfh6t^i: <^- } Oboe, hautboy. 

Hoboen-(ho'bo-€n), Oboe, hautboys. 

Hobolst ^ho-bo-ist), Qer. Hautboy-player. 

Hoch (hokh), Qer. High. 

Hochamt (hdkh', Qer. High Mass. 

Hochfeierlich (hdkh-fi'6r-lXkh), Qer. Exceed- 
ingly solemn. 

Hochgesang (hdkh'ge-8S,ng), Qer. Ode, hymn. 

Hochhorn (hokh'horn), Qer. Hautboy. 

Hochlied (hokh'led), Qer. Ode, hymn. 

Hochmuth (hokh'moot), Qer. Haughtiness, 
elevation, pride. 

H6chsten Qiokh-stSn), Qer, Highest. 

& arm, ft add, & cUe, ( end, 6 eve, I iU, l isle, 6 old, odd, 00 moon, H but, iX Fr. sound, kh Qer, ch, nh nasal. 





Hochzeltsgedlcht (hokh'tsits-g^-dikhtO,/,^ ) 
Hochzeitslied (hokh'tsits-lSd), ^^' j 

Epithalamium ; nuptial poems; wedding- 
Hochzettomarsch (hokh' - tdts - m&rsh), Oer. 

Hocket. A name formerly given to a rest ; 
or, cutting short a note without acceler- 
ating the time. It corresponds to the term 
staccato. It is no longer used. 

Holcapelle (hdf-ka-p€n€), Oer. Court chapel. 

Hofconcert (hdf-kdn-ts6rt')> Oer. Court con- 
Hofdichter (hof-dlkh'tSr), Qer. Poet laureate. 

Hofkirche (hof-klrkh'e) , Oer. Court church. 

H5lllch (hSnikh), ^^ \ In a pleasing 

H«flk;hkeit (hofUkh-kit), ^^' / and grace- 
ful style. 

Hofmusikant (hdfmoo-zI-k&ntOi Oer. Court 

Hoforpranist (hdf-or-ga-nlsf), Qer. Court or- 

H5he (hd'hS), Oer. Height, elevation, acute- 

Hohelt (hoOiit), Oer. Dignity, loftiness. 

Hohelled (hd'hd-led), Oer. The Song of Solo- 
Hohen (ho'Sn), Oer. High, upper. 

Hohle und heisere Stimme (hd'le oond hi'zfr- 
rS stlm'mS;, Oer, Hollow aud hoarse voice. 

Hohlfiate (hol'fld-te), O'er Hollow-toned flute ; 
an orsan-stop prodncine a thick and pow- 
erful nollow tone Eacn pipe has two holes 
in it, near the top and opposite each other. 

Hohlauintd (h61'kwln-t€^, Oer. A quint stop 
of the hohl-ilute species. 

Hold (hold), Oer. Pleasing, agreeable. 

Hold. A character (/tn) indicating that the 
b 6 of a note or rest is to be prolonged. 

Holdlns^. The burden or chorus of a song. 
(Found in Shakespeare.) 

holdinsr-note. A note that is sustained or 
continued while the others are in motion. 

HolzblMser (hdlts'bla-z6r), Oer. Players upon 
woodwind instruments. 

dolzfiate (holts'fld-te), Ger. Wood flute; an 

Homophone. A letter or character expressing 
a like sound with another. 

Homophonie (hd-mo-fo-ne), Fr. Homophony. 

Hoaiophonoi suoni (hd-mo-fd'nd-e soo-o'ne), 
It. Unisons. 

Homophonous. Of the same pitch, in unison. 

Homophony. Unison; two or more voices 
singing in unison. 

Hopswalzer (hops' w&V tsSr), Oer. Quick 

Hone (ho'ra), t^ X 

Horae regulares (ho'ra r6g-oo-la'r6s), ^*^' j 

Hours ; chants sung at prescribed hours in 

convents and monasteries. 

Horizontal lines. ) Used in connection 
Horizontal strokes, /with the figured bass, 
they usually show the continuation of the 
same harmony, the bass note being un- 
changed, but they are sometimes used to 
abbreviate the expression of figures, in 
which case, if the biass part moves, the har- 
mony must necessarily be changed. 

Horn. A wind instrument chiefly used in 

Horn, alpine. A narrow wooden tube, or 
trumpetf about eight feet long, widening 
to a bell at the larger end . Played by means 
of a cup-shaped mouthpiece. The tone is 
very penetrating, but it is very difficult to 
blow. It gives the natural harmonics of its 
own fundamental. 

Horn, basset. An insirument resembling 
the clarinet, but of greater compass, em- 
bracing nearly four octaves. 

Horn, bassetto. A species of clarinet a flfth 
lower than the C clarinet. 

Htfi ner (hdr'ner), Oer. pi. The horns. 

Htfmerschall (hdr'ner-shfiil), Oer. Sound of 

Horn, French. A brass wind instrument con- 
sisting of a long, twisted tube terminating 
in a wide, outspreading bell. There are two 
kinds of horns : the natural horn, and the 
valve horn. The following natural har- 
monic series can be obtained by the modi- 
flcation of the position of the lips and the 
force of air blown into the tube: 





j)j J^rr 




^'r'r ^ 

I — ' 


The first of these notes is, however, not 
practicable, and the notes marked as 
crotchets are not in tune. By inserting the 
hand more or less far into the bell the 
natural (or open) notes may be more or less 
flattened, and thus all the other notes ob- 
tained, at least from F^, below the first 6. 
upward. But these stopped (or closed) 
notes are not so clear as tho natural ones, 
especially those more than a semitone be- 
low the latter. The length of the tube, and, 
consequently, the key of the instrument, 
can be altered by crooks (g. v.). The nota- 
tion for the horn is always in the key of 0. 
Only the horn in C alto, however, sounds 
the notes as they are written, whereas the 
one in B[> basso sounds them a major ninth 
lower, the one in C an octave lower, the 
one in D a minor seventh lower, the one in 
£[; a major sixth lower, the one in £ a mi- 
nor sixth lower, the one in F a perfect fifth 
lower, the one in G a perfect fourth lower, 
the one in A a minor third lower, the one 
in B\f alto a major second lower, etc. On 
the valve horn can be produced all the 
semitones, from the F^ below the second 
O upward, as open notes. The horn with 

iarm, & mdd, & ale, S end, e eve, I iU, I inle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, ti Fr. sound, kh Oer. ch. nh namil, 





three yalyes oomprlses in fact leven natural 
horns. ( K Valvet.) Music lor the horn is 
noted in the O clef, with the exception, 
however, of the lowest notes, wbicn are 
written in the F clef, and an octave lower 
than the rest. 

Hornpipe. An old dance, in triple time, pe- 
culiar to the Enfflish nation. It is supposed 
to have received its name from the instru- 
ment played on during its performance. 
Modem hornpipes are usually in common 
time, and of a more lively character than 
the ancient hornpipe. 

Hosanna (hd-zftn'nft). Lot, Part of the Sanc- 
tus in a Mass. 

Houl (howl), Per. A common drum of the 
Persian soldiery. 

Hreol f wrft'dl), Dan, A Danish peasant dance, 
similar to the reeL 

n.5. Abbreviation for Hauptsatz. 

Huchet (hti-shft), Fr. A huntsman's or post- 
man's noru. 

Huer (hw&), Fr, To shout. 

Hfifthorn (hflft'hdrn), Oer, Bugle-horn. 

Huggab (hoog-gftb), JTfi>. An organ of the 
uebrews; Pan's pipes. 

Huitain (hwe-t&uh), Fr, A stanza of eight 

Huitpied (hwa-pI-&), J^. Eight feet, of 

Hfiifslinien (haifs'ld-nl-en),(?er. Ledger lines. 

Hfiifsnote (ba]fs'n6-te) ^^ \ Auxiliary note. 
Httlfston (hClifi^tdn), ^^' j accessorvuote, 

a note standing one d^ree above, or below, 

the principal note. 

Haifsstlmme (hCQfs'stlm'me), Gar. Obligato 

Hnmmel (hoom'm^l), '^ \ A sort 

Hummelcnen (hoom'mei-khSn), "^* j of 

bagpipe; in orgaus the thorough bass 


Hnmmen (hoom'm'n), Oer. Humming, sing- 
ing in a low voice. 

Humor (hoo-mdr'), Oer. Caprice, humor, 

Hnmoreske (hoo'md-res'kS), Oer. A fancy 
piece, a humorous or whimsical piece. 

Humorous 5ongs. Songs full of mirth and 

Hunting-horn . A bugle, a horn used to cheer 
the hounds. 

Hunting-song. A song written in praise of 
the chase. 

Hnrdygurdy. An old instrument consisting 
of four strings, which are acted upon by a 
wheel rubbed in resin powder, which serves 
as a bow. Two of the strings are affected by 
certain keys which stop them at different 
lengths aud produce the tune, while the 
others act as a drone bass. 

) A compilation, or collection, 
:.j of hymns. 

Hurtig (hoor'tig), Oer, Quick, swiftly ; sam« 

meaning as allegro. 
Hurtigkeit(hoor'tlg-klt),&«r. Swiftness, agiV 

ity, quickness. 
Hy draulicon (hl-draw'lI-kOn) ^Or, An anden / 

instrument whose tones were produced by 

the action of water. 

Hydraulic organ. An organ whose motive 
power was water, and the invention of 
which is of much greater antiquity than the 
pneumatic, or wind, organ. It is supposed 
to have been invented by Ctesibius, a math- 
ematician of Alexandria. It is not certainly 
known precisely what use water served in 
this instrument, but it is believed to have 
aided in preserving the wind, somewhat 
after the manner of water upon a plate upon 
which a vessel is inverted and the air ex- 
hausted. The water aids in preserving the 

Hymeneal (hi'm^nfr^). ) A marriage-song, 

Hymenean (hl-me^ue-ftn). J or appertaining 

Hymn. A song of praise or adoration to the 
Deity ; a short, religious lyric poem intend- 
ed to be sung in church. Anciently, a song 
in honor of the gods or heroes. 


Hymne (Smn), Fr. ) A hymn, sacred song, 
Hymne (lilm'n6),<3er. /an anthem. 

Hymnologie (6mn-n01-6-JS), Fr. Hymnology. 

Hvmnologist. A writer, or composer, of 

Hymnology. Information concerning hymns. 

Hymns, theurgic. Songs of incantation ; the 
first hymns of Greece. 

Hymnus (him'noos). Lot, A hymn. 

Hymnus Ambrosianus (him'noos &m-br6-zl« 
a'uoos). Lot. The Ambrosian chant. 

Hymn, Vesper. A hymn sung in the Vesper 
service of the Catholic Church. 

Hypat^, Or. The first or most grave string in 
the lyre; the lowest of the Qreek tetra> 

Hypathoides. The lower sounds in the an< 
cieut Greek scale. 

Hyper (hl'pCr), Or. Over, above. Applied to 
the names of intervals this word signifies 
"super," or " upper "; applied to the names 
of the Greek transposition scales and ec 
clesiastical octave species it signifies "n 
fourth higher "; applied to the Greek octavi 
species it signifies ''a fifth higher," or, what 
(with regard to the names of the notes and 
the succession of the intervals) comes tn 
the same thing, *' a fourth lower.'* 

HypersMlian (hrp€r-S-d'lI-ftn), Or. (1) The 
authentic ^olian mode. (2) In the ancient 
Greek system the name of one of the trans- 
position scales. (3) In the mediaeval eo- 
clesiastical system the octave species 

c del gab, the eleventh (sixth authen- 
tic) mode. ( V. Church modes.) 

i arm, ft addf & a2e, € end, ^ eve, i HI, I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H btU, tt Fr. tound, kh 0^. eh, nh nofol^ 





Hyperdiapason (hI'p€r-dI-&-x>a'son), Gr. The 
upper octave. 

Hyperditonos (hl'pfir-dl-tO'nos), Gr. The third 

Hyperdorian (hi'p6r-d6'r!-ftn\ Gr. The au- 
thentic Dorian mode. In the ancient Greek 
system the name of the octave species 

be d el K a b, also called Mixolydian, and 
of one of the transposition scales. 

riyperlonian (hl'p€r-^6'nl-&n), Gr. The au- 
thentic Ionian mode. 

Hvjperl^Kdian (hl'p6r-lMI-ftn), Gr. The au- 
thentic Lydian mode. The name of the 

octave species k a b c d el g, and of one of 
the transposition scales. 

Hypermixolydian (hi'per-mlx'C-Hdl-ftn), Gr. 
The authentic Mixolydian mode. 

Hyper|>hr^S:ian (hi'pfir-frljI-An), Gr. (1) The 
aftitheiitic Phrygian mode. (2) In the an- 
cient Greek system the name of the octave 

species abed el g a, also called Locrian, 
and of one of the transposition scales. (3) 
In the mediaeval ecclesiastical syste m _ th e 

name of the octave species f gabcdef, 

the twelfth (sixth plagal) mode. ( V. Church 

Hypo. Below, under. Applied to intervals 
this word signifies " sub," or "lower "; ap- 
plied to the names of the GrSek transposi- 
tion scales and ecclesiastical octave s()ecies 
It signifies*' a fourth bv-low"; applied to 
the names of the Greek octave species it 
signifies "a fifth below," or, what(\vitn re- 
gard to the names of the notes and the siut- 
cesstou of the intervals) comes to the same 
thing, •* a fourth at)ove." 

HypoflMlian (hi'p6 e 6'11-ftn), Gr. (1) The pla- 
gal iEolian mode. (2) In the ancient (ireelc 
system the name of one of the transposi- 
tion scales. (3) In the medisevnl ecclesias- 
tical system the name of the octave species 

efgabcde, the tenth (fifth plagal) mode. 

Hypocrltic (hIp-6-krltlc), Gr. An epithet ap- 
plied by the ancients to the art of gesticu- 
lation, which was prominent in their pub- 
lic vocal performances. 

Hypocritic music. Among the ancient Greeks 
all music intended for the stage or theater; 

In modem times all music adapted to pan- 
tomimic representation. 

Hypodiapason (hl'pd-d§-a-p&-sdn), Gr. The 
lower octave. 

Hypodiapente (hrp5-dI-&-p€n'te), Gr. The fifth 

Hypoditonos (hl'po-de-td'nds), Gr. The third 

Hypodorian (hrp6-d6'ri-ftn), Gr. (1) The pla- 
gal Dorian mode. (2) In the ancient Greek 
system the name of the octave species 

abcd'e'fga, also called ^olian, and of 
one of the transposition scales. (3) In the 
mediaeval eccl esiast ical ssrstem the octave 

species abcdefga, the second (first pla- 
gal) mode. 

Hypolonian (hrp6-e-6'nl-ftn), Gr. (1) The pla- 
gal Ionian mode. (2) In the ancient Greek 
system the name of one of the transposi- 
tion scales. (3) In the mediaeval ecclesias- 
tical system the name of the octave species 

gabcdefg, the fourteenth (seventh pla- 
gal) mode. ( V. Church modcB.) 

Hypoiydlan (hi'po-lidl-ftn), Gr. (1) The pla- 
gal Lydian mode. (2) In the ancient Greek 
system the name of the octave specdes 

f g a be d e f, also called Syntonolydian, 
and rf one of the transposition scales. (S) 
In the mediaeval ecclesiastical syste m tn e 

name of the octave species C|deigabc, 
the sixth (third plagal) mode. "^ ""^ 

HypomixOlydian (hl'po m!x'6-lid1-ftn), Gr. 
(1) The plagal Mixolydian mode. (2) In the 
mediaeval ecclesiastical system the name 

of the octave species d e f g a b cd, the 

octave species d e f g a b c < 
eighth (fourth plagal) mode. 

Hypophrygian (hi'po-frljl-ftn), Gr. (1) The 
plagal Phrygian mode. (2) In the ancient 
Greek system the name of the octave species 
g a b c d ej g, also called Ionian, and of one 

of the transposition scales. (8) In the medi- 
aeval ecclesiastical syste m th e name of the 

octave species bcde f g a b, the fourth 

(second plagal) mode. 

Hypoproslatnbar^omenos, Gr. The note beloW 
the Prosiambauomeuos— namely, G. 

dann, & addt a alCt Q end, e eve, liU,i isle, 6 old, odd, oo moon, H bvi, il Fr. sound, kh Ger. ch, nh naaaL 





lambe (d-&nli-bah), Fr. lambas. 

Iambic. ) A poetical and musicill foot, con- 
Iambus. ) sisting of one short, unaccented, 
and one long, accented, note or syllable. 

Iambics. Certain songs, or satires, which are 
supposed to have been the precursors of the 
ancient comedy ; they were of two kinds, 
one for singing and one for recitation, ac- 
companied by instruments. 

lastian (S-fta'ti[-&n), Or. One of the ancient 
Greek modes. The Ionian. 

Ictus (ik'ttks). Or. A stroke of the foot, mark- 
ing the point of emphasis in music. 

Idillio (S-delOI-d), It. An idyl. 

Idyl. A short poem in pastoral style; an 

Idylle (g-dlin, Ft. \ . _ ,.. 
Idyile (I-dll'lfi), Qer. ] ^^ ^^^^' 

II (§1), It. The. 

llartta (S-l&-rI-t&0, i2. Hilarity, cheerfulness, 

II pin (ei pfi'oo). It. The most. 

II piu forte poasibile (el pe'oo fdr'tS pos-s^- 
bl-lS), It. As loud as possible. 

\i piu piano poasibile (€1 pe'oo pe-&'nd pds- 
se'bl-ld), It. As soft as possible. 

Im (Im), Qer. In the. 

Imboccatura (em-bdk-k&-too'r&), It. Mouth- 
piece, embouchure. 

Imbroglio (em-brdVy6), It. Confusion, want 
of distinct ideas. 

Imitando (Im-l-t&n'dd), H. Imitating. 

Imltando la voce (!m-M&n'dd 1& y5'tshe), It. 
Imitating the inflections of the voice. 

ImiUtio (Im-I-t&'tsI-d). Lat. Imitation, in 

Imitation. The more or less exact repetition 
of a musical figure in another voice. (See 
also Canon.) Imitation is strict when the 
melodic intervals and resulting harmonies 
are exactly imitated ; free when not even 
Uie melody and rhythm are exactly repeat- 
ed. (See also subordinate titles below.) A 
sequence is an imitation, but in the same 

Imitation, augmented. A style of imitation 
in which the answer is given in notes of 
greater value than those of the subject 

Imitation, diminished. A style of imitation 
in which the answer is given in notes of 
less value than those of the subject. 

Imitation, freely inverted. Where the order 
of successive notes is not strictly retained. 

Imitation, in contrary motion. That in 
which the answers invert the subject so 
that the rising intervals descend, and the 
falling intervals ascend. 

Imitation, in different divisions. That in 
which the subject is answered in a different 
division of the bar ; for instance, the sub- 
ject beginning on the accented division is 
answered on tne unaccented. 

Imitation, in similar motion. Where the 
answer retains the same order of notes as 
the subject. 

Imitation, retrograde. A form of imitation 
ill which the subject is commenced back- 
wards in the answer. 

Imitation, reversed retrograde. A form of 
imitation in which the subject is com- 
menced backwards in the answer, and in 
contrary motion. 

Imitatibn, simple. A simple imitation. 

Imitation, strictly inverted. That form of 
imitation in which half and whole tones 
must be precisely answered in contraqr 

Imitative music. Music written to imitate 
some of the operations of nature, art, or 
human passion, as the firing of cannon, 
the rolling of thunder ; love, Joy, grief, etc. 

Imitato (!m-i-t&'t0). It. Imitation. 

ImiUzione (im-1-t&-tsl-6'ne), It. Imitation, 
referring to counterpoint. 

Immer (Im'mSr), Qtr. Always, ever. 

imparfait (&nh-p&rf&'), Fr. Imperiect. 

Impazlente (Im-p&-tsl-€n'te), It. Impatient, 

Impazientemente (Im-p8rtid-€n-t^m€n't€), R. 
Impatiently, hurriedly. 

Imperfect. Not perfect ; less than perfect, in 
speaking of intervals and chords. 

Imperfect cadence. A cadence which ends 
on a triad of the dominant ; the preceding 
chord may be either that of the tonic or 
subdominant or in minor keys the sixth of 
the scale ; the triad of the dominant always 
being major. 

Imperfect close. Imperiect cadence. 

Imperfect concords. Thirds and sixths are 
called imperfect concords because they are 
liable to change from major to minor, or the 
contrary, still remaining'consonant. 

Imperfect consonances. The major and mi- 
nor third and the major and minor sixth. 

imperfect intervals. A defective name for 
diminished intervals. 

%onii,ftCKid, &(Ue, 6end,d0t«, iitt, liale, 6oldt todd.oomoonf H btU,iXFr. aoundf kh Oer. cA, nhiNMoi. 





Imperfect measure* An old term for two- 
fold measure. 

Imperfect time. A term by which the an- 
cients designated common time, indicated 
by the letter C or a semicircle. 

Imperfect triad. The chord of the third, 
fifth, and eighth, taken on the seventh of 
the key, consisting of two minor thirds. 

Imperfetto (Im-p6r-f6t'to), It. Imperfect. 

Imperlosamente (Im-p&-ri-6-z&-men't€), It. 
Imperiously, pompously. 

Imperioso (Im-pa-ri-d'zo), It. Imperious, 

Imperturlmbile (im-p€r-toor-b&'bMe), 7i!. Qui- 
etly, easily. 

Impeto (Im'p€-t6), It. Impetuosity, vehe- 

Impeto doloroso (im'p^to dd-]d-rd'z5), It. 
Pathetic force and energy. 

Impetuosamente (Im-pa-too-6-z&-men't€), It. 

Impetuosita (1m-pS,-too-6-zl-taO, It. Impetu- 
osity, vehemence. 

Impetuoso (im-patoo-d'z5), It. Impetuous, 

Imponente (Im-po-nto'te), It. Imposingly; 

Impresario (Im-pr&-s&'rl 6), It. A term applied 

by the Italians to the manager or conductor 


m ap) 

of operas or concerts. 

Impromptu (&Qh-prdmp'too), Fr. An extem- 
poraneous production. 

Imprbvisare (Im-pr6-vl-za'r6). It. To com- 
pose, or sing, extemporaneously. 

Improvisateur (ftnh-pro-vl-za-ttir). Fr. \ q^^ 
Improvisator (!m-pro-n-za't6r), Ger. / °®® 

Improvisation. The act of singing, playing, 
or composing music without previous prep- 
aration ; extemporaneous performance. 

Improvisatrice (ftuh-pro-vi-za-tress), Fr. A 
female who plays or sings extemporane- 

Improvise. To sing or play without premedi- 

Improvise (ftnh-pr5-vl-za), Fr. Extempora- 

Improviser (ftnb-pro-vI-zaO, Fr. To impro- 

ImprovvLsamente (!m-prd-vI-z&-mSnHS), It. 

Improvvisare (Im-pr6-vi-z&'r6), It. To impro- 

Improvvisata (Im-pro-vl-zfi'tft), It. An ex- 
tempore composition. 

Improvvisatore flm-pro-vls-sa-to-re), It. One 
who slugs or declaims in verse extempora- 

Improvviso (Im-pr6v-vl-zd), It. Extempora- 

In (6n), It. and Lai. In, into, in the. 

Inbrunst (In-broonst), Qtr. Fervor, ardor, 
warmth of passion. 

Inbriinstifl: (In'bnins-tig), Qtr. Ardent, fer- 
vent, passionate. 

Incalzando (In-kal-tz&n'd6), It. Spurring on, 

Incantatidn. Enchantment ; a form of words 
pronounced or sung in connection with cer- 
tain ceremonies, for the purpose of enchant- 

Incantazlone (In-k&n-ta-tsX-d'ne), It. Songs of 

Incarnatus (in-k&r-n&'toos), LaX. "Was bom 
of the Virgin Mary." Part of the Credo in 
the Mass. 

Inconsolato (in-kdn-sd-l&'td). It. In a mourn' 
f ul style. 

Incordare (In-kdr-dfl^rfi), It. To string an in- 

Incrociamento (In-kr&-t8hfi-men't0), It. Croas- 

Indeciso (in-de-tshe'zd), It. Undecided, wav- 
ering, hesitating; slight changes of time 
and a somewhat capricious value of the 

indegrnatamente (In-dan-ya-ta-mSn'te), „ 1 
indearnato (Indan-y&ao), ^^* j 

Angrily, furiously, passionately. 

index. A direct /W ; also the forefinger. 

Indications sceniques (&nh-de-kfi'bl-0nh s&- 
nek'), Fr. Stage directions. 

Indifferente (In-def-f6-r6n't6). ) 

Indifferentemente (In-def-fS-r6n-tS mSn'te), j 
It. Coldly, with inditference. 

Indifferenza (In-def-f€-ren'tsa), H. Indiffer- 

In disparte (In des-nar'tS), It. A term used in 
operatic music, signifying that the part is 
to be addressed to someone aside or not 
taking part in the performance. 

In distanza (In des-t&n'tsa). It. A distance. 

infantile (In-fan-te'lg), It. Childlike, infan- 
tine; the thin quality of tone in the upper 
notes of some female voices. 

Infernale (In-fer-n&ie). It. Infernal, diabolic. 
Infer vorato (In-f€r-v6-ra't6), It. Fervent, im- 

Infiammatamente (In-fe-&m-ma-ta-mto't6), It. 
Ardently, impetuously. 

Infinite canon. An epithet given to those 
canons which are so constructed that the 
end leads to the beginning, and the per- 
formance may be indefinitely repeated; 
also called circular, or endletis, canon. 

Infinite (in-fl-ue'to), It. Perpetual. 

Inflatile. An epithet applied to wind instru- 
ments, as a hautooy or flute. 

Inflection. Any change or modification in 
the pitch or tone of the voice. 

Infra (In'fr&), Lai. Beneath. 

In fretta (In fra-t&). It. In haste, hastily. 

ftarm, &add, &afe, e«fkl, eeve, 1 iZi, lt8<«, 6 old^^ioM^oamoon, U hui, \i Fr. tound, kh Qer. ch, nhncaaL 





Infurlante (In>foo-Tl4Ln'te), » ) Farlous, rag- 
Infuriato(lD-foo-rlJl'tO), ^^ ; ing. 

Ingannl (In^n'nfi). U. pi. See Ingarmo. 

Inganno (In-gftn'nd), It. A deception ; applied 
to a deceptive, or interrupted, cadence ; also 
to any unusuikl re84tlution ox a discord, or 
an unexpected modulation. 

Inhalt (In'hftlt). Gtr. Contents. 

Inharmoiiioasly. Discordantly. 

In lonUnanza (In ldn-t&-n&nt'zft), It. In the 

Inner parts. The alto and tenor, as dlstin- 
gnisned from outer parts, the bass and so 

Inner pedal. A sustained or holding note in 
an inner part. 

InnI (Xn-nfi), It. pi. Hymns. 

Innig (In-nig), Ger. Sincere, cordial. 

Inno (In-nd), IL A hymn, eanticle, ode. 

Innocente (In-nO-tsh^n'tS), „ \ 

Innocentemente (ln-n6-tsbfin-te-men'te), -^ j 

Innocently, in an artless and simple style. 

Innocenza (in-n6-tshen-tsft), R. Innocence. 

In partito (In pftr-tS't6), It. In score. 

Inquieto (!n-qul-&'td), R. Restless, uneasy, 

Insenslblle (In-s^in-se'bMe). » ) 

Insensibllmente (In-««n-8l-bn-men't«). ^^' / 

Insensibly, by small degrees, by little and 


ln5tAndIg(In-8t&n'dIg), Oer. Urgent, pressing. 

Instante (In-st&u'tfi), It. Urgent, pressing. 

Instantemente (In-st&n-t6-mfin't«), It. Yehe 
menily, urgently. 

Instrument. A musical instrument is any 
sonorous body artificially constructed for 
the production of musical sounds. 

Instrument k cordes (ftnh-strQ-manh & k5rd), 
Fr. A stringed instrument. 

Instrumental. A term applied to music com- 
posed for or performed on instruments. 

Instrument a Tarchet (&nh-8trti-m&nh & l&r- 
k&), Fr. Instrument played with a bow. 

Instrumentaie (!n-stroo-mto-ta'lS), It. In- 

Instrumentalist. One who plays on an in- 

Instrumental score. A score in which the 
instrumental parts lare given in full. 

Instrument k percussion (ftnh-strti-m&nh & 
p&r-koos-se-dn). Fr. Instruments of percus- 

Instrumentare (In - stroo - mSn - 1&' r^). It. To 
compose instrumental music. 

Instrumentation. The act of writing for an 
orcliostra, with a practical knowledRe of 
each iiiHtrnment, and f>f the distribution of 
harmony among the difTerent instruments. 

Instrument k vent (ftnh-stdi-m&nh & vfinh), 
Fr. A wind instrument. 

Instrumentazlone (In-8troo-mfo-tft-tiri-d'n€), 
It. Instrumentation. 

Instrumentenmacher (In - stroo - m£nt' Sn- 
mftkh'^r), Oer. An instrument-maker. 

Instrumentlren (in-stroo-mSn-te'r'n), \ 

Instrumentlrung (lu-stroo-men-te'roong), > 
Gtr. Instrumentation. 

Instrumento (!n-stroo-mto'to), R. An instra- 

Instrumento da arco (In-stroe-men'ld d& fir'- 
ko), It. A stringed instrument. 

Instruments, bow. All instruments whose 
tones are produced by means of a bow. 

Instruments, brass. Wind instruments form^ 
ed of brass and used chiefly for military pur- 

Instruments, inflatile. Wind instruments. 

Instruments, keyed. All instruments the 
sounds of which are produced by the pres- 
sure of the fingers upon the keys. 

In5truments,mechanlcal. Instruments which 
P'Oduce tunes by the means of some me- 
chanical contrivance, as crank, springs, 
weights, etc. 

Instruments, percussive. ) Instruments 
Instruments, pulsatile, j whose sounds 
are produced by being struck. 

Instruments, pneumatic. Instruments, the 
toned of which are produced by the uction 
of the wind. 

Instruments, reed. Instruments whose tones 
are produced by the action of air upon reeds 
of metal or wood. 

Instruments, stringed. Instruments whose 
tones are produced by striking or drawing 
strings or the friction of a bow. 

Instruments, tensile. A general name for all 
instruments dependent upon the tension o4 
strings for their tone. 

Instrument vent (&nh-str€i-m&nh vftnh), JV. 
A wind instrument. 

Intavolare (In-t&-yd-lll'r€), It. To write notes, 
to copy music. 

intavoiatura (In-t&-v6-lft-too'r&), R. Musical 

In tempo (In tSm'pd), It. In time. 

In tempore Justo (In tem'p6-re yoos-tO), Lot. A 
direction to sing or play in equal, Just, and 
exact time. 
Intendant (ftnh-t&nh-danh), Fr. ) Director, 
Intendente (In-t€nden't€), It. ) conductor. 
See Impresario. 

Interlude. A short musical representatien, 
introduced between the acts of any drama, 
or between the play and afterpiece : an in« 
termed! ate strain or movement played be- 
tween the verses of a hymn. 

Interludlum (In-t^r-loo'dl-oom), Lai. 

Intermede (ftnh-t6r-mad'). Fr. 

Intermedio (In-ter-n&'dlo), It. 

Intermezzo (in-t6r-m€i'p6). It. 
An iuierlude; intermediate, placed be- 
tween two others; detached pieces intro- 
duced between the acts of an opera. 


iQrm,9kadd, %ale, (lend, d eve, I iU, I Me, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a &it^, tt Fr*80und, kh CTer. ch. nhiMMoi 





Intermediate. A term applied to those flats 
and sharps which do not form any part of 
the origriual key of a composition, and 
which are also called accidentals. 

Intermedietto (In-tSr-mft-dl-ef td), It. A short 
interlude, or intermezzo. 

Intermezzi (in-tfir-m^t'tsS), II, pi. Interludes, 
detached pieces or dance^. 

Interrotto (In - tSr - rdf td), It. Interrupted, 
broken, speaking of cadence, accent, or 

interrupted cadence. A cadence in which 
the triad of the dominant Is followed by 
some chord which changes the progression 
of the harmony. 

Interruzione (In-t&r-root-sl-o'n^), II. Inter- 

Interval. The distance, or difference, of pitch 
between tones. Intervals are reckoned by 
the degrees of the scale included, counting 
the tune of beginning aud that of ending, 
intervals are represented upon the dtaflf ac- 
cording to their essential nature, an aug- 
mented fourth, for instance, arising and re- 
solving diffterently from a diminished fifth, 
which would be commensurate with it. In- 
tervals are always reckoned upwards from a 
given tone, unless (he contrary is expressly 

Interval, auflfmented. An interval which is 
a chromatic semitone, or half-step, greater 
than a major or perfect interval. 

Interval, diminished. An interval less than 
a perfect interval by a chromatic half-step 
or semitone. 

Intervail (In-ter-vfillO. Ger. ) 

Intervalle (ftnh-ter-vail), Fr. f An in- 

Intervallo (In-ter-val'lo), It. C terval. 

Intervallum (In-tfir-v&l'loom), Lot. ) 

Intervalle (In-ter^v&llfi), Ger. pi. Intervals. 

Intervalli vieUtI (In-tfir-val-le ve-&-ta'tI), It.pL 
Forbidden intervals. 

intervals, consecutive. Intervals passing in 
the same direction in two parallel parts. 

Intervening subject. An intermediate sub- 
ject of a fugue. 

Intimitsimo (In-t!-m&'sl-md), It. Very ex- 
pressive, with great feeling. 

Intimo (In'tX-md), It. Inward feeling, expres- 

Intonare (In-td-n&'r^), r, \ To pitch the 
Intuonare (In-too-d-n&'r6), -^ ' j voice, to sound 
the keynote, to begin. 

intonation. (1) The act and art of producing 
sound from thevoice oran instrument, both 
as regards quality and pitch. (2) A voice's 
or instrument s capacity of yielding sound. 
(3) The initial phrase sung alone by the 
officiating priest or leading chorister of the 
antiphon aud other portions of the divine 
service in Roman Catholic churches. (4) 
The opening notes, those before the recit- 
ing note, of the Gregorian chant. 

Intonation, false. A variation in pitch from 
what is understood to be the true tone. 

Intonate (in - td - na' - tfi). It. Tuned, set to 

Intonatura (In-td-n&-too'r&), « ) Intona- 
Intonazione (In-td-na-tsi-d'ne), -'''Jtion, 

Intoniren (In-to-nrr'n), Oer. To intone, to 

Intrada rin-tr&'d&). It. \ A short prelude or 
Intrade (In-tra'd6), Oer. j introductory move- 

Intrepidamente (In-tr6-pl-d&-men'te), It. 
Boldly, with intrepidity. 

Intrepidezza (In-tre-pI-dSt's&), It. Intrepid- 
ity, boldness. 

Intrepido (In-tra'pl-dd), It. Intrepid, bold. 

In tripio (in trSp'ld), It. An old term, signi- 
fying a composition in three parts. 

Introduction. That movement in a compo- 
sition, the design of which is to prepare the 
ear for the movements which are to foUow. 

Introduzione (in-trd-doo-tsi-d'nS), R. An in- 

Introduzione marzlale (In-trd-doo-tsX-d'- 
nd melr-tsl-arie),/^. An introduction in mar- 
tial style. 

Introit (In-trO'it), Enp. \ Entrance ; a 

Introit (&nh-trw£l), ir. / hvmn, or an- 

Introito (in-tr6-e'to). It. >- 1 n e m, s u n g 

Introito (In-tro-e'td), £to. i while the 
Introitus (in-trol-toos). Lot. J priest enters 

within the rails at the communion-table ; 

also the commencement of the Mass. 

Inventio (In-v6n'tsl-d}, Lot. A name some- 
times given to a tricinium. 

Invention (&nh-v&nh-ea-6nh), Fr. An old 
name for a species of prelude or short fan- 

Invenzlone (In-vfin-tsI-d'nS), It. Invention, 

Inverslo (in-v&r'sl-d), LaL Inversion; see 
that word. 

Inverslo cancrlzans (in-v&r'id-O k&n-kri-zftnsO, 
Lot. Retrograde, or crab-like inversion, or 
imitation ; because it goes backwards. 

Inverslo in octavam acntom (In-vftr'sid In 
do-t&-v&m ft-koo'tSm), IxU. Inversioq in the 
octave above, the transposition of the lower 
part an octave above. 

Inverslo In octavam gravem (in-vftr'd-d In 
6k-t&-v&m gr&'vdm), Lai. Inversion in the 
octave below; the transposition of the up- 
per part an octave below to form the bass, 
while the other part remains stationary. 

Inversion. (1) An interval is inverted by 
trausposing the lower of two notes an oc- 
tave higher or the upper an octave lower. 
(2) A chord is inverted ov placing the third, 
nfth.^seventh, or ninth in the bass instead 
of the fundamental note. (3) A subject is 
inverted when its motion is contrary to 
that of the original, when the notes that 
before ascended descend, and the notes 

^ arm, & add, &a2e, ^end, eeve, I ttt, I ia2e, 6 oM, 6 odd. oo moon, U&u/, U J^. Bound^ kh Oer, c/i, nb nasal. 





that before descended ascend. (4) In dou- 
ble counterpoipt inyersion is the placing 
of an upper part under a lower part, or a 
lower pait above a higher one, oy trans- 
posing them an octave, tenth, or otner in- 
terval higher or lower. 

Inversion, retrograde. An inversion made 
by commencing on the last note of the sub- 
ject and writing it backwards to the first 

Invert. To chance the position either in a 
subject or chord. 

Inverted. Changed in position. 

Inverted chord. A chord whose fundamental 
tone is not its lowest. 

Inverted turn. A turn which commences 
witu the lowest note instead of the highest. 

Invitatorio (In-vi tft-to^rl d\ 8p. Psfllm or an- 
them sung at the banning of the matins. 

Invitatorium (In-vi-tft-to'rl-oom), TxU. A verse 
sung in the Roman Catholic Church at the 
beginning of matins, alternately with two 
verses of the 94th Psalm. The concluding 
words are generally " Venite adoremus." 

Invltatory. A part of the service sung in the 
Roman Catholic Church ; a psalm or an- 
them sung in the morning. 

Ionian (l-^n1-ftn), ^^^^ \ (1) In the ancient 

Ionic (X-dnlk), ^^'j Greek system, the 

name of the octave species (in later times 

called Hypophrygian) g a ^ d ef g, and of 
one of the transposition scales. ( V. laatian. ) 
(2) In the medieeval ecclesiastical system, 

the name of the octave species cdefgabc, 

the thirteenth (seventh authentic) mode. 
( V. Church modet.) 

Ionic music. A light, airy style of music. 

Ira (e'ra), M. Anger, wrath. 

IraU (e-ra'ta), | Angrily, 

Irato (e-ra'to). It. V passion- 

Iratamente (S-r&-t&-men-te), ) ately. 

Irish harp. An instrument having more 
strings than the lyre, yet for a long time 
only used- for playing a simple melody or a 
single part. Also the music-trade name fnr 
the toy instrument known as " jew's-harp." 

Irish tunes. Tunes peculiar to the Hiber- 
nians, generally of a sweet, mellow charac- 

rlandais (er-lanh-d&O, Fr. \ An air or dance 
rlindisch (erlau-dXsh), Oer. j tune in the 
Irish style. 

ronicamente (e-rO-nl-kft-mSn'te), B. Iron- 

ronico (e-r6'nl-kd). It. Ironical. 

rregular cadence. An imperfect cadence. 

rregolare (er-r&-g6-l&'r€). It. Irregular. 

rresdluto (er-ra-z6-loo't6). It. Irresolute, wa- 

sdegno, con (es-d&n'yd kdn), It. With indlg' 

smania, con (es-ma'ni-tl kdn). It. With wild- 
uebs, with madness. 

sochronal, Or. \ Uniform in time ; per- 
sochronous. /formed in equal time. 

Aotonlc system. A system of music consist- 
ing of intervals in which each concord is 
tempered alike, and in which there are 
twelve equal semitones. 

stessd (Ss-tes'so), It. The same. 

stesso tempo (e8-t€i^fld tdw! pd), It. The same 

strepito, con (es-trft-pe'td k6n). It. With 
noise and bluster. 

strionica (es-trX-o'nl-k&l, It. Histrionic ; the 
theatrical art 

strumentale (es-troo-men-t&ie). It. Instru' 

strumentazione (es-troo-mSn-t&'td-d'nS), IL 

strumento (es-troo-m^n'td), It. An instru' 

talian mordent. A short shake, or trill, con* 
sisting of the alternation of a tone witJi the 
next tone above it. 

Uliano (g-ta-n&'no), It. -) 

tallenisch (g-ta n-a'nXsb),(?er. v Italian. 
talienne (etH-il 6uii), Fr. ) 

talian sixth. A name sometimes 
given to a chord composed of a 
major third and an augmented 

te missa est (e'tfi 'mXs-s& fist). Lat. The ter- 
mination of the Mass: sung by the priest to 
Gregorian music. 

trovatori (S trd-v&td'rfi), It. The trouba- 


fLarm, Aadd, & ale, fi end, e eve, X tU, I isie.d old, 6 odd, oo moon, U but, a Fr. sound, kh Oer. eh. nh natal' 





Jeu d*orgtte5 (shflh d'5rg), Fr. Register, or 
row of pipes, in an organ. 

Jeux (zht\h), Fr. pi. Stops, or registers, in an 
organ or harmoninm. 

Jeux forts (zhtili for), Fr. Loud stops; forte 

Jew*s-harp. A small instrument of brass or 
steel, and shaped somewhat like a lyre; 
when plaved it is placed between the teeth 
and struck with the forefinger. Known in 
the music trade as ** Irish harp." 

Jewstrump. A term applied by old writers 
to the jew's-harp. 

Jig. A light, brisk movement ; an old species 
of dance in 6-8 or 12-8 time ; the name is sup- 

Sosed to have been derived from Qeig^ a fid- 
Jingles. Loose pieces of metal placed around 
a tambourine to increase the sound. 

Jodeln (y6'd'ln), Oer. A style of singing pe- 
culiar to the Tyrolese peasants, the natural 
voice and the falsetto being used alter- 

Jole (zhwa), Fr, Joy, gladness. 

Jongleurs (zh6nh-gloor), j^. ^i ) Thus were 
Jongleurs (zhOnh-glOr). '^P'- ] called in the . 
time of the troubadours and trouv^res the 
professional minstrels and players on in- 
struments who either were in the service 
of the former or traveled about the coun- 
try independently. Their performances 
were not confined to singing, playing, and 
recitation, but comprised— especially in 
later times— l^erdemaio, tumbling, rope- 
dancing, etc. 

iota (hd't&), 8p. A Spanish national dance. 

Jouer (zhoo-&), Fr. To play ni>on an instru- 

Jovialisch (y6-fX-Jt1Ish), Qer. Jovial, Joyous, 

Jubelflttte (yooH^'l-fid'te), Qer, An organ-stop 

of the flute species. 
Jubelgesang (yoo'b'l-gh&>zang),/3^ I Song of 
Jubellied (yoo'b'1-led), ^^' ] jubilee. 

Jubeind (yoo'belnd), Qer. Rejoicing. 

Jubilant. Joyful, triumphant. 

Jubilee. A season of great public' Joy and 
festivity. Among the Jews every fiftieth 
year was a jubilee. 

Jubiloso (yoo'bMd'za), 72. Jubilant, ezultiuQr. 

Just. A term applied to all consonant in- 
tervals, and to those voices, strings, and 
pipes that give them with exactness. 

Juste (zhilst), Fr. Accurate in time, tone, 
harmony, and execution. 

Justesse (zhiis-tass'), Fr. Exactness, correct- 
ness, or purity, of intonation. 

iarm, ft odd, a ale, £ end, e etw, I ill, I itlefi oUi,6 odd, oo moon, ti but, \1 Fr.aound, iLhOer. eh, nh natoL 


Jack. (1) Tn the harpidchord the upright slip 
of wood on the back end of the key-lever to 
which is attached a crow-quill or piece of 
hani leather, projecting at right angles. The 
quill Or piece of leather serves as a plectrum 
with which the corresponding string is 
plucked. (2) A part of the action of the pi- 
anoforte, the escapement«lever, which is 
also called *' hopper." 

Jaegerchor (ya'gher-kdr),Ger. Hunting chorus. 

Jagdhorn (yagd'hdrn) , ^ „ \ Hunting - horn, 
Jagdzink (yagd'tdnk), ^^' J bugle-horn. 

Jagdruf (yftgd'roof), Oer. Sound of the bugle 
or hunting-horn. 

Jagdsinfonie (yagd's!n-f6-ne'), Cfer. Huniing 

^agdstack (yagd'stak) , Ger. A hunting-piece. 

Jftgerchor (ya'ghSr-kor), Ger. See Jaegerchor, 

Jfigerhom (ya'gh6r-h6rn) , Oer. Hunting-horn , 

'lailtage (y&l-taj). The only musical iostru- 
meut of Tartary, consisting of a box of fir 
about four feet long and three inches wide, 
the upp<.r part of which is open, over which 
six wire strings are stretched. It is played 
on with both hands, but chiefly with the 
left, and produces both treble and bass. 

JaleO (hfl-l&'e), Sp. A national Spanish dance. 

Jangle. To sound discordantly or inharmo- 

Janltscharenmusik (ya-nlt-sha'r'n-moo-zikO, 
Ger. The music introduced into Europe by 
the Janizaries; military music, consisting 
of wind instruments and instruments of 
percussion, such as drums, cymbals, trian- 
gles, etc. 

Jargon. The union of several discordant 

Jauchzend (yowkh'ts£nd),6'cr. Shouting, Joy- 

Jeu (zhOh), Fr. Play ; the style of playing on 
an instrument ; also a register in an organ 
or harmonium. 

Jeu celeste (zhtih s&-iest), Fr. The name of a 
soft stop in a harmoninm ; also an organ- 
stop of French invention, formed of two 
duu^iana pipes, the pitch of one beiug 
slightly raised, giving to the tone a waving, 
undulating character. 

Jeu d'anche (zhUh d'&nsh), Fr. A reed-stop 
in an organ. 

Jeu d*anges (zhtlh d'ftnzh), Fr. Soft stops. 

Jeu d*tehos (zhUh d'a-kd), Fr. Echo stop. 

Jeu de flutes (zhtlh dtlh floot), Fr. Flute stop. 





Kalmro (ktt-bft'r5). A small drum used in 
Egypt and Abyssinia. 

IUUunailui(kAl-firm&'k&). A lively Hungarian 
dauce in 2-4 time, full of auunatiou and 

Kammer (k&m'mfir), Qer, Chamber. 

Kammercantate (k&m'm^r-k&u-t&'te), Qer. 
Chamber cantata. 

Kammercompbnlst (kiim'm€r - kdm-pd-nXst), 
Oer. "Chamber composer." A composer 
who has to furnish compositions required 
for the private concerts of a prince. 

Kammeixoncert (k&m ' mSr - kdn - ts^rt), Qer. 
Cnamber concert. 

Kammerduet (k&m'm<$r-doo-iSf ), Oer, Cham- 
ber duct. A duet for chamber performance. 

Kammerma«ic (kftm ' m&r - moo - zlk^, Oer. 
Chamber music; music for private per- 

Kammermusikus (kiim'mSr-moo'd-koo6),G0r. 
Chamber musician ; member of a prince's 
private band. 

Kammersi&ngerin (kam'mer-s&nx-er-In), Ger. 
Private siuger to a prince or King. 

Kammeraplel (k&m'mfir-spdl), Qer. See Kam- 

Kammerstyl (k&m'mfir-st6I), Ger. Style of 
chamber music, as opposed to the ecclesias- 
tical and theatrical styles. 

Kammerton (kam'm«r-tdn), Ger. The pitch, 
or lower tuning of the instruments in 
chamber music, opposed to the higher tun- 
ing of the organ in church music. 

Kammervirtttose (k&m'mfir-flr-too-d'ze), Ger. 
A chamber virtuoso. A virtuoso in the 
service of a prince. 

Kampoul (k&m-pool). A gong of small di- 
mensions used by the Malays. 

Kaiidele(k&n-d&'lS). Ancient minstrel's harp, 
of the Finns. 

Kanon (kft'ndn), Ger. A rule. (1) An instru- 
ment formerly employed for measuring in- 
tervals; it was a monochord with a mov- 
able bridge. Sometimes it had also a sec- 
ond string in unison with the first, there- 
by permitting the effect of the intervals to 
be observed by sounding both tones at once. 
The mathematical character of the inter- 
vals was ascertained by observing the 
string-lengths producing the several tones. 
(2) A canon. A musioil form in which 
several voices repeat the same melody suc- 
cessively, in the style of a round. 

Kanoon (k&n-dn), Gr. Musical iustrument of 
the dulcimer variety, used in Arabia. 

Kantato (kan-tiL't«), Oer. Cantata. 

Kanzellled (k&n'tsei-ied), Ger. Hymn before 
the sermon. 

Kapelle (ka-p^lie), Ger. A chapel. A musica 
establishment — consisting of a choir o\ 
singers, of a band of instrumentalists or oi 
both— connected with a church or a court, 
or in the pay of a nobleman. Now the ex^ 
pressior is generally applied to a band of 

Kapellknaben (kfirpfil'kn&'bdn), Oer. Choli 

Kapellmeister (k&-p«VmIs-ter), Qer. Chapel 
master; musical director. 

Kapeilstyl (kji-pei'stel), Ger. Acappella; mu 
accompanied vocal composition in st7ir<i 

Karfreiufl: (k&r-frrta«), Qer. Good Friday 

K£Ck (kfik), Ger. Fresh. 

kcckhelt (kSk'hlt), Ger. Boldness, vigor. 

Keeping time. An inelegant form of ezpresv 
siou. Keeping time means that the pulsa- 
tion is evenly observed, the accentuation 
Xn the proper points of the measure, and 
the tones brought in with their proper 
time- relation. 

Kehle (ka'ie), Ger. The voice, the throat 

Kehllaut (k&l'lout), Ger. A guttural sound. 

Kemangeh (ke-m&n'-g&h')» TVtr. A stringed in« 
strumeut of the Turks, played with a bow 

Kenet (k^n'et). An Abyssinian trumpet. 

Kenner (ken'nSr), Oer. A connoisseur ; a pro 

Kent buffle. A bugle having six keys, four ol 

which are commanded by the right hand 

and two by the left. 

Kerana(kSrll'u&), Per. A Persian horn, which 
is sounded at sunset and at midnight. 

Keraulophon (k&rou'16-fdn), Oer. An 8-feet 
organ-stop, of a stringy and pleasing quality 
of tone, its peculiar character being pro- 
duced by a small round hole bored in the 
pipe near the top, promoting the formation 
ot overtones. 

Keren (kSr-^n), Hd). A horn ; an instrument 
first used by the Hebrews, formed of a ram's 
horn, and subsequently made of meoU. 

Kern (kftrn), Oer. The languid, or langward, 
in organ-pipes. 

Kematlmmen (kftrn'stlm-m'n), Ger. The fun^ 
damental, or 8 feet, stops of an organ. 

Keron-Jebel (k«r'6n-y&-b'l),^<!b. Jubilee horn. 

Kerrena (ker-r&'nfl) , M. An Indian trumpet. 

Kesselpatike (kdi's'l-pow'ke), Ger. Kettle- 

Ketch. Name applied by old writers to a 






Kettentriller (ket't'n-trllOer), Qer. Chain of 

Kettledrum. This iDstmment consists of a 
brass or copper kettle, more or less hemis- 
pherical, over the top of which is stretched 
a skin. In the orchestra two kettledrums 
are generally employed, sometimes more. 
Each has a compass of a fifth ; the lower 
may he tuned to any note from F to c, and 
the higher to any note from B-flat to f. Ket- 
tledrums are made to sound by means of 
two sticks, which have a soft knob at one 

Key. (1) A family of chords (and the tones 
composing them) bearing a fixed relation to 
a central tone, called a keytone, or tonic. 

(2) Once applied to what is now called clef. 

(3) A mechanical lever for controlling the 
tone on many musical instruments, such as 
the organ, piano, flute, horn, acrordion, 
clarinet, etc. Keys are of many forms, ac- 
cording to the service required of tbem. (4) 
The instrument by meaus of which the tun- 
ing-pins of the pianoforte are moved. This 
instrument is now commonly called a tun- 
ing-key, or a tuning-hammer. 

Keyboard. The rows of keys of a pianoforte, 
organ, or similar instrument. 

Keyboard, chromatic. An attachment ap- 
plied to the keys of a piano for the purpose 
of enabling players of moderate skill to exe- 
cute chromatic scales and passages with fa- 
cility and correctness. 

Key bugle. A Rent bugle. 

Keyed. Furnished. with keys. 

Keved harmonica. An instrument with keys, 
the hammers striking upon plates of glass. 

Keyed Instruments. All instruments whose 
tones are produced by the pressure of the 
fingers upon keys. 

Keyed-stbp violin. An arrangement which 
may be attached to a violin, consisting of a 
fingerboard made of ebony, with thirty- 
three stops, called keystops, which st^nd 
above the strings and act upon them per- 

Keyed violin. An instrument having forty 
strings, arranged like those of a piano, and 
acted upon by horsehair bows, under the 
pressure of keys like those of an organ. 

Key harp. An instrument of recent inven- 
tion, resembling a piano externally, with a 
similar arrangement of keys and pedals. It 
consists of an adjustment of tuning forks of 
various pitches, over cavities of sonorous 

Keynote. The tonic, or repose, note of a 

Keytone. The keynote. 

Khasan fkh&'zftn), HA. The principal singer 
in a synagogue. 

Kin chl (kin ke). A Chinese musical instru- 
ment possessing a body of thin wood, with 
five strings of silk, of different sizes. The 
scholar's lute. A kind of dulcimer. 

KInir chl (king kee). A Chinese instrument 
consisting of a frame of wood with pendent 
stone, graduated through sixteen notes and 
struck with a hammer. 

KInnor (kin-ndr'), J7e&. A small harp, or lyre, 
held in the hand and played upon while 
dancing. David played the klnnor. 

KIrche (kirl^hS), Oer, Church. 

KIrchencantate (klr'kh'n-kfin-ta't&), Oer. A 
cantata for use in church services. Bach 
produced a large number of works of this 
kind. Generally they consist of a biblical 
text set for chorus and solos, with accom- 
paniment of orchestra and organ. 

KIrchencomponlst (klr' kh'n -kdm - pd - nIstO, 
Ger. Composer ox church music. 

KIrchendienst (kir'kh'n-denst), Oer. Church 
service; form of prayer. 

Kirchenfest (klrl^h'n-^f&t), Ger. Church fes- 

Klrchengesang (klr^ch'n-ghS-s&ng'), r>^ \ 

Klrchenfied (kIrTch'n-led), ^^' J 

Spiritual song, canticle, psalm, or hymn. 

KIrchenmuaik (klr' kh*n • moo - zlk'). Ger. 
Church music. 

KIrchenschluss (klr^h'n-shloos), Oer. An ec- 
clesiastical, or plagal. cadence ; the chord 
of the subdomlnant followed by the tonic. 

KIrchenstyl (kIr'kh'n-stel),Ger. Church style, 
ecclesiastical style. 

KirchentOne (kli'kh'n-tSn-^),©^-. The church, 
or ecclesiastical, modes. 

Kit. The name of a small pocket violin used 
by dancing-masters. Its length is about six- 
teen inches, and that of the bow about sev- 

KItar (kl-tar). A musical instrument of the 
Arabs. Our word ' ' guitar ' ' is derived from 


Kithara (klth'ft-r&), 6r. A cithara, or lyre, of 
the Greeks. 

Klage (kl&'ghfi), Ger. Lamentation. 

Klagend (kl&'g'nd), Oer. Plaintive. 

Klagegedlcht (kl&'ehg-ge-dlkhtO, n^ \ 
Klagefied (kla'gh6-led), ^^' / 

Klegy, mournful song, lamentation 

Klageton (kl&'ghe-tdn), Oer. Plaintive tune, 
or melody. 

Klang(klfing), Ger. Sound; tune; ringing. 

Klangboden (kl&ng-bd-d'n),G'er. Soundboard. 

Klinge (k]&agf(i),Oer. pi. Sounds, melodies. 

Klangfarbe (klang'f fir-be), Ger. Sound-eolor ; 
the quality, or timbre, of sounds. 

Klanggeschlecht (klfing'ghe-shiekhtO, Oer. A 
genus, or mode. 

Klanglehre (klfing^-rC), Oer. Acoustics. 

Klanglos (klang^ds), Oer. Soundless. 

Klappe (klap'pe), Oer. Kev of any wind in- 
strument ; a valve. 

Klappenfltigelhorn (klfip'p n-fla'g'l-hdm),Ger. 
The keyed bugle. 

Hairm, & add, a die, 6end, eeve,l iU^ % iaUf Q (Mt 6odd, oomoon, H but, iX Fr. sound, kh Ger. ch. nh naaoL 






K^p^nhom (klap'p'n-hdrny, Ger, A keyed 

lUapptrompete (kUlp-tr6m-p&'te), Qer, A 

keyed trumpet. 

Klar(klar), G^. Clear, bright. 

K!arheit (kl&r 'hit) , Ger. Clearness, plainness. 

Klarinette (km'rl-nSt-te), Ger. A clarinet. 

KUIrlich (kl&r'likh), Ger. Clearly, distincUy, 

Klassisch (klgs'slsh), Ger. Classical, of high 
rank. Approved. 

Klausel (klou'zel), Ger. A close; a r^ular 
section of a movement. 

Klavier (klfi-fer'). Ger. Pianoforte; harpsi- 
chord. See Clavier. 

Klavierauszufi: (klft-fer'ows-tzoog), Ger. Edi- 
tion for pianoforte. An arrangement of a 
score for pianoforte. 

KlavierAonateii (klll-fer'sd-n&-ten),Crer. Piano- 
forte sonata. 

Klavierspleler (kla-fgr-spe'ler), Ger. Piano- 

Klein (kiln), Ger. Minor, speaking of inter- 

Kleinbass (klin1)a8s), rj^ \ 

Kleinbassgelsre (klin'bas8-gi-g«), ^^' / 

Kleinlaut (klinlout), Ger. Small or low in 
tone or voice. 

Klingbar (kllngn^&r), Ger. Resonant, sono- 

Klingel (kllng'ei), Ger. A bell. 

Klinsreln (k1!ng-€ln), Ger. To ring or sound a 
small bell; to jingle. 

Klififfen (kllng'Sn), >3^ ) SonorouS; reso- 
Klinsrend (kling'end), ^^' /nant, ringing. 

Klloffgedicht (kllng'g^dlkht), Ger. Sonnet. 

KlinffklaAfl: (kllng'kl&ng), Ger. Tinkling, bad 

Klinffspiel (kling'spel), Ger. The sound or 

noise of instruments. 

Klutter (kloot'tSr), Ger. A bird-call. 

Knabenstimme (kn8.'b6n-stim'mS), Ger. A 
boy's voice, counter tenor. 


Knell. The tolling of a bell at a death or 

Knieffelge (kne'gl-gh^), Ger. Viol da gamba, 

KnierOhre (kne'r6-r«), Ger. A pipe, or tube, 

bent like a knee. 

Kollectfvauszufl: (kdl'lfik-tefows-tzoog), Ger. 
t A collected selection of an author's works. 

Koilo (kol-ld), Jidp. A Japanese instrument, 
somewhat resembling a harp. 

Kombinationspedale (kom'- b! - na - tsl - dns'- 
p&-del'l€), Ger. Combinationjpedal. A pedal 
controlling a combination of organ-stops. 

KombinationstOne (kom'bi-na-tsl-dns'to-ne) , 
G^. Combination tones. Resultant tones 
formed by the differences of two sounding 

Komiker (kd^ml-k^r), Ger. A writer of bui 
lettas ; also a comio vertormer. 

Komisch (kd'mlsh), Ger. Comical. 

Komma (kom'ma), Ger. Comma; a musical 
section or division. An interval equal to 
about an eighth of a diatonic step. 

KomOdie (k6-mo'dI-£), Ger. Comedy, play. 

Komponiren (kdm-po-ne'r'n), Ger. To com- 
Komponist (kdm'p6-n!st), Ger. A composer. 

Kompbsition (kdm'po-zIt-sX-dn), Ger. A com- 

kompositionslehre (kdm'po-zit-Bi-dnsla-re), 
Ger. The art of composition. A textbook 
in musical composition. 

Konservatorium (kdn-s&r-va-to'rl-oom), Ger. 
A conservatory ; a school of the art of music. 

Koou«. A Persian drum made of brass, two 

feet in circumference. 
Kopfstimme (kdpfstim-m£), Ger. Falsetto, 

head voice. 
Kopf^e' (k6p'p'l),6rer. Coupler ; coupling-stop 

in nji organ. 
Kor (k6r), Ger. \ Choir, chorus. See 

Kdre (ko'rfi), Ger. pi. ) Chor. 

Koryphceus (kd-ri-fe'tis),Gr. Chief, or leader, 
of the dancers. 

Ko5 (koz), Hun. A Hungarian dance. 

Kbsake (ko-sS'kfi). A national dance of the 

Kraft (kraft), Ger. Power, strength, energy. 

Kriiftljr(kraftlgh). g 

Kr&fti^lich (kraftigh-Hkh), ^^' 
ous, lull oi energy. 

Kr£ftlflr und kurz (kraf tXgh oond koorts),G'er 
Loua and detached. 

Krakovlak (kra-ko-vi-ak). I The era- 

Krakovlenne (kra-k6-vi-€n), Fr. j covienne, a 
Polish dauee in 2-4 time, with strongly 
marked rhythm and much syncopated. 

Krebsgrftngrig (krebs'gan-gigh). Ger. Crab-go 
ing ; inverse imitation ; backwards. 

Kreischend (kri'sh^nd), Ger. Shrieking, 

Krelafusre (kris'foo-ghS), Ger. Circulating 
fugue; a canon. 

Kreisleriana (kris'la-rI-a-n£l),G'er. Like Kreis- 
ler. A series of eight piano pieces of Schu- 
mann, named after an eccentric character 
called Ereisler.iu one of Hoffmann's novels. 

Kreistanz (kris'tants), Ger. Dance in a circle. 

Kreuz (kroits), Ger. A sharp. 

Kreuz-doppeltes (kroits-ddp'pei-tfis), Ger. A 
double sharp, X or ^^. 

Kriegerlsch (kre'gher-lsh),0'«r. Warlike, mav^ 

Krlegsgesana: (krcgs'ghe-s&ng'). ^^ ) 
Krlegsfied (kregsaed), ***^* j 

A war-song, a soldier's song. 

Kriegsspieler (kreg8'spe^er),G'0r. A musician 
of a regiment. 

^ \ Power' 
• jful,vigor 

arrn, a aadt aole, S end, e eve, i itt, i Ule, 6 old, 6 odd, oo noon, ilbut,iXFr. sound, kh Ger. eh. uhfiatjl^ 




Krome. See Croma. 

Kramm (kroom),(?cr. Crooked, curved, bent 

Krummbogen (kroom'b6-K'n), Ger. A crook 
for changing the pitch of horns. Inserted, it 
lengthens the tune, thereby lowering the 

Knimmhorn (kroomTiom), Gcr. Crooked horn. 
The name of a portable wind instrument, 
formerly much in use, resembling a small 
cornet. Organ-builders corrupt this word 
into cremona, and apply it to one of their 

Krustische Instramente(kroo8'ti-8h6 in-stroo- 
m6n't«), Ger. Instruments of percussion, as 
the drum, cymbals, etc. 

KuhhOrn (kooOiom), Ger. Cow-horn, Swiss 
horn, Alpine horn. 

Ktthn (klin), Ger. Short. 

Kuhreisen (koo'ri-gh'n}, Ger. Ranz des 

vaches. A Swiss melody. 
Kunst (koonst), Ger. Art, skill. 

Kunstfuge (koonst'foo-ghfi), Ger. Art fugue. 
A musically composed and artistically de- 
veloped fugue (distinguished from an exer- 
cise fugue). 

Kanstler (ktmstl'r), Ger. Artist. 

Kunstpfeifer (koonsfpfi-f^r). Ger. Street mu- 

Kunstwerk der Zukunft (koonst'vftrk der 
tsoo'koonft), Ger. Art work of the future. 
A term given by Richard Wagner to his pe- 
culiar theory of the music of the future; 
musical composition. 

Kuppel (koop'p'l), Ger. See Koppd. 

Kurz (koorts),Ger. Short, detached, staccato. 

Ktirzen (k\ir'ts6n), Ger. To abridge. 

Kurzer Mordent (koorta'Cr mor-dfint'), Ger, 
Short mordent. 

Kurzer Slngesatz (koort'sSr sln'g^sats), Ger. 

Kurz und rein (koorts'oond rin), Ger. Dis- 
tinct and clear. 

Ktirzung (kur'tsoong), Ger. Shortening, ab- 

Kttrzun£szei<;hen (ktlr'tsoongs-tsi'kh'n), Ger, 
Sign ol abbreviation. 

Kussir (kus-ser), Fr. A Turkish musical in- 

Kyrie eleison (ke'ri-a airzdn), Gr. " Lord, 
nave mercy upon us." The first movement 
in a Mass. 

Kyrielle (ke-r6-€l), Fr. Litany. 

L Left hand. Notes to be played with the 

Veft hand .or foot are sometimes written 

with an L over them. 
La. (1) The name of the sixth sol-fa tone of 

tbe scale. (2) Applied to A uniformly in 

French and Italian sol-faing. 

La(l&), It. I The 

La (li), Fr. J ^^®- 

La bimol (la b&-m61), Fr. The note Ab- 

La bimol majeur (1& bft-mSl mft-zhttr),/V. The 

key of A> major. 
La bimol mineur (1& b&-mdl mS-ntir), Fr. The 

key of A> minor. 
Labial. Organ-pipes with lips ; called, also, 

flue pipes. 
Labialstimmen (la-bI-&l'stlm'm'n),G'er. Stops 

belonging to the fluework, not reed-stops. 
Labium (l&'bl-oom). Lot. The lip of an organ- 
La chasse (1& shass), Fr. In the hunting style. 
Lacrlmando (ia-crl-m&n'd6), „ ) Sadly ; in 
Lacrlmoso (ISrcrl-mo'zd), -*'• J a mournful, 

pathetic style. 
Lacrimosa (lak'rl-mo'za), Lat. "Weeping 

stands. " Part of the Stabat Mater. 
Lade (Wdfi), Ger. Windchest in an organ. 

La diese (la di-asO> ^- The note A4f. 

Lage (la'ghfi), Ger. Lay. Position. (1) Of a 

chord. (2) Of the hand in the shifts of the 

Lagnoso (lan-yo'zo), II. Plaintive, doleful. 

Lagrimando (la-gri-man'dd), ji \ Weeping, 

Lagrlmoao (ia-gri-m6'z6), •"* /tearful, in a 
sad and mournful style. 

Lai (la),fV. Lay, ditty ; short, plaintive song. 

La maggiore (1& mfid-zhO'ra), It. La major; 
the key of A major. 

La majeur (la ma-zhtir), Fr, The key of A 

L*ame (I'am), Fr. Soundpost of a violin, vi- 
ola, etc. 

Lament. An old name for harp music of the 
pathetic kind ; applied, also, to the pathetic 
tunes of the Scotch. 

Lamentabiie (la-mSn-ta^bMe), iZ. Lamenta- 
ble, mournful. 

Lamentabllmente (Ia-ra6n-ta-bll-m6n't6), II. 
Lamentably, mournfully. 

Lamentando (ia-m€n-tan'd5). It. Lamenting, 

Lamentevole (la-men-ta'vd-ie). It. Lamenta- 
ble, mournful, plaintive. 





Lamentoso (l&-xnen-t6^zd), JL Lamentable, 

La mlneur (1& ml-nttr), Fr. The key of A mi- 

La minore (1& mS-nd'rfi), IL La minor; the 
key of A minor. 

Lampons (l&nh-pdnh), Fr. Drinking-songs. 

LXnderer (1&n'de-r€r) , a^ \ A country dance 
LMndler (land'ier), ^^' f or air In a rus- 
tic aud popular style, in S-8 or 8-4 time. 

LInderisch (lftn'd€r-l8h\ Oer. In the man- 
ner or measure of a country dance. 

LIndllch (l&nd'Ukh), Oer. Rural. 

Landlied (I&nd'led), Oer, Rural song, rustic 

Landu (l&n-doo) , For. A Portuguese dance in 
2-4 or 2-2 time. 

Landums (l&n-dooms), For. A class of Portu- 
guese music, of a sentimental, melancholy 

Lang (lang), Oer. Long. ' 

Langaam (Islng'sftm), Oer. Slowly; equiva- 
lent to largo. 

Langsamer (l&ng's&m-^r), Oer, Slower. 

Language. ) In an organ-flute pipe this is the 

Languid, j flat Piece of metal or wood 

placed horizontally Just inside the mouth. 

Languemente (l&n • gwS - mfin ' t6), M. Lau- 

Languendo (l&n-gw^n'dd), Jtt.^ Languishing, 
Languente (ian-gw6n't6), II. )■ feeble ; with 
Langnido (l&n-gwe-dO), It, ) languor. 

Languettes (l&n-gatf). Fr. The brass tongues 
belonging to the reed pipes in an organ. 

Largamente (iar-ga-m6n't6), « ) Largely, 

Largamento (iar-Ra-m6u't6), ^^' f fully; 

in a full, free, broad style of performance. 

Large. The longest note formerly in use in 
ancient music. It is equal to eight semi- 
breves or four breves. 

Largement (l&rzh-m&nh), Fr. Full, free in 
st>le. See Largamente. 

Larghetto (lSir-g€t't6), It. A word specifying 
a time not quite so slow as that denoted by 
largo, of which word it is the diminutive. 

Larghezza (I&r-g6t't8&), It. Breadth, large- 
ness, freedom. 

Larghlssimo O&x^Rbes'sI-md), B. Extremely 
slow ; the superlative of largo. 

Larjgo (l&r'Kfi), It. A slow and solemn degree 

Largo andante (l&r'gd &n-d&n'te), It, Slow, 
distinct, exact. 

Largo assal (l&r'gd fts-s&'e) n \ Very 

Largo di molto (l&r'gd de m6rt6), '''' /slow. 

Largo ma non troppd (l&r'gd m& ndn trdp'p6). 
It. Slow, but uut too much so. 

Largo un poco (l&r'gd oon pd-ko), It. Rather 

Larigot (l&rTl-gdt), Fr. Shepherd's flute or 
pipe; an organ-stop tuned an octave above 

the twelfth ; the former named the flageo 

Laringe (l&-rSq'ghe), It. Larynx. 

Lannoyant (l&r-mw&-y&nh), Fr. Weeping, 
with a tearful expression. 

Larynx. The upper part of the trachea. It 
is composed of five annular cartilages, 
placed above one another, and united by 
elastic ligaments by which it is so dilated 
and contracted as to be capable of varying 
the tones of the voice. 

Last shift. On a violin, the shift on the twen- 
tieth Hue, or E. 

Laud. To praise with words alone, or with 
words and music. 

Lauda (l&'oo-d&). R. Laud ; praise ; hymn of 

S raise. One of the canonical hours, imme- 
iately following matins. 

Laudamus te (lou-d&'moos ta), Lat. "We 
praibe Thee." Part of the Gloria. 

Laudes (lon-dfis), Lat. \ Canticles, or hymns 
Laudi (l&'oo-dl), j of praise, that follow 
the early Mass. 

LaudI spirituisli (lou-dS sp§-ri-too-&1g), Lat. 
Sacred sones and dialogues sung by the 
priests in the oratory. 

Lauf (louf), Oer. That part of a violin, et<}., 
into which the pegs are inserted ; also a 
rapid succession ox notes; a trill. 

UkuU{loi'(ii\Oer.ja.\ Rapid divisions of 

LMufer (loi'ffir), Oer. j notes ; a fi^Kht, or run, 

of rapid notes ; a roulade, a trill, or shake. 

Launenstiick (lou'nSn-sttlk), Oer. A volun- 

Launig (lou'nlg), Oer. Humorous. 

Laut (lout), Oer. Loud ; also sound. 

Laute'(lou'te). Ger. The lute. 

Uluten (loi't'n),. Oer. To ring, to toll, to 

Lautenist (lou't'n-istO,<?0r. Lute-player, luta- 

Lautenmacher (lou-t'n-m&'kh&r), Oer, Lute- 

Lautenschlftger (lou-t'n-shlft'gh<$r), ^^ \ 
Lautenspleler (lou-t'n-spSafir), ^^- f 

Lute-player, lutanist. 

Lautlos (loutlds), Oer. Soundless, mute. 

La voce (1& vd-tshfi), 72. The voice. 

Lay. A song ; a species of narrative poetry 
among the ancient minstrels. 

Lay clerk. A vocal officiate in a cathedral, 
who takes part in the services and anthems, 
but is not of the priesthood. 

Leader. The first, or principal, violin in an 
orchestra ; a director of a choir. 

Leading note. The major seventh of any 
scale; the semitone below the keynote; the 
major third of the dominant 

Leaning note. See Appoggiatura. 

9k arm, Sk add, S, ale, 6end, eeve, liU,li8le, 6 old, 6oddtOomoon, t3Llmt,ilFr. sound, kh Oer. ch, hh naaoL 




Letps, A disi tance composed of seyeral inter- 
mediate intervals. 
Leben (l&'b'n), Oer. Life, yiyacity. 
Lebendifl: (la'ben-dlgh), Ger, Lively. 

Lebhaft (l&b'h&ft), Ger. Lively, vivacious, 

Lebhaftiffkelt (l&VMf-titgh-klt), Ger. Liveli- 
ness, vivacity. 

Ltqon (l&-s6nh), Fr. A lesson, an exerclBe. 

Ledger lines. ) The short extra, or addition- 

Leger lines, j al, lines drawn above or below 

the staff, for the reception of such notes as 

are too nigh or too low to be placed on or 

within the staff. 

Left beat. A movement to the left in beating 

Legablle (16-gfi'bM6). „ \a^ Leaato 
Legando aN;&nM6), ^^' f^eeLegaio. 

Legare (le-g&'rS), It. To slur, or bind. 

Legate le note (IS-g&'re IS n6't6\ It. To join 
the notes closely ; to play legato. 

Legatlssimo (l^gft-t^'sl-md), It. Exceedingly 
smooih aud counected. 

Legato (l^gft'td), It In a close, smooth, grace- 
ful mauuer; the opposite to staccato. It is 
often indicated by a sign called a slur, 

Legato asMl (IS-g&'td as-s&'e), It. Very close 
and connected. 

Legato touch. A touch which prolongs the 
tone until it exactlv connects with the next 
following. It is indicated by the word 
legato, or by a curved line, ^. 

Legatnra (ie-gft-too'r&). It. A slur, a ligature. 

LM^atura di voce (le-gfi-too'ra de vo'tehS), It. 
Connection of several tones sung in one 

Legende (l&-sfaftnhd), J^. ) A legend; an 
Legende (l&ghfiu-de) Ger. j interesting story. 

Mger (la-zh&), Fr. Light, nimble. 

L^gerement (l&-zhar-m&nh), Fr. Lightly, 
nimbly, gaily. 

L^ger et aiflmi (la-zh&r at &n-I-mft), Fr. Light 
and animated. 

LAgereti (la-sha'r^ta), Fr. Lightness, agil- 

Leggendti (l€d-jen'd&). It. A legend, a tale. 

Leggeramente (led-jSr-firmen'tS), It. Lightly, 

Leggeranza (ied-1dr-&n'tsfi), „ \ Lightness 
Leggerezza (ied-j«r-«t'tsa), ^^' |and agility. 

Leggerissimamente (l€d-^€r-e8-Bi-m&-mto'te), 
M. Very light aud sprightly. 

, Leggerisslmo (l^d - j^r- Ss' si - m6). It. Very 
light and uprightly. 

Leggermente (led-jSr-men'tg), It. A light 
aud easy movement. 

Leggiadra (16d jl-&'dr&), If. Graceful, elegant. 

Leggladramente (ISd-jI-a-drft-mSn'te), B. 
Qraceiully, elegantly. 

Leggiardo (16d-jl-&r'dd), It. Lightly, deU- 

Leggieramente (IM-jl-a-ra-mSn'te), ) 
Uggiere (ISd-ji-a're), H. > Easi- 

Leggiermente (IM-jI-^r-men'te), ) 

ly, lightly, delicately. 

Legglerezza (l«d-jI-«-r«t'tB&), H. Lightness, 
delicacy ; in a light, elastic style. 

Leggiero (IM-jI-a'ro), It. Light, swift, deli^ 

Legnd (l&n'yd), It. Wood. See Col legno. 
Lehrer (l&'rfir), Ger. Teacher, master. 

Lehrerin (la^rSr-Xn), €^er. Instructress, mis- 

Uich (likh)^ Ger. A lay. 

Lelchenmu8ik(li'kh'n-moo-daiO><?^* Funer- 

Leichenton (li'kh'n-tdnO, Ger. A lugubrious 

Leicht (llkht), Ger. Light, easy, facile. 

Leichthelt (likht'hdt), ri^ \ Lightness, 
Leichtigkeit (likh'tlg-klt), ^*^- j" facility. 

Leichtfertig (llkht'f^tlg), Ger. Lightly, care- 

Leidenschaft (ird'nsh&ft), Ger. Passion. 

Leidenschaftlich (IVd'n-shaft Ukh), Ger. Im- 
passioned, passionate. 

Leier (ll-fir), Ger. A lyre, a hurdygurdy. 

LeiermSdchen (li'Sr-m&d'kh'u), Ger. A girl 
who plays on a hurdygurdy. 

Leiermann (li'Sr-man), Ger. A player on a 

Lelerorgel (li'Sr-dr'g'l), Ger. Hand organ, 
barrel organ. 

Leierspleler (U'Sr-sp^lSr), Ger. One who plays 
on a lyre. 

Leine (IVnS), Ger. A line of the staff. 

Leise (ll'ze), Ger. Low, soft, gentle. 

Leltaccord (lit'ak-k6rd), Ger. A chord, or har- 
mony, leading instinctively to another, as 
the chord of the dominant leading to the 

Leiter (irtCr), Ger. Leader ; also the scale of 
any key. 

Leiterelgen (li'tSr-Vgen), Ger. Such tones as 
belong to the scale of sny key, the notes 
forming the scale. Peculiar to the scale. 

Leiterfremd (irtSr-frSmd), Ger. Accidental 
sharps or flats which do not belong to 
the key. Tones not belonging to the key. 

Leitmotiv (llt^mo-tefO, Ger. I^eading motive. 
, A motive which is much used in the course 
of a composition as a partial means of mu- 
sical identification, an the "Swan" and 
** Orall " motives in "Lohengrin," the 
" Faith" motive in •* Pa r s i f a 1," etc. Von 
Weber was one of the first dramatic com- 
posers to employ this device, the " Zamiel " 
motive in " Der FreischOtz." 

Leitton (llt'tdn), Ger. The leading tone, the 
leading note. 

ftann,&add, &a(e,dend, S«oe, litt, I isl€, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, tl&u^, H Fr»tound, kh Ger.cfuiihnataL 
10 (146) 




Lene. An old term applied to a note sus- 
tained in one of the narmonic parts of a 
composition whilst the other parts are in 

Leno (la'nd). It. Weak, feeble, faint. 

Lent (lanh), Fr. Slow. 

Lentamente (ien-t&-men't€), It. Slowly. 

Lerftando (lentan'dd). It. With increased 

Lentement (laiiht'-manh). Fr. V Slowly, leis- 
Lentemente (l€u't^m6n't£). It. j urely. 

Lentement trhs (lanht-manh tr&),;i^. Very 

Lenteur (l&nh-tCLr), Fr. Slowness, delay. 

Lenteur, avec (lanh-ttir a-v6k), Fr. \ 

uit. r 


Lentezza, con (lgu-t€t'tsa kon), 
slowneftis and delay. 

Lentissimamente (l€n-t€s'sI-ma-mSn't€), » \ 
Lentissimo (l^u-ies'si-mo), . j 

Extremely slow. 

Lento (Ito'to), It. Slow. 

Lento assai (l^n'to as-sa'l), ) 

Lento di moito (l€ii'td de mol'to). It. V Very 
Lento lento (ISn'to l^u'td), ) 


Leonine verses. So called from Leo. the in- 
ventor. They are verses the end of which 
rhyme with the middle. 

Lesser. Formerly used in the same sense as 
minor ; smaller than the major. 

Lesser barbiton. A name formerly eWen to 
the kit, or small violin, used by dancing- 

Lesser comma. The difference between the 
comma and the enharmonic dieses; the 

Lesser lay. One of the two classes among 
the ancients, comprising sixteen or twenty 

Lesson. Formerly applied to exercises or 
pieces consisting of two or three movements 
for the harpsichord or pianoforte. 

Lestezza (l^-t€t'tsa), It. Agility, quickness. 

Lestissimamente (l€s -tea-A-mS,- m€n't€), It. 
Very quickly. 

Lestisslmo fes-tes'si-mo). It. Very quick 

Lesto (Ifis'to), It. Lively, nimble, quick. 

Lettcraleriet-tgra'ie), „ \ Lit- 

Letteralmente (16t-t6r-al-m6n't6), ^^- j erally, 
exactly as written. 

Leuto (la-oo'to). It. A lute. 

Lev6 (16-va), Fr. The upstroke of the baton. 

Levet. A bla^t of a trumpet ; probably that 
bv which soldiers are called in the morning. 

Levezza (l$-v€t'tsfi), It. Lightness. 

Levler pneumatique (l€v-i-a noo-ma-tek'), Fr. 
The pneumatic lever ; a series of 4»mail bel- 
lows, or levers, placed ou the windchest of 
an organ, containing air at a high pressure ; 
when a key is pressed it admits wind to the 

bellows of the pneumatic lever ; when this 
inflates it opens the pallet, admitting wind 
to the pipes. By means of this the touch 
of a large organ may be made verv light. 
The pneumatic lever was inventea by S. 
Barker, about 1825. Modern organs have 
small pneumatic bellows for every valve; 
they are operated by electricity. The toucii 
is very light and much more prompt. 

Lexicon. A dictionary of terms, or informa- 

Lezzioni (Ifit-tsl-d'ne), H. pi. Lessons. 

L. H. Initials indicating the use of the left 
hand in pianoforte music. 

Liaison (le-&-zOnh), Fr. Smoothness of con- 
nection ; also, a bind or tie. 

Llais6n de chant (le-a-z6Dh dtlh sh&nht), Fr. 
The sostenuto style of singing. 

LIberamente (le-b^-ra-mSn'tS), It. \ Freely, 
Librement (lebr-manh), Fr. j easily, 


Libero (le'b^ro), It. Free, unrestrained. 

Libitum (Hb'I-toom), Lot. Pleasure, will. Ad 
libitum, at pleasure. Applied to rale of 
movement or to a choice of version. 

Libretto (le-br«t'td), It. The text of an opera 
or other extended piece of music. 

License. A deviation for the time being from 
the received rules which form the estab- 
lished system of harmony. 

Llcenza poetica (le-tsh$n-tsa p6-a'tl-k&). It. 
Poetic liceuse; alterations, or deviations, 
from common rules. 

Liceo (le-tsh&'5). It. Lyceum; an academy: 
a theater. 

L16 (li-aO , Fr. Smoothly ; the same as legato. 

Llebeslied (le'bSs-led), Ger. Love-song. 

Liebhaber(leb'ha-bSr),G'er. Amateur; a lover 
of music. 

Liebllch (leb'likh), Oer. Lovely, charming. 

Lieblichffedacht (lebaikh-ghg-d^kht'). Oer. A 
stopped-diapason organ-register of sweet 

LI6 coulant (U-& koo-l&nh), Fr. Slurred, flow- 

Lied (led) , Oer. A song, a ballad, a lay. Ap- 
plicable to any kind of song, but primarily 
to the German song, in which a close corre< 
spondencei8 sought between the feeling of 
tne poetry and that of the music. Meder 
are of two varieties : StraphiCf iu which the 
same music serves for all the stanzas in 
turn; and durchcomponirt (composed all 
through), iu which every stanza has its own 

Liedchen (ledldi'n), Oer. A short song or 

Lieder (16'd6r), Ger. Songs. 

Liederbuch (le'der-bookh),(7er. A song-book, 
a hymu-book. 

Llederbund (le'dSr-boond), Oer. A society of 

ftofin, &add, a die, 6end, e eve, iiU, lis^e, 6 old, 6 odd, oomoon, tt&ut, a J'r. sound, kh Oer. eh, nhnatoL 





Liedercydus (le'dSr-tse-kloosO, Oer. A cycle 
of the *' Poet's Love * of Schumann, 
the " Winter Journey " of Schubert. 

Liederdichter (le'der-dikh'ter),(?er. A lyrical 
poet, a song-writer. 

Liederforin (le'dfir-fonn), Ger. The form, or 
subject, of a song. 

Liederkranz (le'dSr-krant8),<T^. Glee club. 

Liederkreis (16'd6r-kris), (jfer. A cycle, or 
wreath, of songs. 

Lieder ohne Worte (le'dfir ©'nfi wSr'tfi), Ger. 
Songs without words. 

Liedersammlunfir (le'der-s§.m'loong),G'er. Col- 
lection of songs. 

Liedersansrer (le'dSr-sang'Sr), Ger. A song- 
singer, a ballad-singer. 

Liederspiel (le'd6r-spel), Ger. An operetta, 
consisting of dialogue and music of a light, 
lively character. 

Liedersprache (le'dfir-spra'khg), ^cr. Words 
or language adapted to songs. 

Liedertafel (le'd^r-t&'f'l^ Ger. Song-table; 
German glee club, generally consisting of 
male voices alone. 

Liedertfifler (le'der-t&'£i€r), Ger. Glee-singers. 

Liedertanz (Ig'dgr-tants), Ger. A dance inter- 
mingled with songs. 

Lied ohne Worte (led CnS wOr'te), Ger. See 
Lieder ohne Worte. 

Ller (ler), DtU. A lyre. 

Ligare (le-ga'r^), It. To bind, to tie, to join 

Lis:ato (le-ga'td), It. See Legato. 

LiS:atur (U-ga-toor'), Ger. ) (1) In the old 
Llgatura (ir-g&-too'ra). It. > mensurable mu- 
Ligature. ) sic a succession 

of two or more notes sung to one syllable. 
As in those days the slur was not in use, 
the notes were either brought into close 
proximity or joined together in various 
ways. (2) In modern music a succession of 
notes sung to one svllable or in one breath ; 
and also a succession of notes played with 
one stroke of the bow or in one breath. 
(3) A syncopation, a note on the unaccented 
part of a bar tied to one of the same pitch 
on the following accented part. A disso- 
nance with its preparation. A dissonance is 
said to be prepared when the dissonant 
note appeared in the preceding chord as a 

Liglit. A general term applied to any thin, 
airy composition ; also to the keys of any 
instrument when they make little resist- 
ance to the pressure of the fingers. Such 
an instrument is said to have a light touch. 

Ligne (l&nh), Fr. A line of the staff. 

Llgnes additionnelles (l&nhs ftd-de-si-on-nal), 
Fr. Leger lines. 

Llgneum psalterium (llg' n^ - oom s&l - ta' rl- 

oom), Lat. The wooden dulcimer, called in 
Germany the straw fiddle. 

Lilt (Iflt), Sco. To sing or play merrily. 


Limma (llm'ma), Gr. An interval used in 
the ancient Greek music, less by a comma 
than a major semitone. 

Linea (le-nS'a), It. A line of the staflT. 

Linea riga {Wn6-& re'ga). It. The lines ot 
the staff. 

Lines. That portion of the staff on and be- 
tween which the notes are placed. At their 
first invention the spaces between them 
were not used. 

Lines, added. Leger lines -, lines added above 
and below the staff. 

Lines, ledger. \ Lines above or below the 
Lines, leger. ) staff for the reception of 
such notes as are too high or too low to be 
placed upon or within it. 
Lines, waving. A line which when placed 
perpendicularly upon the staff 
Indicates that the notes of the 
chord are to be played succes- 
sively one after another. A 
waving horizontal line shows that the ef- 
fect of the 8va sign is to be continued as 
far as the line extends. 

Lingua (liu'gwa), It. The tongue in organ- 
stop reeds. 

Lingual. Pertaining to the tongue ; a letter 
or sound pronounced chiefly by the tongue. 

Linie (le'ni-g), Ger. A line of the staff. 

Linien (le'nl-gn), Ger. Lines of the staff. 

Linlensystem (le'nl-6n-sls-tam'), Ger. A scale; 
the lines of the staff. 

Linlensystem ne'nX-6n-sIs-tamO, Ger. The 
line-system ; the staff. 

Lining. A term applied to a practice of read- 
ing one or two lines of a hymn before sing- 
ing them, alternating reading and singing. 

Link (link), ^„ ) 
Links (links), ^^' j 

Linke Hand (lln'ke h^nd), Ger. The left 

Linos (le'nos), Gr, A rustic air ; also a dirge. 

Liquid. An epithet applied to the smooth 
succession of the sweet and mellow sounds 
of any voice or wind instrument, also to 
the tones themselves, separately consid- 

Lira (le'ra). It. A lyre. 

Lira da braccio (le'ra da br&t'tsh!-o), It. An 
obsolete bow instrument of the size and 
shape of the tenor viol, with seven strings, 
five above and two beside the fingerboard. 

Lira da gamba (le'ra d& gam'ba), It. An in- 
strument similar to the lira da braccio, 
but held between the knees, and with 
twelve or sixteen strings. 

Lira da gamba. It., also called Lirone per- 
fetto, and Arciviola di lira, It. An ooso- 
ete instrument in shape like the lira da 
braccio, but larger. It was played like the 
violoncello, and had fourteen or sixteen 
strings, two of which lay beside the finger- 







!• It. 

Lira doppia (le'r& ddp^pl-^), R. Double lyre. 

Ura s:rande (le'rE grftD'dS), It. The viol di 
ganiba, a viol with six strings, formerly 
much used in Germany. 

Lira pagana (le'rS pa-gha'na), ) . hnrdv- 
Llra rustica (le'rft roos-te'itfi), It [ ^ „^IaI 
Lira tedesca (Ifi'rfi tA-d6s'ka), > s^ray. 

Lire (16r), Fr, To read. 

Lire la muslque (ler 1& mQ-z^k), Fr. To read 

LIressa (le-r^s&), 71. A bad l^pre, or harp. 

LIrica (le'rl-ka), j, ) Lyric, lyric poetry; 
Llrlco (le'rl-ko), * j poetry adapted for mu- 

Lirone (le-rd'nfi), R. A large lyre, or harp. 

LIscIo (le'shl-o), R. Simple, unadorned, 

LIspeInd (lls'pSlnd), Oer. Lisping, whisper- 

L*lates50 (l^-tSs'sd), R. The same. 

L'Istesso movlmento (les-t6s'sd md-yl- 

L'istesso tempA (l€s-t^'sd tSm'p6), 
In the same time as the previous move- 

Lltania (ll-t&'nl-a), Lot. ) 

Litanle (II-t&-n€). Fr. )■ A litany. 

LItanei (ii-ia nV), Ger. ) 

Litany. A solemn form of supplication used 
in public worship. 

Little sharp-sixth. A name given by French 
theorists to the second inversion of the 
dominant seventh formed on the second 
degree of the scale, and consisting of a bass 
note with its minor third, perfect fourth, 
and major sixth. 

Liturgy. The ritual for public worship in 
thOi^e churches which use written forms. 

Lltuus (le'too-oos), Lat. An instrument of 
martial music ; a kind of trumpet making 
a shiiil sound. ^ 

Liuto (l^oo't5), R. A lute. 

LIvre (levr), Fr. A book. 

Livret (lev-ra'), Fr. A libretto. 

Lo (Id), R. The. (Masculine form.) 

LObgesang (lob'ghe-zang), ri^ \ A hymn 
Lobfied (lobhed), ^^' / or song of 


Loco (Id'kd), R. Place; a word used in op- 
position to 8va alta, signifying that the 
I notes over which it is placed are not to be 
* played an octave higher, but just as they 
are written. 

Locrense (lo-kr^n'se), Gr. One of the ancient 
tones or modes. 

Locrlan (l^'kri-ftn), q \ The Hyperdorian 
Locrico (lo'krl-ko), j mode of the ancient 

Loglerlan system. A system of musical in- 
struction, introduced by John Bernard Lo- 
gier, which, with instruction on the piano- 

forte, combines simultaneous performance 
in classes, and also the study of harmony, 
modulation, etc. In connection with this 
svstem Logier invented and employed the 

LomlMirda (lom-bar'dft), R. A species of dance 
used in Lombardy. 

Long. A note formerly in use, equal to four 
semibreves, or half the lengtJd of the large. 

Longa (lon'gfi), Lat. A long. 

Long appoggiatura. An appoggiatura con- 
sisting or a single note forming a part of tho 
melody. It borrows half the length of the 
next note, and is accented. 

Long double. An old character equal in du 
ration to four breves. 

Long drum. The large drum used in mil* 
tary bands, carried horizontally before the 
I)erformer, and struck at both ends. 

Long meter. A stanza of four lines in Iambic 
measure, each line containing eight sylla- 

Written. Played. 

Long mordent. A mor- ^p^^ ^^ 
dent formed of four 

Long particular meter. ATstanasa of six lines 
in Iambic measure, each line containing 
eight syllables. 

Long roll. A drumbeat calling the soldiers 
to arms. 

Long spiel. An ancient Icelandic instru> 
ment, long and narrow, and played upon 
with a bow. 

Longue pause (lOnh pdz), Fr. Make a long 
rest, or pause. 

Lontano (Idn-t&'nd), R. Distant, remote, a 
great way off. 

Lontano, da (Idn-t&'nd d&), R. At a distance. 
Lorgnette (lOrn-yfitO, Fr. An opera-glass. 

Loure (loor), Fr. A dance of slow time and 
dignified character. It has sometimes three 
and sometimes four crotchets in a bar. 

Lourre (loo-raO, Fr. Smoothly, connectedly. 
The same meaning as l^ato. 

Louvre (loovr), Fr. A name applied to a 
French air, called also "L* Amiable Vain- 
queur," for which Louis XIV. had a re- 
markable predilection. This air has since 
formed a well-known dance. 

Love-song. A song the words and melody 
of which are expressive of love. 

Lugubre (loo-goon[)re), R. Lugubrious, sad, 

Luinlg. A short, plaintive song much used 
in the Hebrides and on the western coasts 
of Scotland. It is generally sung by the 
women at their work and diversions. 

Lullaby. A song to quiet infants; a soft, 
gen lie song. 

Lundu (loon'doo). For. A Portuguese dance 
in 2-4 or 2-2 time. 

9LaTm,&add,&ale,6e7ul, 6eve,liU, litle,6 old,6 odd, oo moon, tL &ti<, ii FrMmnd, kh Oer. eh, nh naaai 



iMOgu pauu aiwn'gi pft'oo-zB), It. A loot 

Lnoso (loo-d'gS), It. See Loeo. 
Luilng. An Bbbrevlatlon of lustDgato. 
Lii«<naiindo noo-zeu-giin'de), ) Eoothlug, 
LusiDEUite (W'l^n-KiLti'tei, „ f coaxing; 
l4ialng>to (1(H3-ieQ gS'tfl], -"■ f nereua- 
LuilnKhevole (loo-zen^i'v&-l«). 






Lailnshtere |lno-:£n-ghI-a'te), » ) 
Losingbtero (loo-iln-gbI-a'r6f , ^'' j 

LdMIe (IwM'tlg), Qer. Menlli, oheeriullr, 

Lustlled <looat-1£d), Ger. A ga;. merry eong. 
Lut (loot), Fr. A lute. 
LuUnlst. A perrormer upon the lute. 


the body. wMcb baa ulue Oi [- :j njf.^a. 
and la pear-shapefl : tbe neck, wluiii (i,i.-as 

„ — rigbt hand, ..„ — 

Bounds with thOBe of the left, aa In playing 
the guitar. The mandolin la a amaU lute. 
(,ute, arch. A atrlnRed Instrument resem- 
bliiiB tbe theorbo, by some considered ayn- 

Loth (lootl, Fr. A lute. 
Uithier (lO-W-4), Fr. For 

Lutlna. A email lute 

<e lute. 

if stringed luslru- 



j-iamen't*), Ji. SBd- 

old iDati 
Spaniab i 
but played will 

lant of a wirrowlul, n 

ee double nichea, 

Lyradopiila(le'cadap'pl-a), ii. Doublelyre, 
been a. kiud of viol da gam! - 

Lyraipleler (llr'il-ap^Er), ' 


have been invetiled b. 

re," and, lastLy, "apprt 
■e eapecially applied to 


ipplied to poetry and muaic 
ludlvldual emotions. The 
yncai in poetry aud music haa been de- 
crlbed aa the perfect and most euphouioua 
iipreasion, aa the ideal representation, or 
ibjectivatlon, of subjective feellnga. ""-- 

tion from eplcfna 


: used lu dlStlQC- 

a synonym for opera; tbe 


Lyric comedy. A comedy in which tocbI 
muaic forms a principal part ; eomlo opera. 
Lyric drama. Opera ; acting accompanied 

Lyric tragedy. Tragic opera. 
LjMS3;i"E^r'<^> } Lyric, lyrical, 

n, Qbu(, li fr.KiuiK), kh. Qtr. cA. nb luuiii. 




7il. This letter is used 'as an abbreviation of 
Mezzo, also of various other words, as Met- 
ronome, Mano, Main, and also in connec- 
tion with other letters, as M. F. for Mezzo 
Forte; M. P., Mezzo Piano; M. V., Mezzo 
Voce; etc. 

M. M. Abbreviation for Maelzel's Metro- 

Ma (ma), JR. But : as : AUegro ma rum troppo, 
quick, but not too much so. 

Machalath (ma-M-lath), Heb. A musical term 
employed in the titles to Psalms liii, and 
Ixzzviii, and supposed by some to mean 
an instrument with holes (perhaps a flute), 
but by others to indicate well-known tunes 
to wnich these psalms were to be chanted. 

Machicot (mH-she'kd), Fr. A chorister j a bad 

Machol (ma-kol), Hd). Instruments used by 
the Hebrews. This name is supposed to 
have been given to two instruments, one 
of the string and the other of the pulsatile 

Madriale (ma-dri-a16). It, A madrigal; the 
name formerly given by the Italians to the 
intermezzi, or pieces performed between 
the acts of a play or an opera. 

Madrialetto (ma-drl-a-16t't6), a short madri- 

Madrlg^al (m&d'ri-g&l). This word of uncer- 
tain derivation {mandra, flock?) has two 
significations: (1) A short lyrical poem of 
no fixed form. A pastoral or amorous song. 
(2) A vocal composition mostly in four or 
five parts, often also in six or three parts, 
more rarely in seven, and still less rarely 
in two parts. It had its origin in Italy, 
where it came into vogue in the sixteenth 
century, flourishing in this and the follow- 
ing century. Next to Italy the madrigal 
was most successfully cultivated in Eng- 
land. Thomas Morley, one of the most 
famous madrigalists, tells us (in 1597) that 
it was, next to the motet, the most '* arti- 
ficial" kind of music, but at the same time 
one of the most delightful to men of under- 
standing. And he demanded from its com- 
posers not only "points" and all sorts of 
contrapuntal devices, but also "an amor- 
ous humor" and an inexhaustible variety 
of sentiment. 

Madrigal, accompanied. A madrigal in 
which the voices are sustained by a piano- 
forte or organ. 

Madrigale (ma-drl-ga'16), It. A madrigal. 

Madrigaleaco (ma-drl-ga-lfi'sko), It, Of, or be- 
longing to, a madrll^l. 

■ta'dfi), It. } 
-ta'tfi), ) 

Majesty, digni> 
ly, grandeur. 


Maesa. A mass. 

Maesta (m&-^-ta'), 
Maestade (ma-Ss- 
Maestate (ma &• 

Maestevole (ma-€s-ta'vd-l€), It. Majestic, ma- 


Maesie volmente (ma-€s- tS-v61-m6n'tS) , 
Maestosamente (ma-^-to-za-mSn'tS), 
Majestically, nobly. 

Maestoso (ma-^s-to'zo), It. Majestic, stately, 

Maestra (ma-€s-tr&), It. An artiste, female 

Maestria (mU'es-tre'a), It. Mastery, skill, art, 

Maestro (ma'as'tro}. It. Master, composer, 
an experienced, skillful artist. 

Maestro alcembele (ma-as'tro al tsh^m-ba'ie), 
A skillful pianist, a master of the instru- 

Maestro del coro (ma-as'tro del kdr'ro), H. 
Master of the choir or chorus. 

Maestro dl camera (m^.-as'tro de ka'me-r&). It, 
Leader, or conductor, of chamber music. 

Maestro di canto (ma-as'tro de kan'to), It. A 

Maestro di cappella (m&-as'tro de kap-pSl'la), 
//. Chapelmaster ; composer; director of 
the musical performances in a church or 

Magadis (ma-ga'dis), Or. The name of an an- 
cient Greek instrument of the lyre kind. It 
is said to have had twenty strings, and 
many think it had a bridge, dividing the 
strings into two equal parts, thus enabling 
the player to use octaves at will. All this 
is rather uncertain. 

Magadizinsr. A term in the ancient Greek 
music, signifying a vocal performance in 
octaves, when men and women, or men and 
boys, joined in the same air. 

Magas (ma'gd.s), Or. The bridge of stringed 

Maggiolata (mad-ii-o-la'ta), //. A hymn or 
song iu praise of the month of May. 

Maggiore (mad-ji-6'r6), //. Greater, in re- 
spect to scales and intervals; major; the 
major key. 

Magnificat (mag-nifl-kat), Lat. A part of the 
Vespers, or evening service, of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Main (mftnh), Fr. The hand. 

Main droite (mftnn drwat), Fr. Right hand. 

Main gauche (m&nh gdsh),i^r. The left hand. 

a arm, ft odd, a ate, 6 end, 6 cw, i ia, i i»te, 6 oW, 6 odd, oo moon, ti 6trf, a JfV sound, kh (?«r. cA, nh noao^ 





Maltre fmfitr), Fr. A master, a director. 

Maltre de chapelle (m^tr dOh shft-pfiU), Fr. 
Chapelmaster ; director of the choir. 

Maltre de musique (mStr dtih mil-zek), Fr. 
Musical director. 

Majestueux (m&-zh€8-ttl-tih), Fr, Majestic. 
Majeur (in&-zhtlr), J^. Major; major key. 

MilJor. Greater, in respect to intervals, scales, 

IVlaJor diatonic scale. That scale in which 

the semitones fall between the third and 

fourth and seventh and eighth toues, both 

in ascei^ding and descending. 

MilJor seventh . An interval consisting of five 
tones and a semitone. 

Major sixth. A sixth composed of four tones 
and a semitone. 

MilJor third. An interval containing two 
whole tones or steps. 

Major tonic. A major scale. 
Major triad. A union of any sound with its 
major third and perfect fifth. 

Malaguefia (ma-I&-gwoo-an'yfi), 8p. A fan- 

Maianconia (m&-l&n-k&ng'a), „ iMelan- 
Malenconico (mftlto-ko'ni-kd), ^^' ] choly, 

Malincollco (ma-lIn-kd'lI-kO), » ) Melan- 
MaIinconia(ma-lIn-k6-n6'a), ^^' / choly. 

Malinconicamente (ma-lln-kd-nl-kll-men'te), 
II, In a melancholy style. 

Malinconico (m8,-lln-kd'nl-kd), ) In a 

Malinconioso (m&-lin-kd-nl-d'z0). It. > melan- 
Mtilinconoso (ma-lln-kd-ud'z6), ) c h o ly 

Mama (m&-msl), It. In drum music a term in- 
dicating the right hand. 

Manager. One who undertakes the labor of 
getting up concerts and concer*^ tours. 

Manca (m&nlca), It. The left. 

Mancando (man-kfin'dd), It. Decreasing, dy- 
ing away. 

Manche (mftnh-sh), Fr. The neck of a violin 
or other instrument. 

Mandola (m&n-ddn&), R. A mandoline, or 
cithern, of the size of a large lute. 

Mandoline. An Italian fretted guitar, so 
called from its almond, or pear, shape. 
There are several varieties. The Neapoli- 
tan, considered the most perfect, has four 
strings tuned like the violin, 6, D. A, E. 
The Milsnese, next in favor, has five double 
strings, tuned G. C, A, D, £. A plectrum is 
used by the right hand, and the left is em- 
ployed in stopping the strings. 

Mandoiino (m&u-dd-le'nd). It. A mandolin. 

Mandora. ) A small kind of lute, or guitar, 
Mandore /with frets and seven gut strings, 
three o/ which are duplicates. 

Manico (m&'ni-kd), R. The neck of the violin, 
guitar, etc. 

Manichord. ) Originally an instrument 
Manichordon. / with but one string ; subse- 
quently a stringed instrument resembling a 
spinet, or harpsichord. 

Manichordlendraht (m&-n!-kOr'dl-€n-dr&ht), 
Ger, Wire for the manichord or clavichord. 

Maniera affettata (m&-nl-a'ra af-fet-t&'tft). It. 
An afifected style, or delivery. 

Maniera langiiida (m£l-nl-&'ra lan'gwl-d&), It. 
A languid, sleepy style. 

Manieren (ma-ne'r'n),Crer. pi, Graces, embel- 
lishments, ornaments. 

MMnnerchor (man'nfir-kor), Ger. A choir of 
male voices. 

Mannerism. Adherence to the same manner ; 
the constant use of an ever-recurring set of 
phases ; adherence to the same style with- 
out freedom or variety. 

Mftnnliche Stimme (man'llkh-e stlm'me),6er. 
A manly voice. 

Mano (ma'no), H. The hand. 

Mano destra (m&'nd d&s'tr&i, ) The 

Mano diritta (m&'uo d!-ret'ta), It. )■ right 
Mano dritta (ma'no dret't&), ) hand. 

Mano sinistra (ma'nd sl-nes'trft). It. The left 

Manual. The keyboard for the hands. 

Manual (m&-noo-al'), Ger. ^ 
Manuale (ma-noo a'lS), Lai. >- Manual. 
Manuale (ma-noo-a'l€). It. } 

Manualiter (ma-noo-fi1I-t6r), Ger. Manually ; 
that is, with the hands alone, without 
pedals. Organ music. 

Manualkoppel (m&-noo-al-kdp'p'l), Ger. A 
coupler, oy means of which a key, or a set 
of keys, is connected with another set. 

Manualmente (mH-noo-ftl-m^n'te), It. Manu- 

An organ-stop of 82- feet tone, with stopped 
pipes: the subbourdon. 

Manubrio (m&noo^ri-o). It. The handle, or 
knob, by which a stop is drawn in an organ. 

Marcando (mar-k&n'dd), » ) Marked, ac- 
Marcato(mftr-k&'t6;, J cented, well pro- 


Marcatissimo (mftr-kft-tes'sl-md), It. Very 
strongly marked. 

Marcato la melodia (m&r-k&td m mS-ld^dl-fi), 
It. The melody in a marked style. 

March. A musical composition intended to 
accompany marching, more especially of 
soldiers. There are two kinds of marches — 
the quick march, or quickstep, and tho 
slow, or processional, march. Slow marches 
may be divided into festal and funeral 
marches. These two last-named species 
are much more solemn and dignified in 

Aorrn, fl add ft al0, € end, 6 «t«, 1 iU, I {8Z«, d old, 6 odd, oo moon, tl &u^, U fV. scmnd, kh Ger. cA, nh nos^ 





their movement than the quick marches, 
but all of them are mostly in 4-4 time. 
Quick marches oousist oftenest of two 
halves, each of two parts, and each part of 
eight, twelve, or sixteen bars. The second 
half is called the trio. For the most part, 
processional marches have, likewise, this 
svmmetrical rhythmical arrangement of 
the dance lorm, but they are not strictlv 
bound to it as quick marches are. Al* 
though 4-4 time is the usual march -meas- 
ure, marches in 2-4, 6-8, and even 8-4, are to 
be met with. 

March, dead. A funeral-march. 

Marche (mftrsh). Fr. A march ; in harmony, 
a symmetrical sequence of chords. 

Marche harmonlque (marsh hftr-md-nekOi -FV. 

Harmonic progression. 
Marcia (mar'tshI-&), It. A march. 

Marcia con moto (mfir'tshl-A kOn md^tA), Jl. 

A spirited martial movement. 
Marcia funebre (mAr-tshl-ft foo-n&'bre), II. 


Marciaie (m&r-tshl-&ae). It, See ManiaU. 

Marciata (m&r-t8hl-&'t&). It. A march. 

Marked. Accented. 

Mark, harmonic. A sign (O) used in music 
for the violin, violoncello, and harp, to in- 
dicate that the notes over which it is placed 
are to be produced on such parts of the open 
strings as willjgive the harmonic sounds. 
Marklren (m&r-kiVn), Oer. \ To mark, to 
Marquer (mar-k&), Fr. / emphasize. 

Markirt (m&r-kertO, Qer. Well marked. 

Marquez nn pen la m^lodie (m&r-k& tlnh ptlh 
la m&'ld-de), Fr. The melody to be slightly 
marked, or accented. 

Marsch (m&rsh), Oer. A march. 

Marjchartiff (mdrsh'ar-tig), Oer, In the style 

of a marcn. 
M&rsche (mar'she), Qer. pi. Marches. 

Marseillaise (mftr-s&l-yaz), Fr. The Mar- 
seiUett hymn ; a French national air. 

Martel6 (mar-tei-la'), Fr. \ Hammer- 

Martellando (mftr tei-l&n'dd}, It. j ing, strong- 
ly marking the notes, as if hammered. 

Martellare (m&r-t^l-l&'r€). It. To hammer, to 
strike the notes forcibly, like a hammer. 

Martellato (m&r-t^l-U'td), R. Hammered, 
strongly marked. 

Martial music. Music adapted for war and 
warlike occasions. An expression applied 
to marches, songs of triumph, and all com- 
positions intended to stimulate to battle or 
celebrate heroic deeds. 

Marziale (m&r-teT-&a«), It. Martial, in the 
style of a march. 

Mascharada (m&-sk&-rft'd&), ry \ Music com- 

Mascherata (ma-8k^rft'ta), ^^' f posed for 
grotesque characters ; masquerade music. 

Maschera (m&'skS-r&), It. A mask. 

Mask. ^ A species of musical 

Maske (m&s'kS), Qer. V drama, or operetta, in- 
Masque (mask), Fr. ) eluding singing and 

dancing, performed by characters in masks, 
also a utensil used by the ancient Roman 
actors and singers for the purpose of aug- 
menting the power of the voice. 

Mass. A vocal composition, performed dur^ 
ing the celebration of high Mass, in the 
Roman Catholic Church, and generally ac- 
companied by instruments. It consists of 
five principal movements, the Kyrie, Gloria 
Credo, Banctus, and Agnus Dei. 

Mass (mfiss), Oer, Measure, time. 

Mass, hiffh. The Mass celebrated in the CatB. 
olic churches by the singing of the chori» 
ters ; distinguished from the low Mass, in 
which prayers are read without singing. 

Miasig (m&s'slg) , Oer. Moderate, moderate! y 

MisaliT seschwind (mas'sIgghe-shwIndOiOev 
moderately playful. 

MiasliT laniTMin (mfis'slg ULng's&m), Gter 

Moderately slow. 
Missiar schnell (m&n'slg shnfiU), Qtr, Mtni 

erately fast and animated. 
Maaalma (mfts'sl-mii), It. A semibreve. 

Massimo (mSs'sI-mO), It. Augmented, as na 

. gards intervals. 

Mastersingers. A 'class of poets who flour 
ished in Germany during the fifteenth and 
part of the sixteenth centuries and formed 
a close guild, with many traditional rulea 
for poetic and musical composition. 

Masnre (m&-zoo're), ^ A lively Polish 

Masureck (mftrzoo'rfik), rj^ f dance, in 3-8 
Masurek (m&-zoo'rek), ^'^' f or 8-4 time, 
Masurka (m^-zoor^kft). J quicker than 

the polonaise, and has an emphasis on one 
of the unaccented parts of the bar; the 
Matalan. A small Indian flute, used to ac- 
company the Bayadere dances. 

Matassins (m&-tA8-s€nO, Fr, A matachin 
dance ; the dancers. 

Matelotte (mft'tM6t), Fr. A French sailor's 

dance in 8-4 time. 
Matinare (m&-ti[-n&'re). It. To sing matins. 
Matinata (m&-tl-nfi't&), It. A song for the 

morning; a serenade. 

Matinee (ma-t1-n&), Fr. An entertainment 
given in the early part of the day. 

Matinee musicale (m&-tl-n& mii-zI-kfilO. A 
musical performance given in the daytime. 

Matins. The name of the fir^t morning serv- 
ice in the Roman Catholic Church. 

Maultrommel (maul'trom-mfi), Oer. A Jew's- 

Maxima (mUxl-mft), Lot. The name of the 
longest note used in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. See Large. 

Mazourk (m&-tsoork'), n A lively Pol- 

Mazourka (mft-tsoor^ka), I ish dance 

Mazur (mft'tsoor'), ^^^ V of a sen- 

Mazurca (ma-tsoor'kft), "^- ( timental 
Mazurka (mft-tsoor'kfi), I character, 

Mazurke (mS-tsoor^ke), ^ in 8-8, or 

8-4 time, of a peculiar rhythmic constnio- 

ft arm, ft odd, & ale, Hend, eeve, I iU, I isle, d old, d odd. oo moon, tl bu<, flJV. sound, kh, nhnosai^ 





tton, buickei thau the polonaise or polacca. 
See Mazurka. 

M. D. The initials of Main Droite, the right 

9iean. A term formerly applied to the tenor, 
or medium, part in compcwitions for seyerai 
parts, male and female. 

jtlean cUf . Tenor clef. 


Measure. That division of time by which 
the air and movement of music are regu* 
lated ; the space between two bar lines on 
the staff. A rhythmic division, consisting 
of a certain number of pulses. From this 
feature measures are classified as two-pulse, 
three -pul^e, four -pulse, six -pulse, nine- 
pulse, and twelve-pulse. The last three 
classes are called compound, consisting of 
two units in which each unit consit^ts of a 
triplet, or group of three. Hence compound 
duple measure (six pulses), compound triple 
(ninet, and compound quadruple (twelve). 
All measures consist of either twos or 
threes. The main accent always falls upon 
the first unit, and the bar is intended to 
show the place of the strong pulse. Censid- 
ered with reference to the manner in which 
they are written, measures are described as 
2-2, 2-4, 2-A, etc., in which the unit is rep- 
resented by a half-note, a quarter, or eighth, 
S-2, 3-4, 8-8, etc., and so on, of all other forms. 
The selection of a note-form to represent 
the unit is purely a matter of taste with the 
composer, aud in no way affects the musical 
Affect. Tne name measure is often applied 
to the representation of it, commonly de- 
scribed as *' the space between two bars." 
This is incorrect. A measure is a certain 
rhythmical division, extending from a 
strong pulse to the next, or from any pulse 
ko the corresponding place in the next 
group. The term *' bar^' is often improp- 
erly applied to measure. The bar is simply 
the line indicating the place of the strong 

Measure, passy. An old, stately kind o< 
dance ; a cinque pas. 

Mecanisme (mSch-ftn-Ism), Fr. The mechan- 
ical part ot playing ; the technic. 

Mechanically. A word applied to spiritless 
styles of performance. 

Medeslmo (mfr^ft'zl-mO), „ \ mve game 
Medcrfino (m6-d68'm6), ^'- |Anesame. 

Dt, as before. 

Mede&mo moto (mS-dfis'mO md'td), 
Medesmo tempo (m€-d&('md tSm 
In the same time, or movement 

Mediant (m&MI-&nt), Ia<. ) The third note 
M6diante (mft-dl-finht'). Fr. j of the scale; the 
middle note between the tonic and the dom- 

Meditatio (me dl-tfi'tsl-o), Lat. A word for- 
merly used to signify the middle of a chant, 
or the sound which terminates the first part 
of the verse in the Psalms. 

Medley. A mixture; an assemblage of de- 
tached parts or passages of well-known 

songs or pieces so arranged that the end 
ot one connects with the beginning of an- 

Meertrompete (raftr'trOm-pa'te), /3„ ) «/»• 
Meerhorn (m&r'h6ru), ^^' | ^^ 


Mehr (mar), Oer. More. 

Mehrfach (mar'f&kh), Ger. Manifold. Applied 
to an interval, a canon, or a compound 

Mehrstimmig (m&r-stlm'mlg), Oer, For sev- 
eral voices. 

Melster (mis'tSr), Oer, Master, teacher. 

Meisterfuge (mls'tfir-foo'ge), Oer. A master 
fugue, iilusi rating the utmost art in this 
variety of composition. 

Meistergesang (mis'tSr-ge-z&ng'), Oer. Mas- 
ter's song, minstrel's suug. 

MeistersMnger (mis'ter-sftng'er), Oer. Master- 
siuger, minstrel. 

Meisterttack (mis ' t6r - stUk), Oer. Master- 

M^lancolie (m&a&n-kd-le), Fr. Melancholy, 
in a mournful style. 

Melange (m9,-lanzh), Fr. A medley ; a com- 
position founded upon several popular airs. 

Melisma (me-lls'mft), Or. A vocal grace or 
embellishment; 'several notes sung to one 

Mellifluous (m^l-llf^oo-ous). Smoothly flow- 
ing, very melodious. 

Mellow. Soft, melodious. 

Melode (ma-ld'de), U. Melody, tune. 

Melodeon. A reed instrument having a key- 
bi'ard like the pianoforte. It is supplied 
with wind by a bellows worked with the 
feet of the performer, and had originally 
a pressure bellows, but later a suction bel- 

Melodeon, double-reed. A melodeon with 
two sets of reeds. 

Melodic (mS-lOd'Ik). Relating to melody. 

Melodica. An instrument invented by Stein, 
at Augsburg, similar to the pianoforte. 

Melodic language. The language of melody 
or song. Ideas expressed by a melodious 
combination of sounds. 

Melodico {m&-\&dik-6),It. Melodious, tuneful. 

Melodicon. An instrument Invented by Eif- 
fel, in Copenhaeen, the tones of which are 
produced from bent metal bars. 

Melodies (m^I6d-Iks). That part of musical 
theory treating of melody. 

Melodic step. The movement of a voice, oi 
part, from one tone to the following one. 

Melodie (ma-ld-d§'&), It. Melody, tune. 

M^lodie (ma-16-d6), Fr. Melody, tune. 

Melodie bien sentie (mald-de bl-&nh sSnh-te), 
Fr. The melody to be well expressed or ac- 

A onn, A odd, & a<e, <S end, d et«, 1 itt, I i8<e, d old, d odd, 00 nioon, ti &u^, a jy. sotmd, kh Ger. cA, nh noso^ 





M6lodieuse (mft-ld-dl-Oz). Fr, Melodious, 

M61odieu5ement (ma-ld-dl-tis-in&nh), Fr. \ 
Melodiosamente (iDe-ld-dl-o-za-mto'te), it. J 

Melodiously, sweetly. 

M^lodieux (nia-16 rll-Qz), Fr, \ Melodious, 
Melodik (mMd'dik), Ger. J tuneful. 

Melodiosissimo (mS-ld-di-d-ses'sI-xnd), It. Ex- 
tremely melodious. 

Melodioso (m$-]dd!-5'zd), If. ) Melodiou8, mu- 
Melodisch (m^lo'dlsh), Ger. / sical, tuneful. 

MeEodious. HaVlng melody, musical; atenn 
applied to a succession of pleasing sounds. 
Tne pleasing quality of melody seems to de- 
pend upon rhythmic symmetries, fortunate 
melodic symmetries, and a happy choice of 
scale tout^ upon which emphasis falls. 

Melodist. A composer, or singer, of melodies. 

Melodista (ma-16-des't&), iif- 1 Mplrwlist 
Melodiste (ma-lo-desf), Fr. | J*ieioaisi. 

Melodistic (me Id-dls'tik), Ger. The rules or 
science of melody. 

Melodium (m^-ld'dl-oom), Fr. A reed instru- 
ment of the harmonium class. 

Melodize. To make melodious; to form a 
succession of sounds which shall produce 
an agreeable effect. 

Melodram (m^-ld-dramO, Ger. ) Melodra- 
Melodrame (me-lodram'), i^r. >ma. (l)The 
Meiodramiiia (m&-10-dra'ma), J^ joriginal 
meaning of the word was synonymous with 
"opera." (2) The name has been further 
applied to a spoken drama accompanied 
with instrumental music. Ballads and 
parts of operas and other vocal works have 
also been sometimes treated melodramat- 
ically. (3) A third meaning is that of a play 
(mostly of a romantic anjd sensational na- 
ture) with incidental and now and then ac- 
companying vocal and instrumental music. 

Melodrammatico (me-ld-dra-mfi'ti-kd),7<. Mel- 

Melody. A tune ; a succession of tones so or- 
dered in rhythm and key as to express a 
musical idea. 

Melody, chromatic. A melody consisting of 
a series of tones moving by chromatic inter- 

Melody, diatonic. A melody whose tones 
move by diatonic intervals. 

Melody, leading:. The principal part of a 
composition containing several parts. 

Melo^aph. A piano invented in 1827, con- 
nected with which was m^ichinery which 
recorded in notes whatever was improvised 
on the piano. The invention was not a 
complete success. 

Melolog^ue. A combination of recitative and 

Meloman (ma'ld-mftn), Gr. \ A passionate 
M^lomane (ma'lo-m&n), Fr. ) lover of music. 

Melomanie (ma-16-ma-ng), Fr. \ Excessive 
Melomany (m6-16m'a-ny), j love of mu- 
sic; music mania. 

Melopea (m&-]dp&'&). It. \ The art of forto- 
M^lopte (m&-ld-p&), Fr. / ing melody. 

Melophare. A lantern, inside of which mu- 
sic paper, previously soaked in oil, Is 
placed, so that the notes can be read when 
a light is placed inside ; used fov serenades 
at night. 

Melopiano (m^ld-pI-S'nd). A stringed instru- 
ment invented in 1870, combining tones re' 
sembling those of the pianoforte and organ. 

Meloplaste (m^I'd-plast). An instrument for 
teaching vocal music from a staff without 
either clefs or notes. 

Me|op<ea (me-ld-pe'd), Gr. A term in ancient 
music signifying the art, or rules, of compo- 
sition in melody ; melody. 

Melopomenos (mei-d-p6m'e-n6s}, Gr, Vocal 

Melos (m&lds), Gr. Tune, song, melody. As 
used by Wagner, melos includes not simply 
the melody alone, as such, but also the en- 
tire implied harmony, in short, the com- 
plete musical idea. Melos was a melodious- 
ness which did not necessarily complete it' 
self into melodies. In other words, ^rtoso. 

M§me (mam), Fr. The same. 

MSme mouvement (mam moov-m&nh),fV. In 
the same movement 

Men (man), It. Less; an abbreviation of 

Men allegro (men ftl-la'grO), It. Less quick 

Menistrels (mS-n&s-trei), Fr. Minstrels. 

Men^trier (mS-na-trl-ftO, Fr. A minstrel, a 
rustic musician. 

Meno (m&'no), It. Less. 

Meno allejito (mfi'nO aM&'gr6), II. Less qnick 

Meno forte (ma'nd fdr'tS), It, Less loud. 

Meno mosso (m&'nd mds's6), It. Less move- 
ment, slower. 

Meno piano (ma'nd pS-a'nd), It. Not so softly' 

Meno presto (m&'nd prSs'tO)^ It, Less rapid. 

Meno yivo (m&'nd v§'vO), It Not so fasi. 

Menschenstimme (mSn'sh'n-stlm'me), Ger, 
Human voice. 

Men5ur (mSn-soor') , Ger. Measure, applied to 
time, tune, measurement of intervals , also 
the diameter, or scale, of organ-pipes. 

Menuet (m&-n6o-e), Fr. \ ^ minuet, a 

Menuetto (ma-noo-et'td), J^ jalow dance in 
3-4 time. 

Men vivo (mSn vS'vd), It, Less spirit. 

Mesaulion (me-sawll-6n), Gr. Symphonies or 

Mescal (m&s-k&l), Tur. A Turkish instru- 
ment, composed of twenty-three cane pipes 
of unequal length, each of which gives 
three dmerent sounds, from the manner of 
blowing it. 

Mescolanza (mfis-kd-ULn'tsft), It. A medley, a 
mixture of discordant sounds^ bad har- 

ft am, ft ad(2, & a2e, € end, e et«, I iU, 1 iste, 6 o2d, 6 odd, 00 fnooH, ti &u^, ti f*r. <oun^^ 





Meae (ma's£), Or, A term applied by the an- 
citat Greeks to the sound that completed 
their k(ecx>xid tetrachord, and which was the 
ceutei of their whole system. It was also 
the name given to the central string of the 
lyre, from which all the others were tuned. 

MesMi (mfis'sa), IL A mass. 

Messa di voce (mte'sa dl vd'tshS), It. The 
gradual swelling and dlminis|iing of the 

Messe (mass), JV. ) * „.__ 
Messe (mfis'se), Ger. / ^ ™*^- 

Messe brevi (m&s'sS bra'vl), IL A short mass. 

MestO <m6s'td), IL Sad, mournful, melan- 

Me5t6so (m6s-t6'z6), IL Sadly, mournfully. 

Mcsut^ (ma-ztlr'), Fr, The bar, or measure; 
the species of time. 

Mesure k deux temps (ma-zUr' & dQh tanh), 
Fi Common time of two beats in a meas- 

Mf,^«ir«* k trois temps (ma-ziir' a trwa tanh), 
/*<** Triple time of three beats in a meas- 

Mesure 4emi (ma-ztir' de-m§0, Fr» Half 

Met^ An abbreviation of Metronome. 

Metal (m6-tiU0> Sp. Strength, compass of the 

Metallico (me-t&l'll-ko), » \ Metallic, clear in 
Metallo (me t&nd). ^^' i tone , bel metaUo 
di voce means a voice clear, full, and bril- 

Meter. I^ee Metre. 

Method. A course of instruction ; classiflca- 
tiou ; system. 

M^thode (m&-tdd). Fr, \ A method, system, 
Metodo (ma'td-do), IL /style; a treatise, or 
book 01 instruction. 

Metre. Measure ; verse ; arrangement of po- 
etical feet, or of long and short syllables in 

Metre, common. A stanza of four lines in 
iambic measure, the syllables of each being 
in number and order as follows ; 8, 6, 8, 6, 

Metre, common hallelujah. A stanza of six 
lines in iambic measure, the syllables in 
each being in number and order as follows; 
8, 8, 6, 8, 8, 6. 

Metre, eights. A stanza of four lines in ana- 
pestic measure, each line containing eight 
syllables, and marked thus : 8s. 

Metre» eights and sevens. Consists of four 
lines in trochaic measure, designated thus : 
88 and 7s ; the syllables as follows : 8, 7, 8, 7. 

Metre, eights, sevens, and four. A meter 
designated thus : 88, 78, and 4s, containing 
six lines in trochaic measure, the syllables 
being in number and order as follows : 8, 7, 
8. 7, 4, 7. 

Metre, elevens. Designated thus, lis, and 
consisting of a stanza of four lines in ana- 

pestic measure, each line containing eleven 

Metre, hallelujah. A stanza of six lines in 
iambic measure, the syllables of each be- 
ing in number and order as follows: 
6, 6, 6, 6, 8, 8. 

Metre, long. Four lines in iambic measure, 
each line containing eight syllables. 

Metre, long particular. Six lines in iambic 
measure each line containing eight sylla- 

Metre, sevens. Consists of four lines in tro- 
chaic measure, each line containing seven 

Metre, short. Consists of four lines in iam- 
bic measure, the syllables in number and 
order as follows : 6, 6, 8, 6. 

Metre, short particular. Consists of six lines 
in iambic measure, the syllables in number 
and order as follows . 6, 6, 8, 6, 6, 8. 

Metre, tens and elevens. A meter designated 
thus, 10s and lis, consisting of a stanza of 
four lines in anapestic measure, the sylla- 
bles in number and order thus ; 10, 10, 
11, 11 ; or of six lines in iambic measure, 
as follows : 10, 10, 10, 10. 11, 11. 

Metre, twelves. A metre designated thus, 
12s, consisting of a stanza of four lines in 
anapestic measure, each line containing 
twelve syllables. 

Metrical. Pertaining to measure, or due ar- 
rangement and combination oi long and 
short syllables. 

Metrically. In a metrical manner; accord- 
ing to poetic measure. 

Metrik (mfifrik), Ger. Metrical art 

Metrisch (m^frish), Ger. Metrical. 

Metro (ma'tr6), IL \ ^ . 

Metro (ma-tro), Sp. | J^e^r, verse. 

Metrometer (m6-tr6-m6't6r), Ger. \ A metro- 
Metrometro (m&-trd'me-trd), IL J nome. 

Metronom (mfi-tro-nom'), Ger. \ A machine 
Metronome (mfi'tro-no'mfi), Gr. | invented 
by John Maelzel, for measuring the time, or 
duration, of notes by means of a graduated 
scale and pendulum, which may be short- 
ened or lengthened at pleasure. When 
indicated by composers, two characters are 
given— a note- form and a numeral. The 
latter shows the place where the pendu- 
lum should be set; the former the kind 
of note which should equal each beat of 
the pendulum. Sometimes a sign of equal- 
ity IS placed between the note and the 
numeral. Occasionally the initials M. M. 
are also used. The latter mean " Maelzel's 
Metronome." fS» „ go, ^ ™ 60, etc. 

Metronome, bell. A metronome with the 
addition of a small bell which strikes at 
the commencement of each measure. 

Metronome, pocket. A metronome olf the 
size and form of a watch, on one &ide of 
which is marked the numt)er of vibrations, 
and on the other the principal Italian mu- 
sical terms. 

*«w<SM, aeutt^, kale, aendt eeve, lill, lis^, do^d, odd, oo moon, H but, iX Fr, soundf kh Ger. ch, luxtumi, 





Mette (met'tfi), Qer. Matins. 

JVIe<i;tere in musica (mSt't(!-re In moo-zl-kii), 
It. To set to music. 

Mettre d'accord (m&tr dftk-k6r), Fr, To 

Mettre en musiqne (matr &iih mii-zek), Fr. 
To set to music. 

Mettre en repetition (m&tr ftuh rft-p^-te'sl- 
Ouh), Fr. To put in rehearsal. 

Metzillotli, zM, I Cymbals; otherwise 
MT^tseillttieim, ^^' | rendered " bells of the 
horses," which is also correct. 

Mes. An abbreviation of Mezzo. 

iHez. P. An abbreviation of Mezzo Forte. 

Mez. Pia. An abbreviation of Mezzo Piano. 

Mezza (met'tsft), » > Medium, in the mid- 
Mezzo (mfii'iso), ■*'• J die, half. 

Mezza bravura (mfit'tsfi brft-voo^rft), It. A 
moderately difficult song. 

Mezza forza (mSt'tsa fdr'tsfi). Moderately 

Mezza manlca (met ' tsit mit ' ni • k&) , 72. The 
half-shift, in playing the violin, etc. 

Mezzana (m^t-tsfi'nfi), It. The middle string 
of a lute. 

Mezza orchestra (mSt'tsIt 6r-kS8-tr&), It, 
Half the orchestra. 

Mezza voce (mSt'ts^ vd'tsh^), It. Half the 
power of the voice ; with moderate strength 
of tone. 

Mezzo forte (mfit'tsO fdr'te), It. Moderately 

Mezzo forte piano (m^t'tsO fdr'tS pS-&'nO), It. 
Rather loud than soft. 

Mezzo piano (mSf tsd pe - &' nd). It. Bather 

Mezzo soprano (met'ts5 sd-pra'nd), It. A fe- 
male voice of lower pitch than the soprano, 
or treble, but higher than the contralto. 
The general compass is from A under the 
lines to A above them. 

Mezzo soprano clef. The C clef when placed 
on the second line of the staff, occurring 
in old church music or madrigals. The 
treble, or soprano, clef now supplies its 

Mezzo staccato (mSftsO stak-kfi'td), It. A 
little detached. 

Mezzo tenore (mSt'tso t^nd'rS), It. A half 
tenor voice, nearly the same as a baritone. 

Mezzo tuono (mSt'tsd too-d'nO), It. A semi- 
tone, a half tone. 

Mezzo voce (met'tsd vd'tshS), It. In a sub- 
dued voice. 

M, P. The initials of Mezzo Forte. 

M. Q. The initials of Main Gauche. 

Mi (m3), It. A syllable used in solfaing to 
designate E, or the third note of the major 

Mi bemol (me ba'mol), Fr. The note E-flat. 

Ml Mmol majeur (md b&'mOl m^zhUr), Fr 
The key of E|? major. 

Mi Mmol mineur (md b&'mdl ml-ntir), Fr: 
The key of JS^ minor. 

Mi contra fa onfi kdn'trft fa), Lat. An ex« 
pression used by old theorists, meaning • 
false relation, especially the skip from /oup 
of the scale to seven. 

Microfono (pie-krO-fynd), Sp. \ An instru- 
Microplione (ml'krd-fdn), jmentforthe 

augmentation of small sounds ; a micro- 


Middle C. That G which is between the baas 
and treble staves. 

Middle voices. Tenor and alto voices. 

Mi diese (m6 dl&z'), Fr. The note E^. 

Mis:non (men-y6nh), Fr. Favorite. 

Militairement (mIM-tar-m&nh), Fr. > Milita- 
Miiitare (me-ll-ta'rfi), It. J ry ; in 

Miiitarmente (me-ll-t&r-men'te), It. ) a wst 
like, martial style. 

Military music. Music intended for military 

bands ; marches, quicksteps, etc 
Milote (me-id'te), Sp. An Indian dance. 

Mi mojjeur (mS mfi-zhUr), Fr. The key of 
E major. 

Mimes (me'm^). A kind of vocal, mimic 
actors, formerly very numerous in Europe. 

Mi mineur (me ml - ntlr'), Fr. The key ot 
E minor. 

Minacce volmente (mS-na^tsh6-v61-men'te), R 
In a threatening, menacing manner. 

Minacciando (me-n&t-tshl-an'dO), » ) 
Minaccievole (me-nftt-tsI-a'vd-lS), ■*" j 
Threatening, menacing. 

Minacciosamente (me-nftt-tshI-o'z&-men te), 
It. Threatening, menacing, in a menacing 

Minaccioso (mS-n&t-tshI-6'zd), It. Threaten* 
ing, menacing, in a menacing manner. 

Minaflrn^hinim(ml-nangd'ghl-nlm), Htb. A 
pulsatile instrument used by the Hebrews, 
consisting of a square table of wood fur- 
nished with a handle ; over this table was 
stretched an iron chain and a hempen 
chord which passed through balls of wood 
or brass, and striking against the table 
when the instrument was in motion, pro* 
duced a clear, ringing sound. 

Minder (mln'd^r), Oer. Minor, less, not bq 

Mineur (mi-ntir'), Fr. Minor. 

Minim. A half-note; a note equal to oni^ 
half of a semibreve. 

Minima (me'ni-ma),JJI. ) 

Minime (min-em'), Fr. / ^ minfm. 

Minim rest. A mark of silence equal in duw 
ration to a minim, made thus, -— -. 

Minnedicliterimln'ne-dikh'ter), ) Min- 

MlnnesAnger (min'n&-saDg-€r), Oer. [ strels 

Minnesinger (mln'n6-slng-€r), ) oftho 

twelfth and thirteenth centuries, who wan- 

^iiaad,ikdU,^end,6eve, liU,ii8le, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, iX lMt,ilFr.toimd,lLLOer,eh, oh 




dered ftom place to x>lace, singing a great 
variety of sougs and melodies. 

Minor. Less, smaller, in speaking of inters 
vals, etc. 

Minor canons. Those clergymen of a cathe- 
dral or chapel who occasionally assist at the 
performance of the service and anthem. . 

Minor diatonic scale. There are two Icindsr 
one where the semitones fall between th«r 
second and third and seventh and eighth, 
both in ascending and descending; in the 
other the semitone falls between the sec- 
ond and third and seventh and eighth as- 
cending, and descending,* between the fifth 
and sixth and second and third. The for- 
mer Is the harmonic, the latter the melodic 

Minore (me-n5'r€). It. Minor. 

Minor Icey. V One of the modem modes. 
Minor mode, jor scales, in which the third 
note is a minor third from the tonic. 

Minor second . The smallest interval in prac- 
ticable use, a half-step. 

Minor seventli. An interval consisting of 
four tones and two semitones. 

Minor sixth. An interval composed of three 
tones and two semitones. 

Minor tactus. Among the ancients, the act 
of beating time ; consisting of a semitone in 
a bar. 

Minor tliird. A diatonic Interval containing 
three semitones. 

Minor tlireelold chord. A minor triad. 

Minor triad. A union of any tone with its 
minor third and perfect fifth. 

Minstrels. Wandering poets or musicians. 

Minstrelsy. The art or profession of a min- 

Minue (m^noo-&), Sp, A minuet. 

Minuet. A daHoe of French origin in ternary 
time— usually in 8-4, sometimes in 3-8 time. 
Its movement and character changed in 
the course of its career. A courtly stateli- 
ness and well-regulated gaiety are its most 
prominent features. By its introduction, 
first, into the suite and partita, and after- 
wards into the sonata, symphony, etc., it 
has become an artistic fofm of importance. 
In the sonata and symphony it generally 
consists of two minuet!^, each of two parts, 

* the first minuet being repeated after the 
second, which is called the trio. The com- 
posers in thus treating the minuet artistic- 
ally have by no means always retained the 
original nature of the dance; on the con- 
trary, have produced under this name 
pieces very different in movement and 

Minuettina (me - uoo - £t- te ' n&), It, A little 

MInuetto (me-noo-St'td), It. A minuet. 

Miracle-Plays. " The Miracle-Play is distin- 
guished from the Mystery because it con- 

nects itself less closely with the Scriptures 
and the services of the Church, and em- 
bodies, for the most part, various apoc- 
ryphal legends about the saints and the 

Miserere (me-s6-r5.'r6), LcU. '• Have mercy.'* 
A psalm of supplication. 

Misericordia (me'8^ri-kdr'dI-&). Lot. A small 
movable seat in the choir of a church ; a 

Miskin. A little bagpipe. 

M<8sa (mes'sa), LcU. A mass. 

Mis&a hrevis (mSs'sa brS'vXs), Lot, A short 

MIssa canon lea (mes's& kft-nG'nI-ka), Lai, A 

canonical mass. 

Missal. The massbook. 

MIssa pro defunctis (mes'sd, prd dS-foonk'tIs), 
Lai. A requiem ; a mass for departed souls. 

Missa solennis (m€s ' sa so - Idn ' nis), IjcU. A 
solemn masis, lor high festivals. 

Missel (mes-s'l), Fr. Missal ; the Inassbook. 

MisshAinir TiuusOial'lIg) , Ger. Dissonant, dis- 

Misshallig-keit (mIss'hal-Hg-kit), Qer. Disso- 
nance, discordance. 

Misshellis: (mIss'hei-lXg), Oer. See IliuMUig, 

Missklans: (miss'klang), Qer. Discordant, out 
of tune. (Not the same as dissonant.) 

Misskl&ngre (mXss'klang'^, Qer. pi. Discord- 
ant sounds. 

Missklingen (mlss'kling-en), Qer. To sound 

Misslaut (miss'lout), Qer. Unharmonious, 
discordant sound. 

Mlsslauten (mIssQou-t'n), Qer. To sound in- 

Missiautend (mXss'lou-tdnd), Qer. Dissonant, 

Missstimmen (miss'stlm-m'u), Qer. To put 

out of tune. 
Misteriosamente (mes-t^ri-d-za-m6n'tS), \ » 
Mlsterioso (mes-tfi-rl-o'zd), j ^^' 

Mysteriously, in a mysterious manner. 

Mistero, con (mes-t&'ro). It. With an air of 

Misto (mSs-td), Gr. Mixed ; a term given by 

the ancients to some of their modes. 

Misura (me-soo'ra), It. A bar, a meafiure; 

Misurato (me - soo - ra ' to), It. Measured ; in 

strict, measured time. 

Mit (mit), Qer. With, by. 

Mit abwechselnden Manualen (raXt fiVvfikh- 
sgln-dSti ma - uoo - a ' I'n ), Qer, Alternately, 
f roin the choir to the great organ. 

Mit ^anz schwachen Registern (mit g&nts 
shva'kh'n r6-ghis't6m), Ger. With very soft 

Mit Qeftihl (mit ghe-fai'), Qer. With feeling 
and sentiment. 

tt arm, & add, a ale, d end, e eve, I ill, I iile,6 old,6 odd, oo moon, t. but, ti Fr. sound, kh Qer. eh, nh naaaL 





Mit Keckhelt (mlt kek'hlt), Ger. With vigor 
aDd boldness ; in the bravura, or dashing, 

Mitkianir (mit'kl&ng), Oer, Resonance. 

Mitlaut (mitlont), ,,-«. \ Concord, con- 

Mitlaater (mitlou-tfir), ^^^' J sonance. 

MitUuten (mXt'lou-t'n), Qer. To sound at the 
same time, or in common with. 

Mitleidsvoll (mif lids-iol), Oer. Compassion- 

Mit sanften Stimmen (mit sanft^n stim'm'n), 
Oer. With soft stops. 

Mit starken Stimmen (mit st&r^'n stitm'm'n), 
Ger. With loud stops. 

Mittel-C (mit'tei-tsa), Oer. Middle C. See 
Diagram of Cl^s. 

Mittelcadenz (mit't'l-k^-deuts'), Ger. A half, 
or imperfect, cadence. 

Mittellaut (mit'tei-lout), Ger. Middle sound. 

Mtttelmlissig (mit 't'l- mas' sig), Oer. Mid- 

Mittelstimme (mit H'l -s tim ' m&) , Ger. The 
mean or middle voice, or part ; the tenor. 

Mit voller Orgel (mit fOl'Wr Sr'g'l), Ger. With 
full organ. 

Mixolydian. (1) In the ancient Greek system 
the name of one of the octave species 

bcdefgab, also called Hyperdorian, and 
of one of the transposition scales. (2) In 
the old ecclesiastical system it is the name 
of the seventh (the fourth authentic) mode, 

or tone (g a b c d e f g). 

Mixture. An organ-stop consisting of sev- 
eml ranks of pipes— from two to nve pipes 
sounding different harmonic notes corre- 
sponding to each key. Modern mixtures 
contain only octaves and fifths, the latter 
voiced softly and in flute quality. They im- 
part brightness to the full organ tone, but 
are not so indispensable as before organ- 
voicing had become so advanced. Former- 
ly it was very difficult to secure the har- 
monic overtones from the fundamental 
pipes. The tone was therefore dull and 
heavy. Mixtures were invented to remedy 
this. The old mixtures, called also furni- 
ture, cymbal, etc., contained thirds, which, 
when played in chords, produced a hideous 

Mode. Species of scale. In the modern sys- 
tem of mnsic there are only two modes, the 
major and minor; in the ancient Greek 
and the mediseval ecclesiastical system 
there was a much greater number. 

Mode» major. That in which the third from 
the keynote is major. 

Mode, minor. That which in the third de- 
gree from the tonic forms the interval of a 
minor third. 

Moderamento (md-d6-rfi-m6n'td), ^z 1 
Moderato (mo-dfi-ra'to), ^'- 1 

Moderately ; in moderate time. 

Moderatissimo (md-de-rft-tds'si-mo). It. In 
very moderate time. 

Moderato assai con moito sentimento (m6- 
de-ra'to as-sa'e kon mol'to s6n-ti-m6n't6), It. 
A very moderate degree of quickness with 
much expression. 

Moderazione (mo-d^ra-t^-d'nS), It. Modera^ 

Modere (mo-dar'), Fr. Moderate. 

Modern. Not in the ancient style. 

Moderna, alia (mo-d&r'na &Vla), It. In the 
modern style. 

Modestamente (mo-d€8-ta-m€n't€), » ) 
Modesto (m6-d€s't6), ^^' | 

Modestly, quietly, moderately. 

Modilicazioni (md-de-fI-k&-tsi-o'ne), It. pi 
Modifications, light and shade of intonft> 
tion, slight alterations. 

Modinha (mo-deu'cl), For. A short Portuguese 

Mod. An abbreviation of Moderato. 

Modo (mo'do). It. \ . ^_ j^ „ „««!« 
Modo (m6'd6);Sp. | A mode, a scale. 

Modo magglore (md'dC mad-jl-d're), It. The 
major mode. 

Mod 'to. An abbreviation of Moderato. 

Modolare (m6-d6-la'r6), j, \ 

), * jtoaccommo' 

To modulate ; 
Modalare (m6-doo-ia'r6), 
date the voice or instrument to a certain in^ 

Modulante (mo-doo-l&n'tS), It. Modulating. 

Modulate. To move from one key to another 
in a manner agreeable to the ear. 

Modulate, Modulation. The primary mean* 
iug ot "to modulate" is "to form after a 
certain mode, to measure off properly." In 
music it originally meant "to measure 
rhythmically,^' then, also, " to measure mc 

• lodically"— melodic measurement being 
synonymous with " Inflection." In modern 
technical terminology " to modulate" sig- 
nifies " to change the key ;" " modulation," 
"a change of key." Modem usage differs 
much from that current with Bach and 
his contemporaries. According to modern 
ideas, any chord may follow any other 
whenever it can be introduced smoothly or 
with suitable musical effect. Such a chord 
may be apparently foreign to the key of the 
first chord, but it is not now regarded as 
constituting a modulation unless the ear is 
unsettled from the original tonic, which is 
by no means universally the case. Hence 
the idea of key has been materially en- 
larged, so as to include all possible chords 
which can be led into smoothly from any 
chord in the key. A modulation is said to 
be abrupt when the new key comes sudden- 
ly, as wiien from the key of C we suddenly 
go to the key of At? and remain there. As 
opposed to the usual modulation by a suc- 
cession of fifths, as practiced in the time of 
Bach. Bach, however, uses almost all chords 
which have been used since. 

ft anrif ft add, & die, 6 end, € eve, I in, i iOe, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, Hl but, iX Fr. sound, kh Oer, ch, nh naadl 





Modulation* abrupt. Sudden modulation into 
kttvs which are not closely related to the 
original key. 

Modulation, deceptive. Any modulation by 
which the ear is deceived and led to an un- 
expected harmony. 

Modulation, enharmonic. A modulation ef- 
fected by altering the notation of one or 
more intervals belonging to some character- 
istic chord, and thus changing the key and 
the harmony from that into which It would 
naturallv have resol ved. Th e chords wh ich 
admit of these alterations are, first, the di- 
minished seventh and its inversions ; sec- 
ondly, the dominant seventh not inverted, 
and the chord of the superfluous sixth and 
perfect fifth. 

Modulation, passing. \ A form of modula- 
Modulation, transient, ftlon which leaves a 
icey nearly as suou as entered upon. 

Modulatore (md-doo-lH-td're), It. Singer, 

Modulazione (md-doo-lft-td-o'ne), IL Modu- 

Modttliren (md-doo-le'r'n), Ger. To modu- 

Modus (md'doos), Lot. A key, mode, scale. 

Mohinda. A short Portuguese love-song. 

Mohrentanz (mo'-ren-tS.nts), Qer, Morlsco, 
morris dance. 

Moins (mw&). Fr. Less. 

Moll (mdll), Oer. Minor. 

Moila (mdl'l&), It. A key of the flute, etc., for 
raising or lowering a note. 

Molle (m51), Fr. Soft, mellow, delicate. 

MoUemente (mdl-l^m^n't^). It, Softly, gen- 
tly, delicately. 

Mollis (m6nis), Lot. Soft. 

Molltonart (moll'tdn'&rt), Oer. Minor key, or 

Moltlsonante (mdl-te-zd-n&n'tS), It. Resound- 
ing, very sonorous. 

Molto (m51't6), It. Much, very much, ex- 
tiemely, a great deal. 

Molto adagio (mol'td fi-da'jI-«), It. Extreme- 
ly SluW. 

Molt6 allegro (mdrtd al-la'gro). It. Very 

Molto carattere, con (molMd ka-rat-tS-rg, 
kdu), It. With character and emphasis. 

Molto mosso (mdl'td mds'so). It. Much move- 
ment, much motion. 

Molto slargando (moPtd siar-g&n'do), IL 
Much extended ; much slower. 

Molto sostenuto (mdl ' t5 f6s - te- noo' td). It. 
Very sustained ; very legato. 

Molto staccato con grazia (mol'td stSk-lc&'td 
kdu gra'tsI-&), It. In staccato style, and 
with grace. 

Molto vibrato (mdl'tfi vl-bril't6), It. Very vio- 
leutjor rapid. 

Molto vivace (mSl'td vl-v&'tshC), It. Very 

Monacordo (md-nS.-kdr'dd), II. \ (1) An in- 
Monochord (mOn-d-kOrd). j strumentfor^ 
merly used for the measurement of inter- 
vals. It had one string and a movable 
bridge. (2) Also a name of the tromba 
marma, or trumscheit. (3) A clavichord. 

Monaulos (m5n'ou-10s). Or. An ancient flute, 
played through the mouthpiece at the end 
like the flageolet. 

Monferina (mdn-f^re'nft). It. A lively Italian 
dance in 6-8 time. 

Monochord pedal. The one-stringed pedal. 

Monocorde (mdn-5-k6rdO. Fr. ) On one string 
Monocordo (md-nd-kdr do). It, j only. See 
also Monochord. 

Monodia (md-nd-de'a), It. ) A composition 
Monodie (mOn-o-de), Fr. Vfor a single voice. 
Monody (m6n-6-dy). ) The term origi- 

nally applied to church solos. Also a com- 
position with a single idea. 

Monodie. For one voice, a solo. 

Monodist. One who writes a monody. 

Monodram (md-nd-dr&m'), Oer.\ A musical 
Monodrama (mo-no-dr&'mii), It. j drama, in 
which only one actor appears; a mono- 

Monodrame (mOn-d-drS,m), Fr. A drama per- 
formed by a single individual. 

Monologue. A soliloquy ; a poem, song, or 
scene written and composed for a single 

Monophonic (mdn-o-fd'nik), Or. In one part 

Monotone. Uniformity of sound; one and 
the same sound. 

Monotonia ( md- nd-td^nl-ft) , Sp. ") Monotony ; 
Monotonie (mOn-d-to-n6>, J^. Vpameness of 
Monotonie (mo'nd-td-nS')) Oer.) aoMud. 

Monotonous (mo-ndt'o-ntls). An epithet ap- 
plie<i to any instrument which produces but 
one tone or note ; as the drum, tambourine, 

Monotony. A wearisome uniformity of sound; 
a continued repetition of the same tone or 

Montant (mdnh-t&nh), Fr. Ascending. 

Monter (m6n-t6h), Fr. (1) To put strings on 
an instrument; to tune them. (2) To put 
the parts of a wind instrument together. (3) 
To ascend. 

Montri (mdnh-trfiO. Fr. Mounted; in front; 
a term applied to the organ-pipes which are 

S laced in front of the case; commonly a 

Montr6 d'or^ue (mOnh-tr& d'drg\ JFV. The 
range of pipes in the front of an organ. 

Moorish drum. A tambourine. 

Moralit^s (Fr.), Moralities. Allegorical plays 
popular m the middle ages. The object of 
these plays was to point amoral, and among 

ftarm, Aodd, kaie,(iend, 5«ve, I tZ2, lisle, 5 old, 5 odd. oo moon, ilbut,iXFr. sound, kh Qer. ch, nhnaaoL 





Moresca (iD5-rfe'k&), „ \ Moorish; 
Moresque (md-r^BkOt j dance, in 

the characters that appeared therein were 

Personifications of the virtues, vices, etc. 
he Moralities were an ofibhoot of the Mys- 
teries (q.v.). 

Morbidezza, con (mdr-M-d^'sft kdn), It. With 
exoesfiive delicacy. 

Morceau (mOr-so'), Fr. A choice and select 
musical piece, or composition; a fine 
phrase or passage. 

Morcean d'enjemble (mdr-sd' d'&nh-s&nhbl), 
J^. A piece harmonized for several voices. 

Mordante (mdr-d&n't€), It, See Mordente. 

M«>rdente (mOr-dto't^), It, Transient shake, 
or beat ; an embelllRhment formed by two 
or more notes, preceding the principal note. 

Mordente, long. The short mordente re- 

Mordente, short. An embellishment consist- 
ing of the note over which Written. Played, 
the sign is placed and the 
note below it, thus : 

A similar sign without 
the vertical stroke indi- 
cates the Prall- trill, which is a precisely 
similar embellishment, employing the note 
above. The accent falls upon the first tones. 

Morendo (md-r6n'dd), « ) Dyingaway; ex- 
Morlente (ra6-rl-6u'te), "*'• j" piring ; gradually 
diminishing the tone and the time. 


bells are jingled at the ankles and swords 


Morgengesang (mOr'g'n-gh^zfing'), /3^ | 
Morgenlied (mCr'g'n-led), ^^' | 

Morniiig song or hymn. 

Morgenstindchen (mdr'g'n-stAndlch'n), Oer. 
Muruiug serenade. 

Moriaco (md-rSs'kd), It. In the Moorish style. 
bee Moresca. 

MorUk (md-rlsk). The morris dance. 

Mormoramento (mdr-md-rft-men'to). It. A 
murmur, warbling, buzzing, purling. 

Mormorando (Tn6r-m6-ran'd6), 1 With a 
Mormorevole (m6r-m6-r§,'v6-16),7Z. Vge n 1 1 e, 
Mormoroso (mor-md-ro'zd), ) murmur- 

ing sound. 

Morrlce dance. ) A peculiar kind of dance 
Morris dance. > practiced in the middle 
Morriske dance. ) ages. It is supposed to 
have been introduced into England by Ed- 
ward III. In the morris dance bells were 
fastened to the feet of the performer. 

Mort. A tune sounded at the death of game. 

M0S5O (mds'&d), It. Moved, movement, mo- 

Mosso, molto (mds'sd mdrtO), It. Quick, with 

much motion. 
Mostra (m6s'tr&\ It. A direct (av), which, 

when placed on a line, indicates the first 

note upon the next page. 

Mot (m6), Fr. Literally, a word ; a note or 
brief strain on a bugle. 

Motet. ) A vocal composition in several 
Motett. ) parts, generally without instrumen* 
tal accompaniment, set to a, sacred text, 
usually words taken from the Bible. Obli- 
gato instrumental accompaniments, which 
came into vogue in the seventeenth century, 
but are to be met with before and after that 
time, have to be regarded as exceptionaL 
The motet is one of the oldest forms of men- 
surable music, and has, of course, under- 
gone many changes. Ftotestant Oermanv 
cultivated it zealously, developing it accord- 
ing to her own taste And mental bias. la 
earlier times it was the sacred couuterpan 
of the secular madrigal {q. v.). 

Motette (m<J-t6tO, Q^-') 

Motet ( md-t&') ,Fr, V A motet 

Motetto (mo-tet'td). It.} 

Motetten (mfi-t«t-fn), Oer.X-u^*^*, 
Moletti (mO-tet'te), Jt. J »o»»- 

Motetto per voci dole (md-t«t't6 p&r vd'tshr 
sd-Ia'), It. A motet for voices without ac- 
companiment ; a motet each part of whicu 
is for a single voice. 

Motetus (md-t6t'006). Lot. A motet. 

Motif (md-tef), Fr, Motive, theme, subject. 

Motion. (1) The melodic progression of a 
part considered by itself. It may be either 
conjunct or disjunct— that is, the progres- 
sion may be by aegrees or by 8kii>s. (2) The 
melodic pr(%ression of two or more parts 
considered in their relation to each other. 
There are three kinds of motion : (a) Sim- 
ilar motion, when two parts ascend and 
descend together, (p) Contrary motion, 
when the one ascends and the other 
descends, (c) Oblique motion, when one 
part remains stationary while the other as- 
cends or descends. The simultaneous com- 
bination of these three kinds of progression 
is called " mixed motion." (3) Also used of 
rhythmic motion, as pulse motion, meaning 
that the prevailing tone length is that o! 
the measure pulse, naif-pulse motion,where 
the prevailing motion u of half-pulse, etc. 
Also "eighth-note motion," meaning that 
the prevailing entrances of tones in a single 
voice, or of tones in different voices, fall at 
the uniform period of an eighth-note. 

Motiv s. The characteristic and predominant 
passage of an air; the theme, or subject, of 
a composition. 

Motivo (md-t§'vd), 7^ Motive; the theme, or 
■ subject, of a mtisical composition. 

Moto (md'td), It. Motion, movement; eon 
motOf with motion, rather quick. 

Moto accelerate (md'td iLt-tsha-ie-rft'td), It. Ac- 
celerated motion. 

Moto contrario (md'tO k6n-tr&'rI-6), H. Con- 
trary mutiou. 

Moto obllquo (md't5 db-ld'kwd). It, Oblique 

Moto precidente (md'td pra-tshl-den't€). It. 
The same time as the preceding movement 

Moto prime (mO'td prS'mO), It, The same 
time as the first. 

&ann,&(ufd, Aale,^md, B eve, liU, lisle, 6 old, 6 odd, oomoon, iXbut^H Fr,80und, kh (Ter.di. nhnoML 





Moto retto (md'td rSt'td), It. Direct, or sim- 
ilar, motion. 

JVIottegsriAiMlo (m^^tM-j^fiu'd^), It. Jeering- 
ly, mockingly, jocosely. 

MOttetto (mdt-t€t'td). It. k motet. 

Motus (md'toos), Lot, Motion, movement. 

/Motos contrarias (mo'tooskdn-tr&'ri-oo8),Xa<. 
Contrary motion. 

Motus obliquu5 (md'toos 5b*le'kwoo-oo6), Lai. 
Oblique motion. 

/Motus rectus (md'toos rSk'toos), Lot. Direct, 
or similar, motion. 

/Mouthpiece. That part of a trumpet, horn, 
etc., which is applied to the lips. 

Mouvement (moov-m&nh), Fr. ) Motion, 
Movimento (md-vl-m^n'to). It. j movement, 
impulse; the time of a piece. 

Mouvement de i'archet (moov-manh dtlh 
r&r-sh&), Fr. Bowing, the movement of the 

Movement. Manner of going; as, polka 
movement, march movement, etc. The 
name given to any portion of a composition 
oompi^hended under the same measure or 
time; a composition consists of as many 
movements as there are positive changes in 
measure and tempo. 

Movimento contrarlo (md-v1-m€n/td kdn-tra'- 
rl-d), It. Contrary movement. 

M. P. The initials of Mezzo Piano. 

M. 5. The initials of Mano Sinestra. 

Mu. A sylla'ble applied to the fourth note of 
the Hebrew scale in solfaing. 

Muance (mii-inhs'), Fr. A change, or varia- 
tion, of notes ; a division. 

Muet (md-ftO, i^. Mute. 

Mund ^moond), Qer. The mouth. 

Mnndharmonica (moond-h&r-md'nl-kfi), Qer. 
The jew's-harp ; or, a mouth harmonica. 

MundstJlcIc (moond'fitiik) , Qer. Reed, mouth- 

Mlinster (miin'stfir), Qer. Minster, cathedral. 

Munter (moon'tCr), Qer. Lively, sprightly. 

Munterlceit (moon'tfir-kit), Qer, Liveliness, 
briskness, vivacity. 

Murmein (moor'mfiln), Qer. To murmur. 

Murmeind (moor'm61nd),Ger. Murmuring. 

Murmur. A low, indistinct sound. 

Mus. Bac. An abbreviation of Bachelor of 
Music. (Little used.) 

Mus. Doc. An abbreviation of Doctor of Mu- 

Muse. Name originally given to the muzzle, 
or tube> of the bagpipe. One of the nine fa- 
bled goddesses presiding over art, litera- 
ture, or music. 

Musetta (moo-zet-t&}. It. \ (1} A small, im- 
Musette (mii-sSf), i^r. /perfect instrument 

of the oboe kind. (2) A French bagpipe. 

(3) A pastoral air in imitation of the music 

of the latter instrument, with a drone baas, 
in 6-8, 8-4, and also in 2-4 and 4-4 time. Such 
airs have also been used as daace tunes. 

Music. The science of harmonical sounds, 
wnich treats of the principles of harmony, 
or the properties, dependencies, and reli^ 
tions oi sounds to each other. 

Musica fmoo'sd-kft). It. Music 

Musica antiqna (moo'si-k& fin-tlkwft), Lai. 
Ancient music. 

Musica da camera (moo'zX-kft d& kA'mS-r&), iZ. 
Music for the chamber. 

Musica da chiesa (moo^zl-kft d& ke&'zil), it 
Church music. 

Musica da teatro (moo^zl-kft da ta-&'trC), IL 
Dramatic music. 

Musicale (moo^zl-kft-lg). It. Musical, belong- 
ing to music. 

Musical brachygrapliy. The art of writing 
musical notation in an abbreviated style by 
means of signs, characters, etc. 

Musical clocks. Clocks containing an ar- 
rangement similar to a barrel organ, moved 
by weights and springs and producing va- 
rious tunes. 

Musical convention. A gathering of choris- 
ters and teachers for the study and practice 
of music. 

Musical design. The invention and conduct 
of the subject ; the disposition of every part; 
the general order of the whole ; counter- 

Musical director. A conductor ; one who has 
charge ot public musical performances. 

Musical drama. . Opera, lyric drama. 

Musical ear. The ability of determining by 
the sense of hearing the finest gradation of 
Musicalement (mii-zl-kftl-m&nh), Fr. \ 
Muslcalmente (moo-^*kal-m€n't€). It. y 
Musically, harmoniously. 

Musical glasses. Drinking-glasses so tuned 
in regard to each other that a wet finger be- 
ing passed round their brims they produce 
the notes of the diatonic scale, and are ca- 
pable of giving the successive sounds of reg- 
ular tunes or melodies. 

Musical grammar. The rules of musical com- 

Musically. In a musical, melodious manner. 

Musical nomenclature. The vocabulary of 
names and technical terms in music. 

Musical pantomime. A dramatio perform- 
ance, the ideas and sentiments of which are 
expressed by music and gestures. 

Musical science. The theoiy of music, in 
contradistinction from the practice, which 
is an art ; the general principlcQ and laws of 
combining tones for art purposes. It in- 
cludes harmony, counterpoint, canon and 
fugue, form, orchestratidu, etc. 

Musical soiree. An evening musical enters 
tainment, public or private. 

iarmtt(iddfkaie,(&endt^eoet lill, I isZe, ^otdtbodd^oomoon, a hui, U Fr. Boundt kh Qer. cA, nhnosolr 

XI mi) 




Musical terms. Words or phrases appended 
to passEKes of music, indicating the manner 
in which they should be performed. 

Mnsica plana (moo'sf-k& pl&'nfi), Lot. Plain 
chant or song. The traditional tunes for 
intoning the various offices of the church. 

Music, enharmonic. Music that proceeds by 
intervals smaller than the diatonic and 
chromatic, or music which progresses from 
. one key to another by meant of enharmonic 
i changes, as when, e. g.^ the chord of C# is 
followed by that of At?, the former being 
enharmonically changed into the chord of 

Music, field. Martial music. 

Music, Qregorian. Those chants and melo- 
dies introduced into the Roman Catholic 
service by St. Gregory in the sixth century. 

Music, huntins:. Music suited to the chase. 

Musician. One who understands the science 
of muMc, or who sings, or performs ou some 
instrument according to the rules of art. 

Musicien (mti-ze-sl-anh), Fr, Musician. 

Musico (moo'zl-k6), It. A musician ; a pro- 
fessor or practitioner of music. The name 
was also applied to those male vocalists who 
formerly sang soprano parts. 

Music of the future. A term applied to the 
music of Richard Wagner and others of his 

Music- recorder. An instrument to be at- 
tached to a pianoforte for the purpose of 
recording upon paper the notes that are 

Music-timekeeper. An English instrument 
designed to enable a performer to keep 
time in any measure in which a piece of 
muaic is written. 

Music-trademark. A mark adopted by the 
United Siates Board of Music Trade, being a 
star enclosing figures denoting the retail 
price of the work upon which it is printed, 
the figures representing the number of 
dimes at which it is sold. 

Musicus (moo'zl-koos), Ger. A musician. 

Musiker (moo'zl-k^r), Oer, A musician. 

Musikfest (moo-slk'f€st), Qer, A musical fest- 

Musiklehrer (moo-zIk-l&'rSr), Oer, Teacher 

of music. 
Musikprobe (moo-zIk-prO'be), Qer, A musical 


Musikverein (moo-:dk'fd-iinO, Oer. A mu* 
sical society. 

Musikzeitung: (moo-zik-tsl'toong), Oer. A 
musical paper, 

Musique (mii-zek), Fr. Music. 

Musique d'eglise (m<i-zek d&-glez), Fr. 

Church music. 

Muta (moo'ta), 7^ Change; in horn and 
trumpet music it means to change the 
crooks; in drum parts it means that the 
tuning of the drum is to be altered. 

Mutation. Change, transition; the trans- 
formation of the voice occurring at the 
age of puberty. 

Mutation (mti-tft-sI-Snh), Fr. \ ««♦«««« 
Mutazione (moo-ta-tsI-6*ne), H. J J'^'ita^on. 

Mutation, or filling-up stops, are those which 
do not give a sound corresponding to the 
key pressed down— such as the quint, tierce, 
twelfth, etc. 

Mute. A small instrument of brass, ivory, or 
wood, sometimes placed on the bridge of 
a violin, viola, or violoncello, to diminish 
the tone of the instrument by damping or 
checking its vibrations. Also a round 
piece of wood with apertures, placM'd in 
the bell of wind instruments in order to 
reduce the volume of tone. 

Muthis: (moo'tig), Ger. Courageous, spirited. 

Muthwillis: (moot'vIl-lXg), Qer. Mischievous, 

Mutiren (moo-te'r'n) , Oer. To change the 
voice from soprano to tenor, baritone, or 

Myst&res (mis-t&r), Fr. ) A kind of re- 

Mysterien (me-sta'rg'n), Qer. > ligious dra- 
Mysteries. j ma ; rude 

theatrical representations of sacred history 
in vogue during the middle ages, and de- 
riving their name from the mysteries of the 
Christian faith of which they treat. The 
scope of their subjects extends from the 
Creation to the Last Judgment, compre- 
hending " the whole scheme of man's fall 
and redemption." The Passion-Plays still 
performed at Ammergau and some other 
places are survivals of the old Mysteri* 

Nabia (n&-bl&), Heb. The nebel, a ten-stringed 
instrument of the ancient Hebrews; the 
harp of the Jews, sometimes written Nebel 

Nacaire (na-kar'), Fr. ") A brass drum 
Nacara (ua'ka-r&). It. v with a loud, metal- 
Nacarre (na'ka-r$). It. pi ) lie tone, formerly 
much used in France and Italy. 

Nacchera (nak'ke-r&), II. Kettledrums. 

Nachahmung: (n&kh-ft'moong), Oer. Imita> 
tion. The more or less exact repetition of a 
motive, phrase, or i>assage at the same or a 
different pitch, in a different voice. 

Nach Belieben (nakh ba-lea>'n),(?er. At pi 
ure. The same as Ad libitum. 

fkcarm,Siadd, & cUe, dead, e evetiiUfiisU, 6 oldf 6 odd^ oo moon, tLbu^ iii^. sound, kh G^. ti^ on) 





Nachdruck (nakh'drook), Oer. Emphasis, ac- 

Nachdriicklich (n&kh'druk-likh), ^^ ) 
NachdrucksvoIIfnakh'drooks-fol), ^^' ] 
Energetic, emphatic, forcible. 

Nachhall (nUkh'hall), Ger, Reyerberatlon, 

Nachklans: (nakh'klang), Ger. Resonance, 

Nachklineen (nakh'kllng-^n), ^^ ) To ring, 
Nachschallen (n&kh'shal-rn), *'*^- |to echo, 
to resound. 

Nachlassend (nfikh-l&3's£nd),6er. Slackening 
in time. 

NachlMssigf (nakh-las'sigh), Ger. Slackening, 
meaning somewhat carelessly ; letting up. 

Nachschlas: (uakh'shlag), Ger. Additional, or 

Nachsplel (nakh'spel),&er. Afterplay; apost- 
lude, or concluding piece. 

Nichstverwandte T5ne (nakhsff^r-wand'te 
to'nfi). Ger. The nearest relative keys. 

Nachthorn (nakht'hdm),G^er. Nigh thorn; an 
organ-stop of 8-feet tone, nearly identical 
with the quintation, but of larger scale and 
more hornlike tone. 

NathUchlager (nakht'shla'gfir), ^_ ) 
NachtlfiralUuakht'ti-gall), ^^' ] 


Nachtstlndchen (n&kht'stSnd-kh'n), Ger. A 
. serenade. 

Nachtstiick (nakht'st(ick),&er. A serenade, a 

Nach und nach (nakh oond nakh), Ger. By 
little and little, by degrees. 

Nafie (na-fe). A Persian trumpet. . 

Naliri (na-fe-rS). An Indian trumpet. 

Naffarah (na-ga'r&), Per. The kettledrum of 
tiie Persians. 

Nagelireiffe {Ger.\ Nailfiddle. The tones of 
this Instrument are produced from a series 
of nails by friction, generally by means of a 

Naif tna-6f), Fr. ) 

Naiv (D&-gf), Ger. vSimple, artless, natural. 

Naive (na-ev), Fr. ) 

Naivement (n&-ev-m&nh), Fr. Simple, nat- 

Naked. A term significantly applied by mod- 
■ em theorists to fourths, fifths, and other 
chords when unaccompanied. 

Nakokus (n&'kd'ktls}. The name of an instru- 
ment much used by the Egyptians in their 
Coptic churches, and in their religious pro- 
cessions, consisting of two brass plates sus- 
pended by strings and struck together by 
way of beating time. Corresponding to the 
sistrum and to the bell struck during the 
sacrifice of the Mass to notify distant audi- 
tors of an especially solemn moment. 

Nanien (na-ni-fin). Ger. X dirge, an elegy. 

Narrante (nar-ran'tS), It. In a narrative style. 

Narratbr. A name formerly given to the chief 
performer in an oratorio. 

Narrentanz (n&r'r'n-t&nts), Qer, A foolish 
dance; a fool's dance. 

Nasal tone. That reedy, unpleasant tone pro- 
duced by the voice when it issues in too 
great a degree through the nostrils. 

jjjff J**' ) An old name for an organ-stop, 
Nassat ( *^"®^ * twelfth above the diapa- 
Nazard. ) ^^^^• 

Nasardo (na-zar'dd), Sp. One of the registers 
of an organ. 

Nason. A very quiet and sweet-toned flute- 
stop, of 4-feet scale, sometimes found in old 

Nationallied (n&-t8i-6-nfiiaed), Ger. National 

National music. ) Music identified with the 

National sonff. j history of a nation, or the 

manners and customs of its people, either 

by means of the sentiment it expresses or by 

long use. 

Natural. A character marked t], used to con- 
tradict a sharp or flat. 

Naturale (na-too-ra'l^). It. Natural, easy, free. 

Natural harmonic series. Harmonics; par- 
tial tones. 

Natural harmony. The harmony of the triad, 
or common chord. 

Naturall suonl (natoo-rale soo-d'nl), R. 
Sounds within the compass of the human 
voice ; natural sounds. 

Natural keys. Those which have no sharp or 
flat at the signature, as C major and A mi- 

Naturalmente (n&-too-ral-mSn'te), It. Nat- 

Natural modulation. That which is confined 
to the key of the piece and its relatives. 

Naturhorn (n&-toorliom), Ger. The natural 
horn, the horn without valves. 

Natiirliche Intervalle (nfl-tar'Ukh-« in-t«r- 
v&l'lS). Ger. Natural intervals, intervals 
proper to the key, not such as are altered by 
sharps or flats ; more especially are so named 
those belonging to the C major scale, with- 
out any sharps or flats at all. 

Naturtdne (nS-toor'to-nfi), Ger. Natural, or 
open, notes; the natural harmonic series, 
the notes which, for instance, on the horn, 
can be produced without stopping, or any 
mechanical means. 

Naturtrompete (na-toor'troiQ-pa-t£), Ger. A 
natural trumpet, one without valves. 

Naublum (naw-bloom), Heb. See Nabla, 

Nautical songs. Songs relating to the sea 

Nay (n&), Tur. A Turkish flute; the nei. 

Neapolitan sixth. A' chord composed of a 
minor third and minor sixth, and occur- 
ring on the subdominant, or fourth degree 

C arm,&add^&(Je,&endteev€,liU,ii8let6old,6odd, oo moon, a 2m<, lifV. «ound, kh Qer. ch, uhnaaak 





he key of C , n , ■ — 
bis chord is /f, ^^g 
I the first in- » t^\) « 
of Db. • cT 

of the scale. In the key of C 
(maioT or minor) this 
really the same as 
Teition of the triad of Db. 

Nebel (napWl), j.^ \ The 

Nebel iiassor (n&-bei nfts sAr), ^^' / name 
glyeu by the ancient Jews to their ten- 
stringed harp, supposed to have been tri- 
angular in form and used in religious wor- 

Neben (n&'b'n), Oer, Accessory. (Much used 
in compounds.) 

Nebennoto (n&'b'n-nd'tfi), Oer, Auxiliary 

Nebenreffister (nft'b*n-r6-ghl8't6r), r>^ \ 
Nebenzttge (n&'b'n-tsii'gfi), ^^' J" 

Secondary or accessory stops In an organ, 
such as couplers, tremulant, bells, etc. 

Nebenstimmen (na'b' n - stim ' men) , Oer. Ac- 
cessory voices. Applied to subordinate 
voices in contrapuntal work, and to or- 
gan-stops unavailable for solo or founda- 
tion purposes, such as the twelfth, mix- 
tures, etc. 

Necessario (n&-tshe8-6&'rI-<3), It. A term indi- 
cating that the iMuasage referred to must not 
be omitted. 

Nechiloth fn^kl-ldht), Hd>. A wind instru- 
ment of the Hebrews, formed of a double 
set of pipes. 

Neck. That part of a violin, guitar, or simi- 
lar instrument, extending from the head 
to the body, and on which the fingerboard 
is fixed. 

Neghinoth (n^ghi-noth), rr^f. \ A word fixed 
Neglnoth (nfi'gl-ndth), •"^* / at the head 
of certain of the psalms, and supposed to 
announce the particular tune to which 
they were to be sung, answering to the 
modern giving out. Neginoth was also the 
name given to ancient stringed instru- 

Negiigente (nei-yd-j€n'tS), i2. Negligent; un- 

Neffligefitemente (n^l - yl- j€n - 1€ - men' t&), It. 

Negligenza (nei-yl-jen'tB&), II. Negligence, 


Net (na'e), Tur. A fashionable musical in- 
strument of the Turks, being a flute made 
of cane. 

Nekeb (na'keb), Heb. A wind instrument of 
the ancient Hebrews, formed of a single 

Nel (n61), It. 

Nella (nei'l&). It. 

Nelie (nei'ie). It. pi. 

Nello (nerio), It. 

Neir (nei), It. 

Nel battere (n^l bat-ta'rS), It. 
beat of the measure. 

Nel tempo (nSl tSm'po), It. In time, in the 
previous time. 

In the : at the. 

In the down- 

Nete (n&'te), Gr. The last, or most acutev 
string of the lyre ; the name given by th^ 
ancient Greeks to the fourth, or most acute', 
chord of each of the l^ree tetrachords which 
followed the first two or deepest two. 

Nete diezeujgmenon (n&-te dS-zoog'md-nOn), 
Or. The final, or highest, sound of the 
fourth tetrachord, and the first, or gravest, 
of the fifth. 

Nete hyperbolson (n&-te hS'per-bdlS-6n), Or- 
The last sound of the hyper oolseon, or high- 
est tetrachord, and of the great system, or 
diagram, of the Greeks. 

Nete synemmenon (n&-te sl-nSm'me-nOn), G'r. 
The fourth, or most acute, sound of the 
third tetrachord, when conjoint with the 

Net (na), J^. ) xeatlv 

Nctt (n€t), Oer. ( ^®KJJi« 

Nettamente (n6t-ta-m6n't6), II. C ^*?5"Z:i^ 
Nette (nat), Fr. ) Piamiy' 

Nettete (n&t-t&), Fr. ) Neatness, 

Nettheit (nSfhit), Oer. y clearness, 

Nettigkeit (ndt-tlg-kit), Oer. ) plainness. 

Netto (net'td), It. Neat, clear; quick, nimble. 

Neil (noi), Oer. New. 

Neumes (nOms). (1) An early sirstem of nota- 
tion by means of points, commas, hooks, 
etc. By and by one, two, and more lines 
were introduced to remedy the vagueness 
of the signs, and finally our present nota- 
tion developed out of it. (2) Melodic phrases 
at the close of a verse, most frequently found 
on the last syllable of Alleluia. 

Nenn (noin), Oer. Nine. 

Neunachtel Takt (noin-&kh't'l takt), tfer. 
Measure in nine-eighth time. 

Neunte (noin'tfi), Oer. A ninth. 

Neunzehnte (noin'tsSn-tS), Oer. Nineteenth. 

Neuvitoie (ntlh-vl-&m0, Fr. The interval of 
a ninth. 

Nicht (nikht), Oer. Not 

Nieder (ne'd'r), Oer. Down ; used in compo- 
sition with other words. 

Niederschlag (n6'der-shl&g), Oer. The down- 
beat, or accented part of the bar. 

Nlederstrlch (ne'der-strikh), Oer. The down 

Niedrig (nS'drIg\6er. Low, or deep, in voice. 

Nina(ne'n&), 7i(. A lullaby. 

Nine -eighth measnre. A measure contain* 
ing nine eighth-notes, or their equivalent, 
marked 9-8. 

Nineteenth. An interval comprising two oc 
taves and a fifth ; also an organ-stop, tuned 
a nineteenth above the diapasons. See La- 

rigot. * 

Ninth. An interval consisting of an octave 
and a second. 

Noblle (no'bl-ie). It. Noble, grand, imprea 

ttarm, ft add, a ale, Qend, e eve, i iU, I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo Tnoon, tt biU, iX Fr, sound, kh Oer, ch, nh nasal. 





Nobilita, con (ndbSOX-tfi kOn), iZ. With no- 
bility: dignified. 

Nobilmente (n6-bll-m6n't6), R, \ Nobly, 
Noblemeat (n6-bl-manh), Fr, ) grandly. 

Nobilmente et anlmato (n5-bll-men't3 ed &- 
ni-m&'to). It. With grandeur and spirit. 

Noch (n6kh), Qer, Still, yet. 

Noch schneller (nOkh shnSI'lSr), Qer. Still 

Noctum. ) A composition of a light and ele- 
Nocturne. ) gant character suitable for even- 
ing recreation; also a piece reseibbling a 
serenade to be played at night in the open 

Nocturne (n6k-tQm), Fr. \ . rinrfnmf^ 
Noctnrno (n6k-toor4i6), Jf. I ^ nocturne. 

Nodal points. ) In music the fixed points of a 

Nodes J sonorous chord, at which it 

divides itself when it vibrates by aliquot 

parts and produces the harmonic sounds; 

as the strings of the seolian harp. 

Noel (n6-€l), Fr. A Christmas carol or hymn 

Noire (nw&r), Fr. Black note ; a crotchet. 

Noire point^ (nwHr pwanh-ta), Fr. A dotted 

Nomenclature, musical. A vocabulary of 
names and technical terms employed in 

Nomes (no'mSs), Cfr. Certain airs in the an- 
cient music sung to Cybele, the mother of 
the gods, to Bacchus, to Pan, and other di- 
vinities. The namie nome was also given 
to every air the compositiou of which was 
regulated by certain determined and in- 
violable rules. 

Non (n6n). It. Not, no. 

Nona (nd'n&). It. The interval of a ninth. 

Nona cliord. The dominant chord with a 
third added to it. 

Nonetto (n6-n6t'td), It. A composition for 
nine voices or instruments. 

Non tanto (ndn tan'td), It. Not so much, not 
too much. 

Non troppo (n6n trOp'pC), R. Not too much, 

Non troppo allegro (ndntr6p'pd&M&'gr6), » \ 
Non troppo presto (ndn trOp^po pr&'td), * j 
Not too quick. 

Nonuplet. A group of nine notes of equal 

Normal (ndr-m&lO, Oer. Normal, proper. 

Normalton (ndr-m&l'tdn), Oer. The normal 
tone, the tone A, the sound to which in- 
struments are tuned in an orchestra. 

Normaltonleiter (ndr-mal-tdn1I-ter),(r<T. The 
natural scale, the scale of C, the open key. 

Nota (n6'ta). It. \ . „^x^ 
Nota (no'tS), Lat.\^ ^^^ 

Nota buona (nd'tft boo-O^nft), iZ. A strong, or 
, accented, note. 

Nota cambiata {nO'tft k&m-b1-&'t&), It. A 
changed, or irregularly transient, note; a 
passing note. 

Nota caratteristica (nd/ta kft-rat-tfr-rds'tl-kft), 
IL A characteristic, or leading, note. 

Nota cattiva (nd't& kat-te'va), It, A weak, or 
unaccented, note. 

Nota contra notam (nO't& kdn'tr& nd'tftm), B. 
Note against note. See CounterpoirU, 

Nota ooronata {u6't&, kd-r5-n&'tg), IL A note 
marked with a hold. 

Nota d* ftbbellimento (nd'tft d'ab-bei-U-mSn'- 
td). It. A note of embellishment, an orna- 
mental note. 

Nota di passagipio (no'tft dS p&s-8gd'jl-6\ It. A 
passing note, a note of regular transition. 

N6ta di piacere (nd'tS, dS pe-§.-tsha're). It. An 
optional gr<ace note, an ad libitum embel- 

Nota sensihlle (nd'ta s^n-se'bl-ie), II. \ 
Nota sensibills (no'ta sSn-se'bMis}, Lai. j 
The sensible, or leading, note oi the scale. 

Nota signata (nd'ta s!g-n&'ta), Lot, A note 
marked with a sign. 

Nota sostenuta (no'ta sfis-t^noo'tft), It, A sus- 
tained note. 

Notation. The art of representing by notes, 
characters, etc., all the different musical 

Notation, numerical. A system of notation 
first introduced by Rousseau, in which the 
first eight of the numerals are used for des- 
ignating scale tones, and points, ciphers, 
etc., for such characters as represent pauses, 
time, etc. 

Notazione musicale (no-ta-tsI-d'nS moo-^-k&'- 
16), It. Musical notation. 

Note. A character indicating musical utter- 
ance. Bv its formation it indicates the du- 
ration of a tone, and by its situation upon 
the staff'its proper pitch. 

Note, connecting. A note held in common 
by two chords. 

Note d'agrement (ndt d'&-gr&-m&nh), Fr. An 
ornamental note. 

Note de passage (ndt dtlh pfis-sazh), Fr. A 
passing note ; a note of regular transition. 

Note dies^ (ndt dl-a-z&), Fr. Note marked 
with a sharp. 

Note, double. The ancient breve. 


Note, double-dotted. A note whose length is 
increased three fourths of its original value 
by the dots placed after it. 

Note, double-stemmed. A note having 
two stems, one upward and the other 
downward^ showing that it belone>8 ■ 
to two difierent voices. In pianoforte mu- 
sic a double-stemmed note generally be- 
longs to Uie melody in its longer significa- 
tion, and to the accompaniment in its 
shorter signification. In the bass, half-notes 
with two stems often occur, in which case 

ftorm, Aadd, & a2e, Qend, S eve, liU,l i8le,6 old, 6odd, oo moon, Hbut, tt Fr.tound, kh Qer, ch^ nh nawi 





s fhe upper item belongs to a qnarter^note, 
, supposed to be concealed behind the half- 
note, and belonging to the voice having the 
chords above. Such a note is held its longer 
Talue, but the chord or other notes belong- 
ing to the quarter-note stem enter after one 
Noten (nO't'n). Oer. pi. Notes. Used in com- 
I>osition with other words. 

tlotenbiatt (nd't'n-blat), Ger. A sheet of mu- 

Notonbuch (n<yt'n-bookh), Ger. Music-book, 

Notenschrtft (nd't'n-shrlft), Ger. Musical man- 
Notensystem (nd't'n-ds-tamO,G'6r. The staff. 

Note of modulation. A note which intro- 
duces a new key, usually applied to the lead- 
ing note or sharp seventh. 

Note, open. A note produced on the strings 
of a violin, guitar, etc., when not pressed by 
the finger. 

Note, pedal. A note held by the pedal while 
the harmony forming the remainiag parts 
is allowed to proceed. 

Note, quarter. A crotchet. 

Noter (nd-ta), Fr. To write out a tune or air. 

Note, recitlns:. The note in a chord upon 
which the voice dwells until it comes to a 

Note SGoIte (nO'tS skdVt€), II. Staccato note. 

Notes coulees (n5t kqo-lft), Fr, Slurred notes. 

Notes de gout (ndt dtlh goo), Fr. Notes of 
embellishment. . 

Note, sensible (n6t s&nh-sebl), Fr. The lead- 
ing note of the scale; the seventh of the 

Note, sixteenth. A semiquaver. B 

Note, sixty-fourth. A hemidemlsemi- S 
quaver. g 

Notes liees (n6t 1^&), Fr. Tied notes. 

Notes syncopees (ndt sen-k6-p&), Fr. Syn- 
copated notes. 

Note, thirty-second. A demisemiquaver, S 

Note, triple-dotted. A note whose value is 
increased seven eighths by three dots after 

Note, whole. A semibreve, 

Notturni (n6t-toor'nI), It. Nocturnes. 

Notturno (n6t-toor'n6), R. A nocturne; a 
light, elegant composition suitable for an 
evening performance ; a serenade. 

Nourrir le son (noo- r€r Itlh sdnh), Fr. To 
commence, or attack, a note in singing, forc- 
ibly, and sustain it. 

Nourrlssons (noor - res - s6nh), Fr. Bards, 

Nouvelle methode (noo-val' ma-t6d), Fr. A 
new method. 

Nova (nd'va). It. A species of small flute or 

Novemole. A group of nine notes, to be per* 
formed in the same time as six of equal 

Novice (n6v-is). A beginner ; one unskilled. 

Nuances fntt-anh-s'), Fr. pi. Lights and 
shades of expression, variety of intonation. 
A system of notation. 

Numerical notation. A system of notation 
first introduced by Rousseau, in which nu- 
merals were substituted as names of scale 
tones. 1, 2, 3, etc. The numerals were writ- 
ten upon a line for the standard octave, 
above the line for the octave above, and bO' 
low the line for the octave below. A similar 
notation had a local currency in Massachu- 
setts about 1851 ; it was called Day & Seal's 
"OneLiiie System." The measure was 
represented ip nearly the usual manner. In 
France a similar system is in use among the 
Orpheonists. It was invented or improved 
by M. Paris, the inventor of the ** time- 



Nuovo (noo-6'v6). It. New; di nuovo, newly, 

Nuptial - sonars. Weddlng-aongs, marriage- 

Nut. The small bridge at the npi>er end of 
the fingerboard of a guitar, over which the 
strings pass to the pegs or screws. 

O, II, Or. VioUno oflatUo, violin or flute. 

O (6) before a consonant, t* Inr a. ouhoi. 
Od (6d) before a vowel, ^^' / "'' *"' ®"'^®'- 

Obbligato (db-bll gft'td). It. ) Indispensa- 
Obbli^ti (6b-bli-^'te), ( ble, necessary; 

r a part or parts 

) which can not 

indispensably necessary 

to the idea. Generally speaking, every in- 
dependent part is obbligato. The expres* 
sion "organ obbligato," for instance, indi' 
cates that the organ is not simply a rein- 
forcement of the other parts, but has Eome* 
thing of its own to say. The obbligato in- 
strumental part frequently to be met with 
in the arias of older operas, oratorios, etc., 
vied, concerted, with the vocal part. Titles 

ftorm, ft odd, ft dU, Hend, ft eve,liU,lide, 6 oM, 6 odd, oomoan, H Imt, H Fr. tound, kh Ger, cA, nhnasoL 





such as these were very common : Aria eon 
viAUino cbbligalo, or flauto obbligato, 

Ober (^ber), Oer. Upper, higher. 

Obermanual (dni)er-m&-iioo-al'), Oer* The up- 
per manual. 

Oberatimme {&h&T'StXm'me)fOer. Treble, up- 
per voice i>art. 

Obertasten (d'ber-ais't'n),^^-. The black keys. 

Obertheil (6Ti)6r-tll'), Oer. The upper part. 

Oberwerk (dTjer-wftrk), Oer. Upper work, 
highest row of keys. 

Oblique motion. A relative motion of two 
voices in which one moves while the other 
remains stationary. 

Oblique (ob-l§'kw6), It. Oblique. 

Oboe (<^'bd-S), Oer. \ A hautboy ; also the 
Oboe (d-bo-fl/), It. f name of an organ-stop. 
(1) A wood wind instrument with a mouth- 
piece consisting oi a double reed. Its ex- 
treme com pass extends from bt^ or b^ to f". 
Music for the oboe is written in the G clef, 
and written as it sounds. This is the oboe 
of our orchestras. In military bands are 
also sometimes to be met with oboes in B\f 
and a soprano oboe In £|?, which are, of 
course, transposing instruments. (2) There 
are, likewise, organ-stops of the name of 
oboe, of 8-feet and more rarely of 4-feet 
pitch. (3) For other kinds of oboe, oboes 
now obsolete, see the following articles : 

Oboe basso (5-b6-S' bas'so). It. This obsolete 
instrument stood a minor third lower than 
the ordinary oboe. 

OMm da caccia (6-b6-&' da k&t'tshl-a). It. A 
larger species of oboe, with the music writ- 
ten in the alto clef. Its natural key was F 
Oboe d*amore (d-bd-&' d'&mo're), ri ) A spe~ 
Oboe lungo (d-b6-&' loon'go), ^ ' j cies of 
oboe, longer than the ordinary oboe, with a 
thinner bore and lower pitch. 

Obol (6-b6-e'), It. Hautboys. 

Oboist. A performer on the oboe or hautboy. 

Oboista (d-bd-es't&), It. An oboist 

Octachord. An instrument or system com- 
prising eight sounds or seven degrees. 

Octaphonlc. Composed of eight voices. 

Octava alta (dk-ta'v& al't&), It. Play the pas- 
sage an octave higher. 

Octava grave (6k-t&'va grfi'v&), Sp. Octave 

Octave. The interval from any tone to the 
eighth above or below in the same scale. 
The octave above any tone is produced by 
exactly twice as rapid a vibration frequency, 
and the octave below by exactly naif as 
many vibrations. The most fundamental 
principle in harmony is that octaves are 
equivalent and may be interchanged in any 
chord without changing its harmonic char- 

Octave clarion. A two-feet reed-stop in an 

Octave flute. A small flute an octave higher 
than the German or ordinary flute ; a pio. 

Octave hautboy. A 4-feet organ reed-stop; 
the pipes are of the hautboy species. 

Octave, large. The third octave, indicated 
in the German tablature by capital letters. 

Octave, large, once-marked. The second oc- 
tave, indicated by capital letters having a 
single line below. 

Octave, large, twice-marked. The first oc- 
tave, indicated by capital letters having two 
lines below them. 

Octaves, consecutive. Two parts moving in 
unison or octaves with each other. 

Octaves, covered. Certain apparent consecu- 
tive octaves which occur in harmony, in 
passing by similar motion to a perfect con- 

Octave, small. The fourth octave, so called 
because indicated by small letters in the 
German tablature. 

Octave, small, five-times marked. The 

ninth octave, represented by small letters 
with five lines above them. 

Octave, small, four-times marked. The 

eighth octave, represented by small letters 
with four lines above them. 

Octave, small, once-marked. The fifth oc- 
tave, indicated by small letters with one 
line above them. 

Octave, small, six-times marked. The tenth 
octave, indicated by small letters with six 
lines above them. 

Octave , smal i , th rice-marked . The seventh 
octave, indicated by small letters with three 
lines above them. 

Octave, small, twice-marked. The sixth oc- 
tave, indicated by small letters with two 
lines above them. 

Octaves, short. Those lower octaves of an 
organ the extreme keys of which, on ac- 
count of the omission of some of the inter- 
mediate notes, lie nearer to each other than 
those of the full octave. 

Octave staff. A system of notation intro> 
duced by a Mr. Adams, of New Jersey.which 
consists of three groups of lines combined, 
comprising three octaves of ordinary vocal 
music, dispensing with flats and sharps, and 
giving to each tone its own position. 

Octave stop. An organ-stop of four-feet pitch, 
hence an octave above the diapason ; the 
position of fingers for stopping the interval 
of an octave upon the fingerboard ; a me- 
chanical stop in reed-organs, coupling the 
keys an octave above, or borrowing within 
the instrument in such a manner that oo* 
tavcs result. 

Octavfltttchen (dk-t&rflofkh'n), Oer. An oc- 
tave flute; a flageolet. 

Octavfidte (ok-tafflcyte), Oer. Octave flute, 
flageolet; also an organ-stop of four-feet 

garm,9kaddf ftofe, $end, eetw, iiU,liale,6oUi,6odd, oomoon, ti but, H Fr.tound, kh Oer. cA. nhftotoC 





Octavfltttlein (dk-tfiffl5l/lln), Qer. An octave 

Octavfoiffen (6k-t&f-f61'gh6n), Ger. Octave- 
succession ; parallel motion by octaves. 

Octavin (6k-t&-v&nh), Fr, An organ-stop of 
two-feet scale. 

Octavine (dk-t&-venO. Ft, The small spinet. 

Octet. ) A composition for eight parts, or 
Octett. J for eight voices. 

Octetto (6k-tet't6), It An octet. 

Octo-bass. A monster double bass, invented 
by M. VuiUaume, of Paris. It is of colossal 
size, about twelve feet high. Stopping is 
effected by means of keys and pedals. The 
tone is full and strong without roughness. 

Octochord (dk'td-kord), Lot. An instrument 
like a lute, with eight strings. 

Octoplet. A group of eight notes of equal 
value, played in the time of nine or some 
other natural rhythmic group. 

Octuor (6k-tw6r), Fr. A piece in eight parts, 
or for eight voices or instruments. 

Ode.' A Greek word, signifying an air or 
song ; alvrical composition of greater length 
anavarieiy than a song, resembling the 

Odelet. A short ode. 

Odeon (6'd&-6n), Ger. > A building for odes. 
Odeum (d-d&-oom), LaJt. j A public build- 
ing for musical purposes. 

Oder (6'dfir), Oer. Or, or else ; fur ein Oder 
zwei Claviere, for one or two manuals. 

(Euvre (iivr), Fr. Work, composition, piece 
—a term used in numbering a composer's 
published works in the order of their publi- 

(Buvre premier (iivr pr6-mI-&')» Fr. The first 

Offen (of'f'n), Oer. Open. Applied to organ- 
pipes. Also used in composition. 

Offenbar (off n-b«ir), Oer. Open lo view, un- 

Offfenflttte (dff'n-flo'tS), Oer. An open-flute 
organ-stop. See also ClarabeUa. 

Offertoire (5f fertwfir), Fr. \ A hymn, 

Offertorio (of f6r t6'ri-6), It { prayer, 

Offertorium (of fSr-to'rl-oom), Lot, [ anthem, 
Offertory (6ff6r-t6-ry). ) or in- 

strumental piece sung or played during the 
collection of the offertory. 

Offertorio (offfir-to'rio), Sp. Offertory. 

Oficlelda (o-fI-kla-!-da), „ I The ophicleide; 
Oficleide (6-fi-kl&-!-de), ^'^' j a French bass 

Ohne (o'nfi), Oer. Without. 

Ohne Pedale (6'n3 pe-da'lS), Oer. Without 
the pedals. 

Oktave (dk-ta'fg), Oer. Octave, eighth. 

Ole (o'lS), Sp. (£1 ole.) Spanish dance with 
castanets, in slow 3-4 measure. 

Olio. A miscellaneous collection of musical 

Olivettes (6-11- vef), Fr. The dances of the 
peasants in the Provence after the olives are 

Omnes (dm'nSs), t^a \ 
Omnia (6m'ul-a), -""' j" 

All. See Turn. 


Omnitonique (Om-nl-tdn-ekO, Fr. Having all 
the tones. Capable of the whole chromatic 

Once-marked dctave. 

The name given in 

Germany to the notes 


inclusive; these notes are expressed 

small letters with one short stroke. 




Ondegglamento (dn - d&d - ji - & - m^n ' t6) , It. 
Waving : an undulating or tremulous mo- 
tion of the sound ; also a close shake on the 

OndeflTgiante (dn-d&d-jI-fin'tS), R. Waving, 
undinating, trembling. 

Ondul6 (6nh-du-la') , Fr. Waving, trembling. 

Onduliren (dn-doo-le'r'n), Oer. A tremulous 
tone iu singing or in playing the violin, etc. 

Onffarese (6n-ga-rft'z6), „ ) tt««»«,4«« 
Ongherese (6n-gh6 ra'ze).''*- / Hungarian. 

Onzieme (Onh-zhi-&m), Fr. Eleventh. 

Op. Abbreviation of Opus, work. 

Open diapason. An organ -stop, generally 
made of metal, and thus called because the 
pipes are open at the top. It commands 
the whole scale, and is the most important 
stop of the instrument. 

Open liarmonv. Chord-positions in which 
the upper three voices generally or uni- 
formly exceed the compass of an octave. 

Open note. A half-note, a whole note. 

Open pipes. Organ-pipes with open endd, 
instead of being closed with a stopper or 
chimney. All the free voices in an organ 
are produced by open pipes. All the volce« 
produced by stopped pipes are somewhat 
veiled in character, or flute-like. 

Open tone. A tone produced by an open 
string, or by a wind instrument without 
using the valve or keys. A tone open and 
free in quality. 

Oper (6'p6r), Oer. \ A drama set to music. 

Opera (o-p6-ra), II. j According to the best 
modern practice the opera consists of tJ- 
most every variety of music, not alone 
songs, duets, trios, and other concerted 
pieces, choruses, elaborate finales, and 
richly instrumented orchestral accompani- 
ment, but also melodramatic music, which 
accompanies the action, even in those mo- 
ments when there is no singing in prc^* 

Preludes and interludes are elaborate oiv 
chestral pieces, often reaching symphonic 

Opera music has for its problem to inter- 
pret the drama and to intensify its impres- 
sion, and in order to accomplish this it if 
at liberty to employ the complete resources 

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of the art, almost to an unrestricted de- 
gree. When there is a dramatic action pro- 
gressing^' before the eyes of the spectator, 
many strange musical combinations be- 
come intelligible which without such ex- 
planation would seem far-fetched or im- 
possible. Hence opera has had great in- 
fluence upon the progress of music as an 

Opera is divided into schools according 
to the emphasis placed upon the different 
elements composing it. French opera, for 
instance, places the text in the foremost 
place, and the dramatic movement next; 
nence it does not permit itself the arias 
and long musical pieces of the Italians, or 
of the Germans. German opera places the 
drama first, and the music second, not 
only as an accompaniment, but still more 
as a musical interpreter of the inuer spirit 
of the progressing actions, and of the 
drama as a whole. Italian opera places 
the voice and the art of singing first, and 
the drama second. Hence this school has 
produced the great bulk of arias which are 
available for concert performances, apart 
from the dramatic action. Most of the 
German arias existing are available for 
separate performance, having been com- 
posed after Italian principles. 

Opera was first invented about the year 
1600, as a sort of revival of the classic Greek 
drama. Its greatest works have been com- 
posed within the present century, or im- 
medUtely before it (1790 to 1895). 

^Ipcra bufffa (6^p^r& hoof fft), It. An opera 
upon a comic or farcical subject, in wnich 
music is treated lightly and for the pur- 
pose of pleasing. The farce is the main 
tiling. Oocasionally high-class opera is d is- 
tinctly burlesqued, giving rise to buffa 
arias; the absurdity may be musical or 
may turn upon the text. 

Opera buffe (6^p^rft boof-f£), i2. Comic opera. 

Operiik comic. An opera interspersed with 
lighv songs, amusing incidents, dances, etc. 

Opera dl camera (d'p^-nl dS k&'me-r&), It. A 
short opera to be performed in a room. 

Opera, grtuid. An opera consisting of a deep 
and intricate plot and a great variety of in- 
cidental events. 

OD^ra h^roique (6-p&-rft h&-r^SkO, Fr. An 

neroic opera. 
Opera-libretto. The text of an opera ; a small 

book containing the words of an opera. 

Op^ra lyrique (6-p&-r& leer-eekO- Fr. A lyric 
opera; an opera in which the songs are 
lyrical rather than dramatic; i.e., do not 
lend tbemspclves to the progress of the ac- 
tion, but are simply pleasing and, perhaps, 
expressive pieces of music. 

Opera seria fd'p^rft s&'rI-&), It. \ A seri- 

Op^ra sirieux (6-pft-rft si-rl-tXh), Pr. j ous, or 

tragic, opera. 
Operatic. In the style of an opera. 

Operetta (6-p^r6f t&), U. A small opera, of 
light and pleasing character. It may be 
simply comedy, or it may even degenerate 
into uirce. 

Opemdichter (d'pftm-dikh'tfir) , Oer. A n oper- 
atic poet ; writer of operatic librettos. 

Ophicleide (6f1-klld). A large bass wind in- 
strument of brass, of modern invention, 
sometimes used in large orchestras, but 
chiefly in military music. It has a compass 
of three octaves, and the tone is loud and of 
deep pitch. 

Ophicleide stop. The most powerful manual 
reed-stop known in an organ, of 8- or 4-feet 
scale, and is usually placed upon a separate 
soundboard, with a great pressure of wind. 

Ophicleidist. A performer on the ophicleide. 

Opus (d'poos), Lai. \ Work, composition; as. 
Opus (d'poos), Ger. jOp. 1, the flrst work, or 
publication, of a composer. 

Opuflculum (o-poos'koo-loom), Lot, A short, 
or little, work. 

Opus posthumnm (d^poos pdst-hoo'moom). 
Lot. A posthumous work, pjiblished after 
the death of a composer. 

Orag« (5 r&zh'), Fr. A storm ; a composition 
imitating a storm. 

Oratoire (6r-a-twftr'), Fr. Oratorio. 

Oratorio. A musical work upon a Biblical 
subject, consisting of solos, choruses, or- 
chestral accompaniment, and containing an 
implied action or story. Oratorio is port of 
the great *' stllo raupresentativo " in music, 
the art of representing something by means 
of music, or accompanied by music. Orig- 
inally the same as an opera with religious 
intention, and adapted for ufo as part of 
a festival church service, it has digressed 
into something much more elaborate. The 
great oratorios aim at the noble, the heroic, 
and the sublime in dramatic and historical 
conception no Itss than in musical execu- 
tion. Hence it is in this department that 
music has found itself unfettered by the ne- 
cessity of pleasing or of adapting itself to 
moderate conditions. The ideal has been 
sought, regardless of lesser cnuHiderations, 
hence such works as those of Handel, Bach, 
lind many by later writers. 

Oratorio (6-r&-t6'rI-6), H. 
Oratorium (d'r&-t5'rl-oom), Ixit. 
Oratorlum (d'rft-td'rX-oom), Ger 

Orchestra (or'kSs-trSl). A full company of in- 
struments and players. A modem sym- 
phony orchestra consists of about 80 to 100 
players, in the following proportions: Vi- 
olins, 40; violas, 'cellos, and basses, SO; 
oboes, flutes, clarinets, and bassoons, 11; 
horns, trumpets, and trombones, 9; tym- 
pani and percussion, 4 ; total, 94. If further 
enlai^ement is desired, the strings are 
strengthened. In modem practice the or- 
chestra is handled in groups, forming a 
string orchestra, the wood wind and the 
brass. ThesegroupBoftencontra&twitheach 
other throughout a work, playing all to- 



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gether in the most intense portions only. 
(2) Also the place in which the players sit 
to play, or the part of the auditorium near- 
est the place of the players. 

Orchester (dr'k«s-t«r), OerA 

Orchestra (6r-k&8'tm). It. >>The orchestra. 

Orcheatre (dr-kfistr), Fr, ) 

Orchesterverein (6r-k6s't6r-v6r-rinO.G'er. An 
orchestral society; instrumental associa- 

Orcheatratldii . The art of writing or arrang- 
ing music for an orchestra. The greatest 
writers upon this subject are Berlioz and F. 
A. Gevaert. The greatest masters of the art 
itself have been Berlioz, Beethoven, Mozart, 
Weber, and Wagner. There are now many 
modern masters who excel in the art of or- 
chebtral coloring. 

Orchestrer (Or-k6s-tr&')» ^r. To score. 

Orchestrina (Or-kes-tre'n&). \ An instrument 
Orchestrion (Or-k^tri-dn). j composed of 
pipes and other sounding apparatusect, play- 
ed automatically (by means of a barrel) for 
the imitation of orchestral effects. Many of 
these instruments are of great size, and pro- 
duce extraordinarily fine effects. 

Ordinarlo (dr-dl-na'ri-d). It. Ordinary, usual, 
common; a tempo ordiruiriOt in the usual 

Orecchia (6-rfc'kX-&), „ I The ear 
Orecchio (o-ralci-^), "''• i ^'^^ ®"- 

Orecchia muslcale (d-rinci-il moo-zl-kaae), It. 
A musical ear. 

Orecchlante (6-ra'ki-&n-te), It, Singing by ear. 

Organ. A kevboard instrument in which 
sound is produced by means of pipes which 
are blown on the principle of whistles, by 
means of compressed air which comes from 
the windchests and bellows, along wind- 
trunks, and is admitted to the pipes by 
the opening of a pallet, or valve, actuated 
by*the player's finger upon a key. 

An organ may have from one to five key- 
boards, and from one to twenty stops (or 
sets of pipes) to each keyboard. The key- 
bocu*ds played by the hands are called man- 
uals ; those which the feet plav are called 
pedales. The latter are used for the very 
low bass tones only. 

A stop is a set of pipes voiced all alike, 
one pipe to each key of the keyboard to 
which the stop appertains. 

The usual number of pipes in a stop is 
sixty-one, but mixtures have from three to 
five times as many, and a corresponding 
multiplication of sounds. 

The stops are claiisified as diapason, fiute, 
string, and reed. The former lurnish the 
foundation, the others are for specialties 
of tone. 

Pipes are of wood or metal, the latter a 
special alloy of lead and tin, the tin in 
good examples reaching fifty percent, or 

In former times each kev pulled down a 
long pallet, or valve, and when several key- 

boards were coupled, the touch was ex- 
tremely heavy. In modem organs the ac- 
tion is pneumatic or electric. In the latter 
case the parts of the organ can be dis' 
tributed in any convenient pl^ce without 
impairing the organist's control over them ; 
but when a pipe stands too far away «o 
much time is lost in the sound coming 
that blurring is often produced. 

When there are four manuals, the most 
important is called the great, the next the 
swell, the choir, and the solo. At present; 
nearly or quite all the manual stops are 
made louder or softer by means of swells, 
and there is no settled order of placing the 
manuals, except that the choir organ is 
generally lowest, the great next, the swell 
next, and the solo uppermost. 

The wind pressure often varies in differ- 
ent parts of the same organ from what is 
called •' three-inch" to '* five-inch '' or •' six- 
inch "—the dimensions having reference to 
a column of water which the pressure will 
balance. About three-and-a-hailf-incb wind 
is normal for small halls ; solo stops take 
the higher pressures. 

Owing to the modem improvements in 
the organ it is now capable of much ex- 
pression, and in point of sustained power 
and massiveness of tone it is as often 
called the "king of instruments." Great 
improvements have been made in the art 
of voicing, whereby modern organs repro- 
duce orchestral effects with considerable 

Organ, barrel. A hand organ. 

Organ, bellows. A machine for supplying 
the pipis of an organ with wind. 

Organ-blower. One who works the bellowi 
of an organ. 

Organ, buffet. A very small organ. 

Organe (dr-g&n), Fr. An organ. 

Organ, enharmonic. ) An instrument oi 
Organ, enharmonic, j American origin, con* 
taining three or four times the usual num- 
ber of distinct sounds within the compass 
of an octave, furnishing the precise inter- 
vals for every key, the tones comprising the 
scale of each key being produced by press- 
ing a pedal corresponding to its keynote. 
Organetto (dr-g&-net'td), It, A smaU organ. 

Organ, hand. A common wind instrument 
carried about the street, consisting of a 
cylinder, turned by hand, the revolunon of 
which, causing the machinery to act upon 
the keys, produces a number of well-lmowii 
airs and tunes. 

Organ, harmonium. A reed instrument, the 
reeds of which are voiced to imitate organ- 

Organique (6r-gfin-ek), Fr. Relating to the 

Orgelmusik (dr ' gh'l - moo - zIOl% Qer. Organ 

Organist. A player on the organ. 

Organista (or-gft-nes'tfi). It. \ . nrnAJiXat 
Organista (6r-g&-nes'ta), Sp. ] ^^ organist. 

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Orffanlstrum (dr-g&-n!8'troom). Lot. An an- 
cient instrument of the hurdygurdy varie- 
ty, in which strings were actuated by wheel, 
and the tones controlled by keys acting up- 
on the keyboard. In use about 1100 A. D. 

Orffani vocall (or-gfi'ne v6-ka'le), It pi. The 
vucal organs. 

Orsan-loft. That part of the gallery of a 
church where the organ is placed. 

Orffano (Or-ga'no), II. An organ. 

Orsano pieno (6r-ga'n6 pe-a'n6). It. \ The 
Orffano pleno (6r-ga'n6 pia'nd), Lat. )fu\l or- 
gan with all the stops drawn. 

Offfano portatile (6r-ga'n6 p6r-tfi'tl-16), It. A 
portable organ. 

Onpano' simplex (dr-g&'nd sIm'plSx), Lat. A 
term occurring frequently in the writings 
of the musical monks, and seems to mean 
the unisonous accompaniment of a single 
voice in the versicles of the service. 

Orsan point. A long pedal note, or station- 
ary bass, upon which is formed a series of 
chords, or narmonic progressions. 

Orffkn tone. A tone that commences, con- 
tinues, and closes with a uniform degree 
of power. 

Offfanum. A word used in various senses 
by the ancient composers. Sometimes it 
meant the organ itself; at other times it 
meant that kind of choral accompaniment 
which comprehended the whole harmony 
then known, also a brazen vessel forming a 
principal part of the hydraulic organ. 

Orgel (or'ghei), Ger. An organ. 

Or^lbalge (oi/ghei-b&VghS), Qer. Organ • bel- 

Oncelbank (dr'ghgl-bS.nk), Oer. Organist's 

Orgfelbauer (6r'gh6l-bou'6r), Oer, Organ- 

Orsrelbfihne (6r'gh6l-bii'n6), q \ ormm-loft 
Offfelchor (6r'gh61-k6r), ^^' / "rgan-io". 

Onpclgehiusc (6r'gh6l-gh6-hoy'z6), Oer. Or- 

Offfelkasten (di/ghei-k&s't'n), Ger. A cabinet 
organ ; organ-case. 

Orffelklang: (dr'ghSl-kl&ng), Ger. Sound or 
tone of an organ. 

Offfelkunst (dr'ghdl-koonst), Ger. The art of 
organ-playing ; art of constructing an organ. 

Orcein (or'gSln), Ger. To play on the organ. 

Orgelplclle (6r'gh61-pfl'f6), Ger. Organ-pipe. 

Orgelplatz (or'ghfil-plfits), Ger. Organ-loft. 

Offfelpunkt (or'ghfil-poonkt'), Ger. Organ 
point; pedal point. 

Orsrelre^ster (6r'gh6l-r6-ghl8't'r), Ger. Or- 

Orselschule (dr^gSl - shooQS), Ger. School or 
method for the organ. 

Offfcispiel (dr'ghgl-spel), Ger. Playing on an 
organ ; piece played on an organ. 

Orgelspieler (dr'ghei-sp^er), £^. x.r organ- 

Orgelstein (dr'ghSl-stln), Ger. Pan*£ fSBbB. 

Orgelstimmen (dr'gh^-Btitm'mto); Ger. Bow 
of pipes in an organ. 

Or^lstiicke (6r'ghei-8ta'k«), Ger. Oxgas 

Orgeltrcter (6r'gh6l-tra't6r), Ger. Organ- 
treader, bellows-tender, or bellows-blower. 

Orgelvirtiidse (6r'gh61-vXr-too-5'ze), Ger. An 
'accomplished organ-player. 

Orgelzus: (dr'ghgl-tsoog'), Ger. Organ-stop, or 
row of pipes. 

Orsfue (6rg), Fr. An organ. 

Offfue de salon (6rg ddh 8&-16nh), » ^ The 
Offfue expressif (6rg €gz-pra-8ef), -^ ' ) har- 

OfflTue hydraulique (drg hl-dr6-iek), JFV. Hy> 
draulic organ ; water organ. 

Offfue plein (Org pl&nh), Fr. Full organ; 
all the stops drawn. 

Offfue portatif (6rff pdr-t&-tef), ) 

Orirue portatif de barbarie (drg p6r-tfi- V Fr, 

tef dtlh bar-b&-re>. ( 

A portable organ, a barrel organ, a street 


Orgue positif (drg p6-zl-tef), Fr. The choir 
organ in a large organ ; also a small fixed 
organ, thus named in opposition to a porta* 
tive organ. 

Orgues de barbarie (6rg dfth bS,r-b&-rS), JFV. 
Barbarian organs— an epithet applied by the 
French to street organs. 

Original kev. The key in which a composi- 
tion is written. 

Ornamental notes. Appoegiaturas, grace 
notes; all notes not forming an essential 
part of the harmony, but introduced as em- 

Ornament! (6r-n&-m€n't€), R. pi. Ornaments, 
graces, embellishments, as the appoggiap 
tura, turn, shake, etc. 

Omatamente (6r-n&-ta-mto't6), „\ O r n a - 
Ornato (6r-nft't6). •''•j mented, 

adorned, embellished. 

Ornate (dr-n&f)- A style of music, or musical 
execution, highly ornamental. 

Omements (drn-m&nh), Fr. Graces, embel- 

Orotund. A mode of intonation directly 
from the larynx, which has a fullness, 
clearness, smoothness, and ringing quality 
which form the highest perfection of the 
human voice. 

Orphan (dr-f&'6nh), j^ | Species of mu- 

Orpbeoron (6r-fa'6-r6nh), ) sical instru- 
ments, of which nothing is now known. 

Orpheus (Or'fS-Qs). A poet in Greek m3rthol- 
ogy, said to have the power of movinfi^ in" 
animate bodies by the music of his lyrA. 
The myth of Orpheus relates that by the 

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|K>wer of hiB musio he yisited the lower 
9C orld and brought back to life his departed 
r&servanza (ds-8dr-yfin't8&), It. Obserration, 
attention, strictness In keeping time. 

2Sa%?S^k), -»• } O'' otherwise, or else. 

Ossia pin facile (6a-B&S. p€-oo f&'tshM«), It. 
Or else in this more easy manner. 

Ostinato (ds-tl-nfi'td). It. Obstinate, contin- 
' uous, iinceaslDg ; adhering to some peculiar 
melodial figure, or group of notes. 

Ottava (dt-ta'vH), It. An octave, an eighth. 

Ottava alta (ot-ta'Y& &Vt&), It. The octave 
above ; an octave higher; marked thus, 8va. 

Ottava bassa (dt-ta'va b&s'sfi), It. The octave 
below ; marked thus, 8va bassa. 

Ottava supra (fitrWyS. soo'pr&), It. The oc- 
tave above. 
Ottavlna (dt-t&-ve'n&), It. The higher octave. 

Ottavino (dt-t&-ve'n6). It, The flauto piccolo, 
or small octave flute. 

Ottemole. A group of eight notes, marked 
with the figure 8. 

Ottetto (ot-tet'td). It. A composition In eight 
parts, or for eight voices or instruments. 

Ou (oo), Fr. Or. 

Ougab (oo-g&b), Heb. An ancient instnimeut 
formed of reeds of unequal lengths boun^ 

Onie (oo-€), Fr. The hearing ; Vouie d'un in> 
strvmentf the soundhole of an instrument. 

Outer voices. The highest and lowest voices^ 

Out of tune. Want of tune; discord. 

Ouvert (oo-vftr), Fr. Open. 

Overture (oo-v&r-tiir), Fr. \ An introduo 
Overtura (d-vfir-too'ra), It. [ tory symphony 
OuvertUre (6-f6r-tti'r6), Ger. [ to an oratorio, 
Overture. J opera,etCM gen- 

erally consisting of three or four different 
movements ; also an independent piece tor 
a full band or orchestra, in which case it Lr 
called a concert overture and resembles a 
sonata-piece with introduction. 

Overtura di ballo (d-ver-too'r& de b&l'ld). It. 
An overture composed upon or introduo> 
lug dance melodies. 

Overstrung pianoforte. Where the strings of 
at least two of the lowest octaves are raued, 
running diagonally in respect to the other 
strings above them. 

P. Abbreviation for Piano; also for Poco. 
Thus. p. a p., poco a poco. Also abbrevia- 
tion for Parte, as, coUa p., colla parte. 

Padigiione (pft-del-yi-d^n^), B. The beU of 
wind instruments. 

Padovano, Padavane, or Paduane (p&-do-va'- 
nd), It. Faduan. An Italian dunce in ter- 
nary rhythm. Sometimes considered to be 
the same as Pavan, which, however, is by 
no means certain. 

Paisana (pa-I-z§,'n&), Sp. A Spanish country 

Palco (pal'kd). It. The stage of a theater. 

Pallet. A spring valve in the windchest of an 
organ covering a channel leading to a pipe 
or pipes. 

Palmadilhi(p&l-ma-dei'y&), £^. A Spanish 

Pan. One of the deities in Grecian mjrthol- 
ogj, so called because he exhilarated the 
minds of all the gods with the music of his 
pipe which he invented, and with the cith- 
ern, which he played skillfully as soon as he 
was bom. 

PanathensB (p&'n&-th&'nS), Or. An Athenian 
festival at which contests in singing and 
Trlaying on the fiute and cithera were held. 

Pandean pipes. ) Ond of the most ancient 
Pan's pipes. jand simple of musical in< 
struments ; it was made of reeds or tubes 
of different lengths, fastened together and 
tuned to each other, stopped at the bottom 
and blown into by the mouth at the top. 

Pandoran (pftn -dd'r&n) , Gr.'\ An ancient 
Pandora (pan-do'rft), 7K, / stringed iustru- 
Pandore (pan-do'rS), Ger. Vmentresem- 
Pandura (pan-doo'ra), /it. i bling a lute, a 
Pandurc (panh'diir), Fr. J small Polish 
lute, a bandore. See Bandora. 

PanflOte (p&n-flo'te), Ger, Pandean pipes. 

Panharmonicon. An automatic instrument 
invented by Maelzel, which produced the 
sounds of a variety of instruments A kind 
of orchestrion. 

Pantaleone (p&n'tft-l&d'ne). An instrument 
invented by Pantaleon Hebenstreit, and 
much celebrated in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. It was more than nine 
feet long, nearly four feet wide, and had 
one hundred and eighty-six strings of gut; 
which were played on with two small sticks 
like the dulcimer. 

Pantalon (p&nh-ta-16nh). Fr, One of the 
movements of the quadrille. 

Pantomime. An entertainment in which not 
a word is spoken or sung, but the sentiments 






are expressed by mimicry and gesticulation 
accompanied by instrumental music. 

Pantoniimlst. One who acts in a pantomime. 

PapaKenofl»te(pfi-pfi-glia'n6-fld'te),<?er. Pan's 
pipe- mouth organ. 

Parallelbewegung ( p&-r&-iei - be -wft ' goong), 
Oer. Parallel motion. On consecutives. 

Parallel intervals. Intervala passing in two 
I>arallel parts in the same direction ; con- 
secutive Interyals. 

Parallel keys. The major and its relatiye 

Parallel motion. The motion of two voices 
in the same direction in equal intervals, 
whereby the same distance is maintained 
continually. All forms of parallel motion 
are weak contrapuntally, except parallel 
octaves when used for strengthening a mel- 
ody. In this sense they are in constant use 
in all laige compositions. Parallel thirds 
and sixths are weak because when this 
motion is maintained for more than three 
steps in succession, the second voice be- 
comes the mere satellite of the first. Paral- 
lel fifths are invariably wrong when audi- 
ble. They imply a faulty progression of 
fundamental harmonies. 

Paralleltonarten ( pa-ra-iei-tCn-ar-fn }, Oer, 
Parallel keys. Related keys. Keys having 
many tones in common. 

Paraphrase. An explanation of some text 
or passage in a more clear and ample man- 
ner than is expressed in the words of the 
author. A free transcription of an air or 
passage for some instrument other than 
that for which it was originally cumpobed. 

Parfalt (pckr-fftO, Fr. Perfect, as to intervals, 

Parland.o (p&r-l&n'd6), » ) Accented ; in a 
Parlante (par-lan'tfi) ' j declamatory style ; 

in a recitative or speaking style. 

Parnassus. A mountain in Greece, celebrat- 
ed in mythology as sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses, and famous, also, for the Castil- 
ian Spring and the temple of Apollo. ' 

Parody . Music or words slightly altered and 
adapted to some new purpose. 

Part. The music for each separate voice or 

Parte (n&r'tS), B. A part or portion of a com- 
position ; a part or rdle in an opera. 

Parte cantante (pAr'td c&n-t&n'te), It. The 
singing or vocal part ; the principal vocal 
part having the melody. 

Parterre (par-t&rrO, Fr, The pit of a theater. 

Partial turn. A turn consist- 
ing of the chief note and 
three small notes, the lead- 
ing note of which may be 
either a large or small second above the 

Parti di ripieno (par':td dS r6-pl-&'nd), 72. 
Parts not obligato; supplementary parts. 

Partlo (p&r-te), i^V. See Parte. 


0fi ^ 


Parties de rempllssage (p&r-t€ dtih r&nh-plS- 
sazh), Fr. Parts which fill up the middle 
harmony between the bass and upper part. 

Partimento (pflr-tit-mSn'ta), It. An exercise, 
figured bass. 

Partita (par-te't&), It. An old term synony- 
mous with variation. 

Partition (par-t§-^-6nh), i^V. ^ A score, a full 
Partitur (par-tl-toor), Cfer. [ score, or en- 
Partitura (pfirtl-too'ra), It. f tire draft of 
Partizione(par-te-tsI-^ne),i2. j a composi- 
tion for Yoice.s or instruments, or both. 

Partito (par-te'to). It. Scored, divided into 

Partiturspiel (pftr-tl-toor'spel, Oer. Playing 
from the score. 

Partsongs. Songs for voices in parts, intro* 
duced in Germany in the present century. 

Pas (pa), Fr. A step, a dance. 

Paspie (pas'pl-a), Sp. A kind of dance. 

Paspy. See Fasscpied. 

Pas redouble (pa r€-doo-bl&), Fr. A quicli> 
step ; an increased, redoubled step. 

Passacaglio (pas-sa-karyl-o), iZ. > A species 

Passacaule ( pfts-t^a-kai). Fr. j of chacone, 

a slow dance with divisions on a ground 

bass in 3-4 time and always in a minor key. 

Passage. Any phrase or short portion of an 
air, or other composition. Every member 
of a strain or movement is a passage. 

Passaggio (pas-sad'Jl-d), It. A passage or series 

of notes. 

Passamezzo (pas-8a-m#f sd), H. An old slow 
dance, little differing from the action of 

Passepied (pass-pl'ft), Fr. A sort of jig; 
lively old French dance in 8-4, 8-8, or 6-8 
time; a kind of quick minuet, with three 
or more strains or reprises, the first consist- 
ing of eight bars. 

Pas seul (p& sdl), Fr. A dance by one par 


Passing modulation. A transient modulation. 

Passing tones. Dissonances introduced upon 
the weak part of the beat, leading across 
from one consonant tone to another, by 
conjunct movement, or stepwise, and not 
by skips. 

Passionata (p&s-sX-d-na'ta), 
Passionatamente(pas-sI-6-na-ta-mto't6), i „ 
Passionate ( pas-d-d-na't€), '' ^^ 

Passionatd (pa-sl-d na't6), 

Passionate, impassioned, with fervor and 


Passione, (pas-sl-d'ne), i2. Passion, tetuiug. 

Passion music. Music composed for descno 
ing the Passion of our Lord. Used in Holy 

Passlonsmusik, (pSs - sX - 6ns - moo - zSkO, Oer, 
Passion music. 

Pasticio (pas-tet'tshi-d). It. \ A medley, an 
Pastiche (pas'tesh) Fr. j o p e r a made up 







of flongfl, etc., bj various composers; the 
poetry being written to the music, instead 
of the music to the poetry. 

Pastoral. A musical drama, the personages 
and scenery of which are chiefly rural. A 
pastoral is also any lyrical production, the 
subject of which is taken from rural life ; 
and the Italians give the same name to an 
instrumental composition written in the 
pastoral style. 

Past6rale(pas-t5-r&a«),jR.\ Pastoral, rural, 
Pastorelle (pas-td'rei). JV. )belongingtoa 

shepherd; a soft movement in a pastoral 

and rural style. 

Pastoral fflnte. Shepherd's flute. 

Pastourelle (p&s-too-reil'), -FV. One of the 
movements of a quadrille. 

Patetica (p&-ta'ti ka), It. Pathetic. 

Pateticamente (pa-t&'tl-karmto't^). It. Pa- 

Patetico (pgrta'tl-k6), B. ) 
Pathaique (pa-t&tek). Ft. \ Pathetic. 
Pathetiach (piUt&'tlsh). Qer. ) 

Pathetic. Applied to music when it excites 
emotions of sorrow, pity, sympathy, etc. 

Patimento (partit-mSn'td), It. Affliction, grief, 

Patriotic. Songs having for their theme love 

of country. 
Pauker (poulcer), Qer, Kettledrummer. 

Pausa (^-oo'za), HA l ^auae 
Pausa (pou'za). Lot. J ^ P*^^' 

Pause (pou'zg), Qer, A rest. 

Pause. A characteif (/7\) which lengthens 
the duration of a note, or re«t, over which 
it 'is placed, beyond its natural value, or at 
the pleasure of the performer. When placed 
over a double bar ft shows the termination 
of the movement or piece. 

Pause demi (i>dz d6-me'), Fr, A minim rest. 

Pavan, Eng. ) A grave, stately 

Pavana (|^-v&'n&), It. > dance, which took 
Pavane (pa-vUnh'), Fr. y its name from pavo^ 
a peacock. It was danced by princes in 
their mantles, and ladies in gowns with 
long trains whose motions resembled those 
of a peacock's tail. It was in 3-4 time and 
generally in three strains, each of which 
was repeated. 

Paventato (pa-v6n-ta't6>, « \ Fearful, tlm- 
Paventoso ( pa-v6n-t6'z6) ,^' jorous, with 
anxiety and embarrassment. 

Pavllllon (pa-v6-y6nh), Fr. The bole of a horn 
or other wind instrument. 

MBvillkon chinols (p&-ve-ydnh she-nwa/ > 
An instrument consisting of an upright pole 
with numerous little bells, which impart 
brilliancy to lively pieces and pompous 
military marches. 

Peal. A set of bells tuned to each other • the 
changes rung upon a set of bells. 

Pean. A peean ; a song of praise. 

Ped. An abbreviation of Pedal. 

Pedal. A lever operated by the foot. Organ- 
pedals are keys corresponding to those sji 
the key-manual, which command the low 
basses. The general compass of an ornin- 
pedalier is two octaves and a half, from CCC 
to F. The pedals are played by both feet, 
using heel and toe as convenient. The use 
of the toe is indicated by the mark V* over 
the note for the right foot, or under It ifor 
the left. The heel is indicated in the same 
manner by the sign O. 

The organ has also other pedals called 
"composition pedals," which command 
certain combinations of stops. There are, 
moreover, what are called "swell-pedals," 
which operate the swell-blinds, and shut 
in or liberate the sound. Swell-pedals are 
simply plain levers, which may oe flxed by 
a racket at any position desired, or, more 
commonly, " balanced,'* operated by the 
heel and toe, and remaining at any point 

The pianoforte has two or three pedals. 
That upon the right is called the damper^ 
pedal, and its office is to raise the dampers 
from the keys, either for permitting tones 
to continue after the fingers have left the 
keys or for promoting sympathetic reso- 
nance. The use of the damper- pedal is in- 
dicated by the character Ped., and its cessa- 
tion by the mark :fe or -0-. The damper- 
pedal is used very many times where no 
marks appear. It is permissible everywhere, 
subject to the foliowinR restrictions: 1, 
that no blurring of melody or harmony 
(intermingling of dissimilar harmonic ele- 
ments) is made by its use; 2. that the in- 
dicated phrasing is not covered up by it. 

The pedal at the extreme left is called 
the "soft pedal." On grand pianos it shifts 
the action so that the hammers citrike upon 
only two of the three stri:igs of the unison. 
In the upright it brings the nammers nearer 
the strings. Its use is indicated by the words 
Una corda, or Verachi^mng, and its discon< 
tinuance by the words " tre corde." The 
soft pedal is permissible whenever it is de* 
sired to dimmish the volume of sound. 

When there is a third pedal (between the 
two others) it is generally- a tone-sustaining 
pedal, whose office it is to sustain a tone 
taken while it is in use, whereas the damper« 

¥edal operates all the dampers togetner. 
he tone -sustaining pedal is in effect a 
damper -pedal whicn operates upon only 
tiie single tone or chord which may be held 
At the moment when the pedal is pressed. 
These will be sustained as long as the pedal 
is held, while all that mav be taken during 
its use will be unaffected. This device is 
more and more important as the vibration 
of the pianoforte becomes loriger. 

The narp is furnished with eight pedals, 
of which the middle one merely opens or 
closes the little panel in the sounding-case, 
and corresponds to the name soft and loud 
pedal. The seven pedals along tne sides are 
named for the notes which they severally 
affect. A, B, etc. The harp is set in the key 

karm,&add, a oie, € end, devf *<tt, ii0le,d old, 6odd, oo moon, Hbutj \i Fr.toitnd, kh <?er. ch, nhfiOMi. 





of Ob- When a pedal is depressed to its first 
notch, it revolves a disk which shortens the 
strings of the same name throughout the 
instrument, raising the pitch a naif-step; 
when depressed to the second notch it raises 
the pitch a whole step. Hence, when the A 
pedal is depressed one notch it makes all 
the A-flats A-natural; and when to its sec- 
ond notch it makes them A-sharp. In this 
way the instrument is adjusted to any de- 
sired signature, and accidentals are intro- 
duced in this way In the course of a piece. 
The pedals here described are what are 
called " double-acting," and were invented 
by Sebastian Erard, about 1823. 

The reed organ and the harmonium have 
two pedals, which are employed in operat- 
ing the bellows. 

Pedalclaves (pe-dalTtla'/gs), _ q^ \ 

Pedalclavlatliripe-dal'kia'vi-a-toor'),^^- / 

The pedal keyboard in an organ. 
Pedale, doppelte (p6-da'ie d6p'p61-t6), Oer. \ 
Pedale doppio (p6-da'16 d6p'pi-o), It, \ 

Double pedals, in organ-playing; playing 

the pedals with both feet at once. 
Pedale d'offfano (pe-da'l^ d'dr'ga^nd), It, The 

pedals of an oigan. 
PMales (pfi'dal), Fr. pi. The pedals. 
PMales de combinelson, JV. Combination 

Pedalffiasel (pe-dal'flu'g'l), Get, A grand piano 

with a pedal keyboard. 
Pedalharle (p6-dai'har'f6), (S»cr.) ) A harp 

Pedalharp* , J ^*" P®^" 

aJs, to produce the semitones. 

Pedalfera (p6-da-H-a'ra), It, The pedal keys of 
an organ. 

PedfcCkeys. That set of keys belonging to 
an organ, or similar instrument, which is 
played by the feet. 

Pedal note. A note held by the pedal, or the 
bass voice, while the harmony formed by 
the other parts proceeds independently. 

Pedal Point. A harmonic phrase, consisting 
of a single tone prolonged, while the re- 
maining voices proceed with chords many 
of which are dissonant with the prolonged 
tone. The opening and closing chords 
must be those of the prolonged tone. Ped- 
al point derives its name from the pedal 
of the organ, which originally held the 

Srolonged tone. Pedal points are some- 
[mes made with a soprano tone, but not 
so often. 
Pentachord. An instrument with five strings, 
a scale or system of five diatonic sounds. 

Pentatonic scale. A scale of five notes, some- 
times called the Scotch scale, and similar to 
the modern diatonic major scale, with the 
fourth and seventh degrees omitted— do, re, 
mi, sol, la, do; or, in minor, la, do, re, mi, 
sol, la. In use the seventh degree is some- 
times introduced as a passing tone just at 
the close. This is probably a modern In- 

Penultimate (pe-ntLl'tl-mat). The last sylla- 
ble but one. 
Per (par). It. For, by, through, in. 

Percussion. ) Striking, 

Percussione (pfir-koos-sl-o'ne), It. ) as ap- 
plied to instruments, notes, or chords ; or 
the touch on the pianoforte. A general 
name for all instruments that are struck, as 
a gong, drum, bell, tabor, etc. 

Perdendo (p6r-d6n'd6), » ) Gradually 

Perdendosi (p6r-d6n-d6'zi), ^'- J d e creasing 
the tone and the time ; dying away, becom- 
ing extinct. 

Perfect. A term applied to certain intervals 
and chords. 

Perfect cadence. Dominant harmony fol- 
fowed by that of the tonic ; a close upon 
the keynote preceded by the dominant. 

Perfect close. A perfect cadence. 
Perfect concords. ) These are the uni- 
Perfect consonances, j son, the perfect 

fourth, perfect fifth, and the octave. 

Perfect fifth. An interval equal to three 
whole tones and one semitoae. 

Perfect fourth. An interval equal to two 
whole tones and one semitone. 

Perfect octave. An interval equal to five 
whole tones and two semitones. 

Perfetto (p6r-f6t'to. It. Perfect, complete. 

Perisourdine (pSr-I-gOor-den). A French 
dance in 3-8 time. 

Period ^ A complete musical 

P^riode (pa-rl-6d), Fr. > sentence. A pe- 
Periode (p6-Ti-6'd6), It) riod. The simple 
period consists of eight measures, disposed 
in two sections of similar extent and rhyth- 
mic construction ; each section is also com- 
posed of two phrases, and each phrase of 
two motives. Hence the following scheme : 


Phrase. Phrase. 




The two sections of the period stand to- 
wards each other in the relation of subject; 
and predicate, or, as formerly called, Pro- 
tasis (awakening expectation), and Apoda- 
sis (answering expectation). In simple 
lyric periods the two phrases of the sec- 
tion often bear a similar relation to each 
other, the first phrase awakening exp<H;ta- 
tion and the second partially answering 
it ; the third phrase repeats the first, and 
the fourth completes the answer. Hence 
the scheme of a lyric period, of which ex- 
amples are numerous, as, for instance, in the 
first eight or sixteen measures of almost 
any Beethoven slow movement. 

Sulijeot. Partial Answer. Subjeet. Complete Answer. 
Phrase A. Phrase B. Phrase C (A). Phrase D 

<B modified). 






Certain IfaeoristB apply the names Phrase 
and Section in reycned order to this, call- 
ing the smaller member a section, and 
the half-period a phrase. This usage is not 
so well sanctioned, and is not so consonant 
with best German usage. 

Periods are shortened by cutting short a 
measure in the last phrase, or lengthened 
by repeating the cadence, with or without 

A complex period is one in which one or 
more sections are repeated. See " Primer 
of Musical Form." (W. 8. B. M.) 

A dependent period is one which depends 
upon something else to complete the sense. 
This may have oeen already advanced in a 
preyious period, in which case the depend- 
ent period will begin upon some chord 
other than its own tome —generally its 
dominant ; it will finally end with a com- 
plete cadence upon the tonic. More prop- 
erly, however, the dex>endence is shown by 
an imperfect cadence upon the dominant 
instead of the tonic, in which case another 

Eeriod has the task of fully completing it 
y presenting its leading idea ana fully an- 
swering it upon its own tonic. Any period 
which ends upon some other than its own 
tonic chord is dependent. 

Piriode musicale (p&-rI-M mil-zfi-k&l), Fr, 
A musical period. 

PerlAdenban (p€-rI-dM'n-bou'), Oer. Compo> 
sition; the construction of musical peri- 

Perl6 (p^r-lft), Fr, Pearled, brilliant ; cadence 
perlee, brilliant cadence. 

Perpetual fugue. A canon so constructed 
thHt its termination leads to its beginning, 
and hence may be perpetually repeated. 

Perpetuo (p&r-p&'too-d), B. PerpetuaL 

Perpetuum mobile (p6r-p&'too-oom md^bi-ld). 
Lot. Perpetual motion. A name applied to 
certain compositions which go rapidly and 
without opportunity of pause. 

Per recte et retro (p^r r^k'td €t ra'tr6), Lai, 
Forward, then backward; the melody or 
subject reversed, note for note. 

Pesante (p^z&n'te). It. Heavy, ponderous; 
with importance and weight, impressively. 

Pesantemente (p^zftn-td-m^n'te). It. Heavily, 
forcibly, impressively. 

Petit (pe-tdO> -2^- LltUe, small. 

Petit choMirCp^tencar), Fr. Little choir; a 
sacred composition in three parts. 

Petltes flutes (pd-tef flat), Fr. The small 
flutes ; the octave or piccolo flutes. 

Petto (pfit'td), It, The chest, the breast; voce 
dipdtOt the chest voice. 

Peu (ptlh), Fr. Little, a litUe. 

Pen ik pen (pflh & pQh), Fr. Utile by little, 
by degrees. 

Pezze (pSt's^), It. pi. Fragments, scraps ; se- 
lect, detached pieces. 

PezzI concertanti (pCf rit kOn-tsh«r-t&n't€), iZ. 
pi. Concertante pieces, in which each in- 
strument has occasional solos. 

Pezzi dl bravura (pSfsI dS brftvoo^rft). It. 
Compositions for the display of dexterity or 
rapid execution. 

Pezzo (pSfsd), It. A fragment; a detached 
piece of music. 

Pf. Abbreviation of Pooo forte; a little 

Pleile (pfl'ffi), Oer. pipe, fife, flute. 

Pfeifen (pfi'f 'n), Oer. To play on a flfe or flute. 

Pfeifendeckel (pfi'f*n-dek'«l). Oer. The stop- 
per, or covering, of an organ-pipe. 

Pfeifer (pfi'ffir), Oer. A fifer, a piper. 

Phantasie (f&il-ta-se). Oer. See Fantasia. 

Phantasiebilder (f&n-t&-sSni)U'd'r},6er. Fancy 

Phaiitasie8ta€ke<f&n-t&-sS'sta'ke),6^. Fancy 

Sieces. Name applied by Schumann to hu 
pus 12. 

Phantasiren (fiLn-ta-z^r'n),(?«'. Improvising. 

Phantasirte (flin-t&-zlr't€), Oer. Improvised. 

Phantasy. The fancy, the imagination. 

Philharmonic (fU-h&r-mOnlk). Or. Music- 

Phisharmonica (fls-hftr-m6nl-k&). A kind of 

Phone (f6'n6). Or. The voice * a sound, or 

Phonetic. Vocal, representing sounds. 

Phonetics.) The doctrine, or science, of 
Phonics. ) sounds, especially those of the 
human voice. 

Phonometer. An instrument for measuring 
the vibrations of sounds. 

Phorminx (fdr'mlnx) , Oer. A stringed instru- 
ment of remote antiquity, resembling the 

Photinx (fo'titnx). Or. Name given by the an- 
cients to their crooked 4ute. 

Phrase. A short musical sentence ; a musical 
thought, or idea. 

Phrase, extended. ) Any variation of a mel- 
Phrase, irregular, jody by which three meas- 
ures are used instead of two. 

Phrasing. The art of musical delivery in 
such a way as to bring out the idea. Hetice 
to connect the tones within the phrase, and 
to define the boundaries of the phrases. 
Also to form the phrase properly, as to itn 
increasing or diminishing intensity. Hence 
the art of singing or playing with expres- 

Physharmonica (fls-h&r-m6n1-kft),(?r. An in- 
strument, the tone of which resembles that 
of the reed-pipes in an organ, and is pro- 
duced by the vibration of thin metal 
tongues, of a similar construction to those 
of the harmonium ; the name is also ap- 
plied to a stop in the oigan with free reeds, 
and with tubes of half the usual length. 

larm, ft add, ft a<e, 6 end, € eve, I itt, I iite, d old, 6 odd, oo moon, tl but, U Fr. sound, kh Oer. eh, nh 





Placere (pS-firt8h&'r&), R. Pleasure, inclina- 
tion, faiicy ; apiacere, at pleasure. 

Piacevoie (p^&-t8li&'yd-ie), J<. Pleasing, grace- 
ful, agreeable. 

Piacevolezza (pe-&-t8h&v6-ief z&), iZ. Grace- 

luluess, sweetness. 
Ptacevoiiiieiite (p€-&-tshe-y51-mto't3), H. 

Gracefully, delicately. 

Pl«:iniento (p§-&-tsM-nien't6), JR. See Piacere. 

Piagendo (pe-a-g^n'dd), It. Plaintively, sor- 

Piagnevoie (pe-ftn-ya'yd-16), It. Mournful, 
doleful, lamentable. 

Pianamente (pe-&-n&rm&i'te). It. Softly, gen- 
tly, quietly. 
PianettA (pe-a-n6t't5) , It. Very.low, very soft. 

Piang«vole (pe-iln-ga'vd-l€), It. Lamentable, 

Piangevolmente (pe-ftn-ga-ydl-m^n'te). It. 
Lamentably, dolefully. 

pianino (pe-ft-nS^nd), H. An upright piano- 

Pianissimo (pe-&-ne8'8l-m6). It, Extremely 

Pianissimo qjuanto possibile (pe-ft-nes'sl-md 
kw&n-tC pds*e€-bl-le; , It. As soft as possible. 

Pianist- An amateur or professional player 
on the pianoforte. 

Pianiste (p§-&n-e8f ), Fr. Pianist 

Piano (pe-&'n6). It. Soft, gentle. 

Piano k queue (pe-&'nd & ktlh), Fr. A grand 

Piano assai (p6-a'n5 fts-s&'I), It. Am soft as 

Piano carri (pe-&'n5 k&r-rfi), Fr. A square 

Piano droit (p^'nd drwft),.FV. An upright 

Pianoforte. An instrument made in various 
shapes, such as square (table-shaped), up- 
right (cabine^8haped), and grand (/* wing- 
shaped ; " hence German Fluead), The lu- 
anoiorte consists essentially oi a sounding- 
board of thin fir wood, supported by a 
frame and ribs. Across this board are cer- 
tain bridges, over which the wire strings are 
drawn and made fast to hitchpins at the 
right and tuning-pins at the left, or in the 
wrestplank. The iramewhich supports the 
tension of the strings was formerly of wood, 
but in 1825 an American, Alpheus Babcock, 
of Boston, invented an iron plate, which 
strengthened the wooden frame, and in 
process of time has itself been strengthened 
until it carries the entire tension of the 
strings. The wrestplank, in which the tun- 
ing-pins turn , rests upon a shoulder, or arch, 
of the iron frame. 

The pianoforte was the successor of the 
clavier and harpsichord, and differed essen- 
tially from them in the manner in which 
the strings are made to sound. In the cla- 
vier it was by a brass tangent which pushed 

the wire; in the harpsichord it was by 
means of a quill plectrum, which plucked 
the wire, and upon the pianoforte it is by 
means of a hammer, which, being actuated 
by the motion of the key, drives against the 
string and rebounds instantly, so that the 
string is left as free as the string of a dulci- 
mer struck by a hammer in the nand. The 
escapement mechanism Invented by Chris- 
torfori was the foundation of all that have 
been made since. The main parts of the 
present action were invented by Sebastian/ 
Erard, of Paris, early in the first quarter oft 
the present century, but many improve-' 
ments have been made since. All the early 
hammers were covered with leather, which 
soon became hard, causing the tone to be- 
come twangy. The discovery of a method 
of felting hammer-coverings, and of putting 
them upon the hammers by machinery, was 
discovered about 1855, and was first prac- 
ticed by the firm of Nunns <& Clarke, oiNew 
York. Overstringing was first successfully 
accomplished by Steinway <& Sons, of New 
York, in 1855. Many important improve* 
ments had previously been made by Jonas 
Ghickeriug between 1830 and 1850. 

The tone of the pianoforte apparently de- 
pends upon three elements conjointly : The 
sounding-board and its treatment, the scale 
(the relative length of strings, their weight, 
and the point where the hammer strikes 
them), and the hammers. The durability 
depends upon general solidity of construc- 
tion, the use oi approved material, and sci- 
entific adjustment of the instrument in all 
its parts to sustain the great tension, which 
in large concert grands now amounts to 
above eighteen tons. The greatectt difSrulty 
is the sounding-board. In the nature of the 
case this has to be of thin wood, yet the 
strings must pull across the bridges with 
great power, pressing down against the 
board, in order that the vibration may be 
more abundant and the whole of it come 
into the sounding-board, where it is rein- 
forced by the natural resonance of the wood 
and so transferred to the atmosphere. The 
board is put in ** crowning," as it is called, 
or convex, and the tendency of the strings, 
combined with the progressive desicca- 
tion of the wood, is to crush out this con- 
vexity, which, being done, the tone becomes 

The American pianofortes are generally 
recognized as larser, more sonorous, and in 
several respects better than most foreign 
ones ; and our leading houses are generally 
regarded as leading all the world. Par- 
ticularly is this true because of the large 
number of import^t improvements in the 
instrument made by the leading makers, 
in which they have been generally followed 
by all other good makers, American as well 
as foreign, lu America there is a great de* 
velopment of the industry of making piano- 
fortes of moderate price, in which respect, 
combining fair tonal qualities with showy 
appearance and durability, American mak- 
ers lead the world. These lower-priced in- 

iann, tadd,^ale d^nd, fieoe, lift, lisZe, 6of<{, dodd, oo moon, tibu^, ti Ft, ttrnnd, kh Oer, c^ nh nasal. 
13 (177) 




struments gei:eially make a fair imitation of 
the qualities of the best, and the makers 
have shown great progress! veness in finding 
ways of doing this within the limitation 
of expense. The best pianoforte depends 
for its success, after the maker has secured 
a good scale, and the requisite solidity, up- 
on the sounding-board and its treatment, 
and upon the hammers. These two ele- 
ments are matters of individual adjustment 
by highly skilled labor, of artistic instinct, 
and even then the final result is somewhat 
uncertain, exactly as in making violins, or 
any other apparatus in which results are 
obtained by a skilled adjustment of parts 
cooperating with individualities of ma- 
terial. This being the case, it is not likely 
that the gap between the pleasing piano- 
fortes of commercial grade, and the excep- 
tional tonal qualities of the very best, can 
ever be very much narrowed. 

The pianoforte owes its popularity to its 
success in representing all properties of 
music. Melody, harmony, expression, and 
some d^ni«e of singing quality and tone- 
color are placed by it at the disposal of the 
player, and upon it he is able to give an in- 
telligible account of by far a larger variety 
of music, both high and low, than upon 
any other musical instrument. 

Down to about 1872 the square piano- 
forte was the form mainly current in Ame- 
ica. The first American grand pianoforte 
was made by Jonas Chickering in 1828. 
About 1870 improvements in the upright 
resulted in perfecting this form, whereby, 
combined with. solidity, the tonal capacity 
verv nearly approached that of the grand, 
and this form therefore came more and 
more to the head, so that at the present 
time there are no square pianos made, 
except to special order. The advantage 
which the grand piano possesses over the 
upright is in having a larger sounding- 
board, greater solidity, and consequently a 
larger and more sympathetic tone. The 
action also has one additional lever be- 
tween the finger and the hammer, where- 
by the touch is magnified and a smaller 
eifort of the player effects a perceptible 
modification of the tone. The manufac- 
ture and sale of grand pianofortes has 
enormously increased in recent years. 

Pian-piani55iino (pe-&n'pe-&-nes'sI-m6), II, 
Exceedingly soft and gentle. 

Pian-pian6 (pS-&n-p€-fi'n6), It. Very softly, 
with a low voice. See Piano-piano. 

pianoforte action. The mechanism of a pi- 

Pianoforte hammer. That part of the mech- 
anism of a pianoforte which strikes the 

Pianoforte score. The score, or music, of an 
orchestral or choral work, arranged con- 
densed upon two staves convenient for per- 
formance upon the pianoforte. The piano- 
forte arrangement of an orchestral work 
contains as much of the music as the ar- 

ranger believes practicable for the player. 
The pianoforte score of a choral woxk in- 
cludes the vocal parts upon their own 
staves and the orchestral parts condensed 
upon two staves, as in the arrangements 
from orchestral works. Hence, for pur 
poses of study, except where it is a question 
of tone-color and tne art of instrumenta- 
tion^ the pianoforte score offers all neces 
sary advantages. 

Piano mezzo (pe-&'n6 m^t'zd), It. Moderately 


Piano-piano (p€-&'nd-p^&'no), It. Very soft. 

Piano sempre staccato e marcato 11 baaao (p€- 
a'nd sfim-pre stak-k&'td mcLr-k&'td el bas'sC,. 
It. Soft, with the bass always well marked 
and detached. 

Piano solo. For the pianoforte only. 

Piano- vlollno (pe-&'nd ved-lS'nd), It. A curi- 
ous instrument, invented in 1837. It was a 
common piano, containing a violin arrange- 
ment inside of it, which was set in motion 
by a pedal. When this instrument was 
played upon it gave the sound of both vi- 
olin and piano. 

PUttl (pe-ftt'te), It. p{. Cymbals. 

Pib (pSb), Wa. A pipe, a fife. 

PlbcOm, or, hornpipe. The name given by 
the Welsh to a wind instrument couRisting 
of a wooden pipe with holes at the sides and 
a horn at each end, the oue to collect the 
wind blown into it by the mouth, and the 
other to carry off the sounds as modulated 
by the performer. 

Pibroch (pe'brOh). A wild, irregular species 
of music, peculiar to the Highlands of Scot- 
land, performed on the bagpipe. 

Plcchlettato (p§-kl-et-t&'td). It. Scattered, de- 
tached ; in violin-playing a staccato made 
by means of the bow bounding upon the 
strings ; hence not nearly so short as the 
staccato made by plucking the strings (piz- 
ziccato). The picchiettato implies a dura- 
tion about equal to three quarters of the ap- 
parent duration of the note. Picch iettato is 
indicated by means of a straight mark over 
the note and a dot under the mark, or a slur 
over several notes and a dot over each one. 
The corresponding effect upon the piano- 
forte might be produced by playing several 
tones with oue finger. 

Plcclolo (pet-tshl-O'ld), ) 

Plccolino (pe-kd-le'nd). It. > Small, little. 

Piccolo (p€^kd-ld), 9 

Piccolo. A 2-feet organ-stop, of wood pipes, 
producing a bright and clear tone, in unison 
with the fifteenth. 

Piccolo flute. A small flute. 

Piccolo pianoforte. A small upright piano- 

Pl^ce (pl-fisO, Fr. A composition or niece of 
music; an opera ot drama. 

Pleds (pI-&0> Fr. pi. The foot; avee la piedt, 
with the feet, in organ-plajring. 

tkamif ft add, &afe, 6end, Seve, l<a,Ii82e, 6 o2d, odd, oo moon, iX but, ti Fr, tound, kh Get, eh, nhnatoL 





Pienamente (pe-a-nfirix>.Sn't€), It. F\i]!y. 

Pieno coro (pe-a'no kS'ro), It A full chorus. 

Pleno organo (pe-a'n6 or-ga'nS), It, With the 
full orgau. 

Pleta (p6-a'ta), ) 

Pietosamente (pe-a-td-z£l-men'te),> It. 
Pietoso ( pe-a-tazo) , ) 

Compassionately, tendeTly ; implying, also, 
a rather slow and sustained movement. 

Pifara (pe-fa'ra), It. A fife. 

Pifferare (pif-f6-ra'r6), It. To play upon the 
fife ; also a piper, such as, in Italy, play pas- 
toral airs in the streets at Christmas. One 
of these airs forms the basis of Handel's Pas- 
toral Symphony in the " Messiah." 

Pifferina (pif-fe-re'n&), It. A little fife. 

Piffero (pif fe-ro). It. A fife, or small flute ; 
also an organ-stop of 4 feet. 

Pinci (pftnh-sa), Fr. Pinched ; an ornament 
called a mordent. See Pizzicato. 

Pincer (panh-sa), Fr, To play upon a mu- 
sical instrument. 

Pinces (panh-s), Fr. A general name for 
stringed instruments. 

Pipe. Any tube formed of a reed, or of metal, 
or of wood, which, being blown at one end, 
produces a musical sound. The pipe, 
which was originally no more than a simple 
oaten straw, was one of the earliest instru- 
ments by which musical sounds were at- 

Piper. A performer on the pipe. Pipers were 
formerly one of the class of itinerant musi- 
cians, and performed on a variety of wind 
instruments, as the bagpipe, musette, etc. 

Piqu6 (pi-ka'), r»« \ To play on the violin, 
Piquer (pi-ka'), fete, a series of notes a 

little staccato, and with a light pressure of 

the bow to each note. 

Plquiren (pe-ke'r'n), Oer. Detached ; equiv- 
alent to picchiettato. 

Piston. A kind of valve used in brass instru- 
ments to alter the pitch. 

Pitch. The acuteness, or gravity, of any par- 
ticular sound, or the tuning of any instru- 

Pitcli, concert. The pitch generally adopted 
for some one given note, and by which every 
other note is governed. American concert 
pitch at the present time (1895) is based 
upon an A having 431 vibrations. 

Pitclipipe. An instrument formerly used to 
souna the keynote of any vocal composi- 

Piu (pg'oo), It. More. 

Piu allegro (pe'oo al-la'grd), It, A little quick- 
er, more lively. 

Piu che lento (pe'oo k6 ISn'to), It, Slower 
than lento. 

Piu forte (p^oo fdr'tS), It, Louder. 

Piu lento (pe'oo Ifin'to), It. More slowly. 

Piu m6s8o (pe'oo m6s's6), « \More motion, 
Piu moto (pe'oo mo'to), •^^' j quicker. 

Piu piano (pe'oo pe-a'n6), It. Softer. 
Piu piu (pe'oo pe'oo). It. Somewhat more. 
Piu posto (pe'oo p6s't6). It. Bather, inclined 
to; it also means quicker. 

Piu posto allegro (pe'oo pos'to ai-la'grd), It. 
Rather quicker. 

Piu posto lento (pe'oo p6s't6 len'to), It, 
Rather slower. 

Piu presto (pe'oo pres'to), It. Quicker, more 

Piu vivo (pe'oo v§'v6). It. More lively, mort 

PIva (pe'va), JR. A pipe, a bagpipe. 

Pizzicando (pl-tslkan'do), « I P i n c h ed ; 

Pizzicato (pl-tsi-ka'to), ^^' ]" meaning that 
the strings of the violin, violoncello, etc., 
are not to be played with the bow, but 

S inched, or snapped, with the fingers, pro- 
uciug a staccato etfect. 

Placldamente (pla-tshl-da-mSn'te), It. Calm- 
ly, placidly, quietly. 

Placido (pm-tshe'dd), It, Placid, tranquil, 

Pla^al. Those ancient modes in which the 
melody was confined within the limits of 
the dominant and its octave. 

Pla^al cadence. A cadence in which the 
final chord on the tonic is preceded by the 
harmony of the subdominant. 

Plasralisch (pla ga'llsh), Oer, Plagal. 

Plain chant (plAn shfinh), Fr. The plain 

Plain song. The name given to the old ec- 
clesiastical chant when in its most simple 
state and without those harmonic append* 
ages with which it has since been enriched. 
The choral service of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church is founded upon the Plain 
Song. All the priest's cantilation at the 
altar in the Roman Catholic Church is also 
a part of the Plain Song. 

Plainte (plftnht), Fr. A complaint, a lament. 

Plalntlf (plftnh-tef), Fr. Plaintive, doleful. 

Plalsant (pld,-zftnh), Fr. Pleasing. 

Plalsanteries (pla-zan-t're), Fr. Amusing, 
light compositions. 

Planxty. Old harp music of a lively, tune- 
ful kind. 

Piaqu6 (pla-ka'), Fr. Struck at once, without 
any arpeggio or embellishment. 

Plectraphone. An ingenious invention 
which, attached to the piano, produces a 
very clever imitation of the mandolin. 

Plectrum (piek'troom). Lot. A quill, or piece 
of ivory or hard wood, used to twitch the 
strings of the mandolin, lyre, etc. 

Plein jeu (plftnh zhti), Fr. Pull organ : the 
term is also applied to a mixture stop of 
several ranks of pipes. 

A {crm, ftadd,&a2e,eend,€et«,It(2, lisfe, dold, 6odd, oo moo^, a Zm^, d fV. sound, kh Ger. cA, nh nosoX. 





Pleln Jen harmonique (plAnh zhii h&r-mOnh- 
€k'}i Fr. A mixture stop in an organ. 

Pieno organo (pl&'nd dr-g&'n6), Lot. Full or- 

Plettro (piet'trd), IL A bow, a fiddlestick; 
also a plectrum. 

Plus (plQ), Fr. More. 

Plus animi (pia s&-nX-m&), Fr, With more 

Plus ientement(plii l&nht-mfinh),<fV. Slower, 
more slowly. 

Pneumatic (nU-mfttlk). Relating to the air 
or wind ; a term applied to all wind instru- 
ments collectively. 

Pneumatic action. ) Mechanism intended to 
Pneumatic lever, f lighten the touch, etc., in 
large organs. The pneumatic lever con- 
siRted of a bellows about three inches by 
fourteen, which l>ecame inflated whenever 
the corresponding organ -key was depressed. 
Inasmuch as only a small valve was needed 
to inflate such a bellows, the touch was very 
light. The bellows opened the pallet, ad- 
mitting wind to the corresponding pipes. 
The saving in elasticity and lightness of 
touch was very important in large organs, 
where, without some such appliance, a 
weigbt of several pounds is sometimes nec- 
essary to operate a key. There was a certain 
loss of time and of precise attack, which was 
reduced to a minimum by increasing the 
pressure of the wind operating the pneu- 
matic lever. It was invented by one Barker 
in 1837, and greatly improved by Ira Basseti 
in 1888. The pneumatic lever is now dis- 
placed by a pneumatic action, which ac- 
* complishes the same result much better by 
means of a small pneumatic under every 
pipe. These are now operated by electricity. 

Pneumatic or8:an. An organ moved by wind, 
so named by the aucients to distinguish it 
from the hydraulic organ, moved by water. 

Pochessimo (p5-k€s'sl-md), R, A very little, 
as little as possible. 

Pochette (pd-sh^t), Fr. A kit, a small violin 
used by dancing-masters. 

Pochettino (pd-ket-te'nd), ) A little ; as, 

Pochetto (pd-ket'to), IL y retard un po- 

Pochino (po-ke'n^}), ) cftettroa, a little 

Poco (p6'k6), n. Little. 

Poco adaffio (pd'ko &-d&'JI-d), H. A little 

Poco allegro (pOHcd &l-lfi'gr6), Jf. A little 

Poco animato (pd'kO firul-ma'to), It A little 
more animated. 

Poco a poco (pd'kd fi pdlcd), It. By degrees, 
little by little. 

Poco a poco crescendo (pd'kd & -p&lsiQ kr&- 
sh^u'do). It. Gradually louder and louder. 

Poc6 a poco dimlnuevdo (pd'ko £1 po'ko dg-me- 
noo-€n'dd), It. Gradually diminishing. 

POCO a poco, plu dl fuoco (pd^d & p^1l6 pi-oo 
de foo-d'kd). It. With gradually Increasing 
fire and animation. 

Poco a poco jpiu lento (pd'kd & pQltd pe'oo 
len'td), It. Gradually slower and slower. 

Poco a poco, piu moto (pd^ka ft pd'kd pS'oo 
m6't6). It. Gradually increasing the time. 

Poco a poco rallentando (po'kd ft i)d'kdral-ldn> 
tau'do), II. Gradually diminishing. 

Poco forte (pCkfi lor'tfi), R. Moderately loud, 
a little loud. 

Poco largo (p6^6 Iftr'gC), „ ) Moderately 
Poco lento (p6'k6 16n^), ^^' /slow. 

Poco meno (pd'kd m&'n6), It. A little less, 
somewhat less. 

Poco piano (po'kd pS-&'n6), R. Somewhat soft. 

Poco piu (po'k6 pe'oo), JB. A little more, 
somewhat more. 

Poco plu allegro (pd^kd pe'oo fil-la'grd). It. A 
little quicker. 

Poco plu Che allegretto (pd'ko pe'oo ke &1-1& 
gretHo) , It. A little quicker than allegretto. 

Poco piu che andante (pd^ko pe'oo k6 ftn-diin'^ 
X&), It. A little slower than andante. 

Poco plu forte (pfi'ko pe-oo for'tfi), R. A little 

Poco plu largo (pd'kd pd'oo l&r'go), „ lAlit* 
- - — - - - P^^^ It. I 


Poco piu lento (pd'ko pd'oo Ito 

Poco piu mosso (pd'kd p^'oo mfis'sd). It. A 
little faster. 

Poco plu piano {jpGnL6 pS'oo pe-&'n6), It. A 
little softer. 

Poco presto (pdHcd prfis'td). It. Bather quic^, 

Poco presto accelerando (pCkd prSs'td fit* 

tshei-e-rfiu'do), It. Gradually acc^erate thii 

Poetic. A term sometimes applied to descrip* 

tive music, indicating an underlying poetic 


Poetiqae (pd-e-tek), Fr. Poetic. 

Pogglato (pdd-jl-ft't5), It, Dwelt U]K>n, leaned 

Pol (p6'§). It. Then, after, afterwards ; piano 

poi forte, soft, then loud. 

POI a poi (pd'e ft p6'e), R. By degrees. 

Point (pwfinh), Fr. A dot. 

Point d'arrSt (pwftnh dar-ra), Fr. Point of 
arrest ; a holdover a rest, which it prolongs 

Point de repos (pwftnh dtlh r^pd'), Fr. A 

Point d*orgue (pwftnh d6rg), Fr. Organ point. 

Point6e (pwftnh-tfi). Fr. Dotted; blanche 
pointee, a dotted minim. 

Point final (pwftnh fl nftl'), -Fr. A final, or 
coucluding, cadence. 

Point of repose. A pause, a cadence. 

Point, organ. A long, or stationary, bass 
note, upon which various passages of mel- 
ody and harmony are. introduced. 

ft wrmt ft add, & oJe, 6 end, d eve, I iB, I UU,6 old,6 odd, oo moon, H but, iX Fr,wund, kh Oer, eh, nh nascri. 





Pol MffiM (pd'S s&'gwS), n )Then 

Pol 0e8;iiente (pd'e sfi-gwen'tS), ^'" j follows, 
here follows. 

Pol seflfue 11 rondo (pd'e sa'gw^ el rdn'd6), il. 
After this the rondo. 

Polacca (pd-lak'k&), R. A polonaise, or in the 
style 01 a polonaJse. 

I Polka. A lively Bohemian or Polish dance, 
in 2-4 time, the first three quavers in each 
bar being accented, and the fourth quaver 

Polka mazurka (pdllcll mft-zar-k&). A dance 
in triple time, played slow, and having its 
accent on the last part of the measure. 

Polka redowa (pdrk& r^d'o-a). A dance tune 
in triple time, played faster than the polka 
mazurka, and having its accent on the first 
part of the measure. 

Polonaise (pol-o-naz'). A chivalrous Polish 
dance in 8-4 measure, having, however, a 
ALOvement of six eighttis (in rhythm of 
twos) with au extra accent upon the fifth. 
The second eighth-note is generally divided 
into two sixteenths. The rhythm of the 
polonaise should be strictly observed. 

Poiska (pOls^k^), Sw. A Swedish dance in 3-4 

Polymorphous (pdl-I-mdr'foos), Or. Of many 
forms, a term generally used in reference 
to canons. 

Polyphonia (pAl-I-fd^nl-A), Or, A combina- 
tion of many sounds; a composition for 
many voices. 

Polyphonic (p<Jl l-f<Jn-lk). \ Full-voiced, for 
Polyphonous (pd-Uf d-nds), j many voices. 

Polyphony (p6-lir6-ny). 

Pommer (pom'm'r), Ger, An obsolete family 
of instruments of the oboe kind. See Bom- 

Pompfis (pom-pds'), Qer. Pompous, majestic 

PompOssmente (p6m-pd-zft-men't€), It, Pomp- 
ously, stately. 

Pomposo (p6m-i>d'2d). It. Pompous, stately, 

Ponderoso (pdn-d^rd'zd), R. Ponderously, 
massively, heavily. 

Ponticello (pdn-tl-tsh61'16), It, The bridge of 
the violin, guitar, etc. 

Pont-neuf (pdnh-ntlf), Fr. A street ballad, a 
vulgar song. 

Portamento (pdr*t&-m€n'tO)i It* A term ap- 
plied by the Italians to the manner or habit 
of sustaining and conducting the voice. A 
singer who is easy and yet firm and steady 
in tne execution of passages and phrases is 
said to have a good portamento. It is also 
used to connect two notes separated by an 
interval, by gliding the voice from oue to 
the other, and by this means anticipating 
the latter In regard to intonation. 

Portamento di voce (p5r • ta - m€n' to de vd'- 
tshS), J^ Carrying tne voice ; the blending 
of one tone Into another. 

Portando la voce (p6r-t&n'd5 1& vO'tshe). Car- 
rying the voice, holding it firmly on the 

Portative. A portable organ. 

Portato (pdr-tft'td). It, Nonlegato. 

Porte de voix (p6rt dtth vwft), Fr. Porta- 
mento. Also an appoggiatura, or beat 

Port^ (pOr-ta), Fr. The stafT. 

Porter la voIx (p6r-ta Ifi vwfi), Fr. To carry 
the voice. 

Posato (p6-za't5), It. Quietly, steadily. 

Posaune (pd-zou'n€), Oer. A trumpet ; also a 
trombone, a sackbut; also an organ-stop. 
See Trombone. 

Posaunenzug (pd : zou' nfin - tsoog'), Oer. A 

Positif (p6-zi-tef), Fr. \ The choir organ, 
Positiv (poHsI-tlf ), Ger. j or lowest row of 
keys with soft-toned stops in a large organ 
also a small fixed or^^an, thus named in 
opposition to a portative organ, especially 
wnen the pipes of the choir organ are 
brought forward and placed behind the 
organist, when they are called the Eiict- 

Position. A shift on the violin, tenor, or 
violoncello ; the arrangement or order of 
the several members of a chord. 

Position. (1) With reference to chords, which 
are said to be in fundamental position 
when they are not inverted, and in open 
position when the upper three voices ex- 
ceed the compass of an 'octave, but other- 
wise in cloffse pt'sition. (2) With reference 
to the position of the hand upon the finger- 
board of stringed instruments, the first po- 
sition being that nearest the nut; then 
progressively one note toward the bridge 
the second, the third, and the other posi- 

Posslblle (p6s - se' bl - 16), It. Possible ; U jdu 
forte pombUe, as loud as possible. 

Posthorn (pdst'h5rn), Oer. A species of 

Posthume (pos-tum), jPr. Posthumous ; pub- 
lished after the death of the author. 

Postlude (post'loo-dfi), ,_y \ After- 

Postludlum (pOst-loo'dl-oom), ^^' / piece, 
concluding voluntary. 

Potenza (pd-tSn'tsa), It. A name applied by 
' the ancients to the notes and signs of mu- 
sic; any sound produced by an instrument. 

Potpourri (pO'poor^re). A medlev; acapric 
cio or fantasia in which favorite airs and 
fragments of musical pieces are strung to- 
gether and contrasted. 

Pouce (pooss), Fr. The thumb ; a term used 
in guitar music, indicating that the thumb 
of the right hand muet be passed lightly 
over all the strings. 

Poule (T>ool), JFV. One of the movements of a 

Pour (poor), J^V. For. 

|iann,ftadd, &a2e, Qvndi^eve, I iU, I isle, 5 okf, d odd, oo7noon,11&u<, Ui^. sound, kh Oer.cht nbfioMl. 





Pour faire passer dessous le pouce (poor f&r 
pii8-H& dSfl-soo lah pooss), rr. To pass the 
thumb under the nngers. 

Pour finir (poor fi-n6r0, Fr. To finish ; in- 
dicating a chord or bar which is to termin- 
ate the piece. 

ftour la premiere fois (poor lH pra-mSr' fw&), 
Fr. For the first time, meaning that on the 
repetition of the strain this passage is to be 

Pour reprendre au commencement (poor rS- 
prandr 6 kdm-m&nhs-m&nh), Fr. To go 
back to the beginning. 

Pouss^ (poos-sfi), Fr, Pushed ; meaning the 

P. P. Abbreviation of Pianissimo. 

PrSchtls: (prakh'tigh), Qer. In a splendid, 
pompous, magnificent manner. 

Pricis (pra-tfi6s'), Ger. Precise, exact. 

Practice. The studious repetition of a pas- 
sage in order to master it. Inasmuch as 
practice has the design of forming a second- 
ary automaribm in performing the passage, 
it is necessary that the repetitions should 
invariably be without error, and the mo- 
tions should be taken most of the time 
slowly, in order that they may be perfectly 
performed. Only a very small proportion 
of the practice should be as rapid as the 
passage is intended to go. 

Prscentor (pra-ts6n't6r), Lot. Precentor, 
leader of the choir. 

Pralitrill (prai'tril), Qer. A variety of mor- 
dent made with the note written and the 
next -ibove in the same scale, except where 
othei-wise directed by an accidental over 
the sign. Examples : 


Prilttdien (pra-loo'dI-€n), Preludes. 

Prftiudiren (pra-loo-deVn), Oer. To prelude, 
to play a prelude. 

PrMludlum (pr&-loo'dI-oom), Oer. A prelude, 
au Intioduction. 

Precentor. The appellation given formerly 
to the master of the choir. 

Precipltamente (pra tshe-pl-ta-m6n't6), ) ^t - 
Precipitato (pra-tshfi-pl-tfi'to), / ^'• 

In a precipitate manner, hurriedly. 

Precipitando (pra-tshe-pl-tan'do), It. Hurry- 

Precipltazione (pra- tshS- pi- 1&- tsl- o' nS), R. 
Precipitation, haste, hurry. 

Prteiplt6 (pra-se-pl-ta), Fr. Hurried, accel- 

Precipitoso (prft-tshe-pl-tfi'ze). It. Hurrying, 

Preclsione (pr&'tshg-zl-d'ne). It. Precision, 

iude, or 

Fr. [ First. 

Precise (prfi-tshe'zd), B. Precise, exact, ex- 

Presriiiera (pra-ghi-a'r&), II. Prayer, suppli- 

Prelude. A short introductory composition, 
or extempore performance, to prepare the 
ear for the succeeding movements. 

Preludio (pra-loo'di-6), It. ) A pre- 

Preludlum (prft-loo'di-oom), Lot. j 

Premier (pr6m-i-a), «^ \ 
Premiere (pra-mer'), -^^^ I 

Premiere dessus (prft-mer' d&s-sti), Fr. First 
treble, first soprano. 

Premiere fois (pra-mer' fwa), Fr. First timet 

Premiere partie (prS-mer' pftr-tfi), Fr. First 

Preparation. That disposition of the har- 
mony by which discords are lawfully in- 
troduced. A discord is said to be prepared 
when the discordant note is heard as a con- 
sonance in the preceding chord and in the 
same part. 

Preparative notes. Appoggiaturas, or lean- 
ing uutes. 

Preparazione (pra-p&-rSrtd-d'ne), H. Prepa- 

Prepared discord. That discord the discord- 
ant notes of which have been heard in a 

Prepared shalce. A shake preceded by two 
or more introductory 
notes. Prepared shake, pi 
or trill. 

Pr6s de la table (pr& ddh la t&bl), Fr. Near 
the soundboard. 

Pressante (pr6s-sanht')i Fr. Pressing on, hur- 

Pressure tone. A sudden cre- 
scendo; ex.: 

Prestamente (prfis-ta mSn'te), It. Hurriedly, 

Prestant (pr&s-tanh), Fr. The open diapason 
stop in an organ, of either 32-, 16-, 8-, or 4- 
feet scale. See Prdstanten. 

Prestezza (pres-t^t'sa), It. Quickness, rapid' 


Prestlsslmamente (pr^tes-sl-m&- \ 
mfin'te), It. \ 

Prestissimo (pr^-te.o'sI-md^, ) 

Very quickly, as fast as possible. 

Presto (prfis'to), It. Quickly, rapidly. 

Presto assai (prfis't^ as'sal). It. Very quick; 
with the utmost rapidity. 

Presto ma non troppo (pr^'td ma ndn trdp'' 
p5), It. Quick, but not too much so. 

Pridre (pre-fir), Fr. A. prayer, supplication. 

Prima (pre'ma), It. First, chief, principal. 

Prima buffa (pre'm& boof-fa). It. The prin' 
clpal female singer in a comic opera. 

& armt & add, & ale, € end, d eve, I iU, I Ule, 5 old, odd, oo moon, tl bvi, (1 Fr. sound, kb Qer, eh, nh nofoL 





Prima donna (prS'mH ddii'u&), It. Principal 
female singer m a Berious opera. 

Prima donna assoluta (pr^'mcl ddn'hft fis-pd- 
loo't&i, It. First female singer in an oper- 
atic establishment ; the only one who can 
claim that title. 

Prima parte (pre'ma p&r't£), It. First part. 

Primaparte repetita (prg^mft p&r'tS ra-x>^te'- 
t&), It. Repeat the first pari. 

Primarv cliord. The common chord; the 

first chord. 
Prima vista (pre'ma y^aftS,) , It. At first sight. 

Prima volta (pre'ma y51'ta), It. The first 

Prime (pre'mS), Qer. First note, or tone of a 


Prime donna (pre'mS A&'nS), It. The plural 
of prima donna. 

Primes. Two notes placed on the same de- 
gree of the staff, and having the same pitch 
of sound. 

Prime (pre'mS), H. Principal, first. 

Prime buffo (pre'mo boof fd), It. First male 
singer in a comic opera. 

Prime musice (pre'md moo'zI-kO), It. Prin- 
cipal male singer. 

Prime tempo (pre'md tfim'pd). It. The first, 
or original, time. 

Prime tendre (pre'mO t6-n6'r6), « \ The first 
Prime uome (pre'md oo-o'mo), j tenor 

Prime violino (pT& m6 v6 - 6 - le' n6) , It. The 
first violin. 

Primtdne (prlm-to'nS), Qer. pi. Fundamental 
tones, or notes. 

Principai, or octave. An important organ- 
stop, tuned an octave above the diapasons, 
ana therefore of four-feet pitch on the man- 
ual, and eight-feet on the pedals. In Ger- 
man organs the term Principal is also ap- 
plied to all the open diapasons of 32, 16, 8, 
and 4 feet. 

Principal bass. An organ-stop of the open- 
diapason species on the pedals. 

Principal close. The usual cadence in the 
principal key, so called because generally 
occurring at uie close of a piece. 

Princlpale (pren'tahX-p&-16), It. Principal, 
chief; violino principakt the principal vi- 

Principalmente (prSn - tshi - p&l - m^n' t^), It. 
Principally, chiefiy. 

Principal voices. The highest and lowest; 
the soprano and bass. 

Prlngelge (prln'ghI-ghe),G'fr. The first violin. 

Probe (prd'bS), Gcr. Proof, trial, rehearsal. 

Professeur de cliant (prd-f&s-stkr dAh shanh), 
Fr. A professor of vocal music ; a singing- 


Professeur de mu8lque(prd-fes-sCLr <iah 
mtt-zek'), Fr. 

Professore dl muslca (prd-f&s-so'r^ de 
moo'zl-ka). It. 

Professor of music. In the universities the 
professor of music enjoys academical rank, 
confers musical degrees, lectures on har* 
monic science, etc. 

Programme (pr6-gram'me),i7. A programme.' 

Programme. An order of exercises for mu- 
sical or other entertainments. 

Programme music. Music designed to repre- 
sent a specified series of incidents. Among 
the first to applv this principle were the 
Abbe Vogler, Weber, and Berlioz. The lat- 
ter afforded brilliant examples. 

Progression. A succession of triads, or per- 
fect chords, which are confined to the tonic. 

Progresslone (pr6-gr6s-sl-6'n6), It. Progres- 

Progressive. Advancing by degrees. 

Prolatio (prd-l&'tsl-d). Lot. Adding a dot, to 
increase, or lengthen, the value of a note. 

Proiazione (prd-l& tsl-d'n^), It. Prolation. 

Prolonged sliake. A shake which can be 
opened or closed at pleasure. 

Prolengement (pro-lon-zha-m&nh), Fr. The 
prolongation ; part of the action of the pi- 
ano, retaining the hammer away from its 

Promenade concert. A vocal or instrumen- 
tal concert during which the hearers are at 
liberty to promenade the hall instead of be- 
ing seated. 

Promptement (prdnht-mftnh), Fr. \ Readily, 
Prontamente (prdn-ta-m€n't€). It. / quickly, 

Pronto (pr6n't6), It. Ready, quick. 

Pronunziare (pr6-noon-tsI-a'r6), It. To pro- 
nounce; to enunciate. 

Pronunziate (pro-noon-tsl-a'to), It. Pro- 

Propertlo (pr6-p6r'tsl 6), itrf. Proportion; ap- 
plied to intervals with reference to their rel- 
ative dimensions and to notes with refer- 
ence to their relative duration. 

Proposta (pro-pos'ta). It. Subject, or theme, 
of a fugue. 

Prosccnio (pr6s-shft'nI-6), It. 1t>,«„„«„j„^ 
Prosccnio (pr6s-tha'nI-6), Sp. | Proscenium. 

Proscenium (pr6a-s6n'I-am). The front part 
of the Ptage. where the curtain separates the 
stage from the audience. 

Proslambanomenos (prOs-lftm-bft-ndrn'^-nOs), 
Gr. The lowest note in the Greek system, 
eauivalent to A on the first space in the bass 
of the modern. 

Presedia (prO-so'di-i), Or. A sacred song, or 
hymn, sung by the ancients in honor of the 

Prosody. That part of the laws of language 
dealing with quantity (or the time of sylla- 
blen) pnd accent (the relative emphasis of 

i dfm, & €idd, a die, e end, %eve,liU,l iOefi old,6 odd, oo moon, H btU, li Fr. sound, kh Qer. ch, nh naaal, 





f rotatis (prO'tft-sIs), Or. That part of a sen- 
Scnce which awakens expectation, to be an- 
swered later by the podaais. The subject. 

Prova (pr6'v&), It, Proof, trial, rehearsal. 

Prova senerale (pr6'v& jSn-^Tftie), Jl. The 
last rehearsal previous to a public perform- 

Psalm. A sacred song or hymn. 

Psaimbuch (ps&Imlaookh), Qer, A psalter; 
a boolL of psalms. 

Psaimen (ps&l'm^n), Ger. To sing, to chant 

Psalmgesang (psUm' g^ - s&ng'), Oer, Psalm- 

Psalmist. A composer, writer, or singer, of 
psalms or sacred songs. 

Psalmlled (psftlm'led), Oer. Psalm, sacred 
song or hymn. 

Psalmodie (ps&l'md-dS), Fr. Psalmody. 

Psalmody. The practice or art of singing 
psalms ; a collection of music designea for 
church service. 

Psalter. The Book of Psalms. 

Psalter (psartSr), Oer. Psaltery. 

Psalterion (p8ftl-t&-ri-dnh), Fr. ) A stringed 
Psaiterium(ps&l-t&'i:l-oom),X<U. > instrument 
Psaltery. ) much used 

by the Hebrews, supposed to be a species 

of lyre, harp, or dulcimer. 

Psattme (ps5m), J^. A psalm. 

Pseantler (psd-tI-&), Fr. A psalter, or book 
of psalms. 

Pulcha (pooVk&), Rusa. A Russian dance, 
the original of the polka. 

Pulsatile (ptll'sa-ter). Striking ; instruments 
of percusision, as the drum, tambourine, etc. 

Punctum contra punctum (poonk'toom kdn'- 
tr& poonk'toom). Lot. Point against point. 
See CounterpoinL 

Pttncttts (poonk'toos). Lot. A dot, a point. 

Pttnkt (poonkt), Ger. A dot. 

Punkte (poonk'tfi), Oer. Dots. 

Punktirte Noten (poonk-tXr'te nd'Vb), Oer. 
Dotted notes. 

Punta (poon'tft), „ ) The point, the top; also 
Punto (poon'td), "•*• j a thrust, or push. 

Punta d' arco (poon'tft d&r'kd), ) „ 
PunU dcr arco (poon'ta del fir'kS), K*- 
The point or tip of the bow. 

Puntato (poon-t&'to), JR. Pointed, detached, 

Punto d* accressimento (poon'td dak-kres-fi!<^ 
men'td). It. The point of augmentation. 

Pttnto di dlvlsione (poon'to dg d$-ve-sl-d'ne). 
It. Point of division. * 

Punto d' organo (poon'to d6r-g&'nd), iZ. Orw 
gan point. 

Punto per punto (poon'td p^r poon'td). It. 
Note lor note. 

Pupitre (pil-pStr), Fr. A music-desk. 

Pyramldon (pl-rftm'I-ddn), Or. An organ- 
stop of 16- or 82-leet tone, on the pedals, in- 

. vented by the Rev. F. A. G. OUoeiey. The 
pipes are four times larger at the top than 
at the mouth, and the tone of remarkable 
gravity, resenibling that of a stopped pipe 
In quality. 

Pyrrhics (plr'hlks). A metrical foot, consist- 
ing of two short syllables. ^^ 

Pythagorian lyre. An instrument said to 
have been invented by Pythagoras. 

Quadrat (kw&-drfttO, Oer, A square. The 
mark called a natural, t). 

Quadratmusik (kw&d r&f moo-zSk'). Oer. A 
name sometimes applied to the old mensur- 
able music written in square notes. 

anadrlcinium (kw&-drl-ta€'nX-oom), Lai. \ 
uadripartlte (k&d-rI-p&r-t€V), Fr. | 

A quartet, a composition in four parts. 

Quadriglio (kw&-dreryl-a), It. Quadrille. 

Quadrille (kfi-dreF), Fr. A French dance, or 
set of five consecutive dance movements, 
called La Pantalon, La Poule, L'^t4, La 
Trenise (or La Pastourelle) and La Finale. 
The movements are in 6-8 Or 2-4 measure. 

Quadro (kw&'dr6), It. 
ural, I]. 

The mark called a nat- 

Quadruple. Fourfold. 

Quadruple counterpoint. Counterpoint in 
four parts, all of which may be inverted, 
and each of them taken as a bass, middle, 
or high part 
Quadruple croche (kfid-riipl krOsh), Fr. \ 
Quadruple quaver. j 

Four-hooked; a half-demisemiquaver, or 
semidemisem iquaver. 

Quadruple (kw&'droo-pl6), It. In four parts. 

Quantity, The relative duration of notes or 

8uarta(kw&r't&), 72 ) A fourth; also the 
uarto (kwar'tC), j fourth voice, or instru- 
mental part. 
Quart de soupir (k&r ddh soo-pSr), Fr, A 
semiquaver rest. 

ftorm, ftodd, &afe, ^end, d«M, liU, I iaU^Qold, 6odd, oo nunm, IX but, i^ J^- smtfwf, kh Oer. eh, jihwmL 






A black note with a stem. 
ts equal to one quarter of a 

Quarter- tiote. 

Its duration 
whole note. 

Quarter-rest. A pause equal in duration to 
a quarter-note. 

Quarter tone. A tniAll interval, approxi- 
matelv equal to one quarter of a diatonic 
secona. Several intervals of this character 
arise enharmonlcally, when it is attempted 
to carry out musical pitches into remote 
keys according to the mathematical exact- 
ness of pure harmonic intervals. Approxi- 
mately the interval between Cit and v^ is a 
quarter-step; in some cases, but not in all, 
acoordiuK to the manner in which the sev- 
eral pitches ^re arrived at. / 

Quartes (k&rt), Fr, Fourths. 

|uartet ") A composition 

fnartett (kw&r-t£tt). Oer. S-for four voices 
[uartetto (kwftr-t£rtd), It.) or instruments. 

Quartet, stringed. A quartet, or' composi- 
tion, arranged for four stringed instru- 
ments, consisting of first and second Vio- 
lins, viola, and violoncello. 

Quartettlno (kw&r-t£t-te'u5), JR. A short quar- 

Quartet, wimmI. A quartet consisting of the 
flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. 

Quartfagott (kwart'fa-KdtO, Oer. \ An old 
Quart-fagotto (kw&rt f&gdt'td), It. | sort of 
bassoon, formerly used as a tenor to the 
hautboy ; called, also, JhUcino and Dulzain. 

Quartfltfte (kw&rt'fld'te), Oer, A flute sound- 
ing a fourth above. 

Quartgelge (kw&rt'ghl-ghS), Oer. A small vi- 
olin, a fourth above the usual violin. Pic- 
colo violin. 

Quarto (kw&r^td). It. The fourth ; the quarter 

Quartsextaccord (kw&rf8^x^ftk-k^rdO, Oer. 
Chord of the sixth and fourth ; second in- 
version of the triad. 

Quasi (kw&'zS), It. In the manner of, in the 
style of. 

Quasi allegretto (kw&'z€ &l-ie-gr«t'td}. IL Like 
an allegretto. 

Quasi andante (kw&'z6 &n-d&n'te). It. In the 
style of an andante. 

Quasi presto (kw&-zl prCs'td), IL Like a 

Quasi recitativo (kw&'zl rft-tshl-tflrtS'vO), It. 
Besembling a recitative. 

Quasi una fantasia (kw&'zX oo'nft f&n-t&'zX-&), 
It. As if it were a fantasia. 

Quatrain. A stanza of four lines rhyming 

8uatre (k&tr), Fr. \ Four ; a quaJhre maina, 
uattro (kwaf trd), It. ) or, a quaUro mani, 
for four hands ; a pianoforte duet. 

Quattricoma (kwat'trl-kA^mft), It, A demi- 

Quatuor (kwft'too-dr), Xot. A quartet. 

Quaver. A note equal to half a crotchet. 

Quaver-rest. A mark of silence equal In 
value to an eighth-note. 

Querflifte (kwfir'fld'te), Oer. German flute. 
See Flavio traverto. 

Querpleife (kwar'pfi'fe), Ger. A flfe. 

Querstand (kw&r'st&nd), Ger. False relation ; 
in harmony. A chromatic tone not pre- 
pared in the same voice. See Fdlae rdUaion, 

Qnerstriche (kw&r'8trI'khe),Ger. Ledger lines. 

aUesU (kwfts'tft), « \T\y\A orthA* 
uesto (kwfa'td), "''• | ^^"' ^' ^'^- ^ 

Queue (ktUi), Fr. The tail, or stem, of a note; 
also the tailpiece of a violin, etc. 

Quickstep. A lively march, generally in 2-4 

Quieto (kw§-&'td). It. Quiet, calm, serene. 

Quills. The plectrumR, or instruments for- 
merly used instead of the fingers in playing 
upon the harp, guitar, etc. 

Quinque (kwInlcwC), Lai. Five. 

uint (kwint), Lai. \ A fifth ; also the name 
Uinta (kwSn'tft)^JR. (, of an organ -stop 

sounding a fifth, or 

twelfth, above the 

The E string of the 

uinte (kAnht), JFV. 
uinte (kwIn'te),Ger, 
foundation stops, 

Quintadena. An organ-stop of wood, voiced 
between a stopped diapason and a gamba. 

Quintaton (kwln'tfi-tdn'), Oer. A manual or- 
gan-stop of 8-feet tone ; a stopped diapason 
of rather small scale producing the twelfth, 
as well as the ground tone ; it also oocun 
as a pedal-stup of ; 2- and 16-feet tone. 

Quintbass. An organ pedal-stop. See Qnt-ii^i* 

Quintenzirkel (kwYn'tCn-tsXrOc'l). Oer, arcle 
of fifths, beginning with any tone and re- 
turning through a succession of fifths and 
octaves to the same tone, or one enharmo- 
nic with it. The Quintenzirkel beginning 
with C returns to S^ after twelve fifths. 

Q uintet . A composition for five Toices or in- 

auintetto (kwfin-t€ftti). /«• I a ouintet. 
uintitte (kanh-tet), Fr. ]^ Quintet. 

Quint-fagott (kwSnf f&-g6^, R. The small 
bassoon or fagottina, sounding a fifth high- 
er than the common bassoon. 

Quintgedackt(kwlnt'gh^d&kf), Ger. An or- 
gan-stop of the stopped-diapason species, 
sounding the fifth above. 

Quintoire(kftDh-tw&r), Fr. An old Fremch 
term applied to a species of descant con- 
sisting chiefly of fifths. 

Quintole (kwln'to-lfi), Lai, A group of five 
notes, having the same value as four of the 
same species. 

Quintuple. A species of time now seldom 
used, containing five parts in a bar. 

Quire. A Choir, a body of singers; that part 
of a church where the choristers sit. See 

Ni, ft acM, &ofe, e end, 4 ^ve, 1 iB, 1 isZe, 6 oM, 6 odd, 00 moon, a &u/, a Fr, sound, kh Oer, ch^ nh noM^ 





QttI tollU (kwl tariis), Lot. " Thou who tak- 
eflt away the sins of the world." A jMurt of 
the Gloria. 

Quodlibct (kw6d'n-bet), Lot, A medley of 

airs, etc., out of diffeirnt works, or by var> 
ious composers ; a musical potpourri. 

Quoniam Tu solus (qud'oi-fi.m too eS^ooe),Lat. 
" Thou only art holy.' Part of the Gloria. 

R, or, R. H. Indicates the right hand in pi- 

RabanI (ra-ba'ng). ) A species of tam- 
Rabbana (r&-b&^na). jbourine used by the 

Rabbla (r&ba)I-&), It. Rage, fury, madness. 

Raccourcir (ra-coor-ser), Fr. To abridge. 

Rackett, or, Rankett (r&k'kgt), Oer. (1) A 
family of wood wind instruments, long ago 
obsolete. (2) Obsolete names for organ- 
stops, generally reed-pipes of 8- or l&-feet 

Rackettfagott (r&k'kSt-fa-gdtO, Ger. A kind 
of bassoon, now obsolete. It belonged to 
the bombarde family. 

Racier (rsLk-la), J^. To scrape. Said of a poor 

Racleur (rH-kltlr), Fr. A poor player. 

Raddoicendo (rad-ddl-tshen'd6), j. 1 Within- 
Raddolcente(rsld-ddl-t8hen't6), *^' ) creas- 
ing softness ; becoming softer by degrees. 

Raddoppiamento (rSd-ddp-pX-a-men'to), It. 
Augmentation; reduplication; the doub- 
ling of an interval. 

Raddoppiato (rSd-doD-pI-a'to), It, Doubled, 
increased, augmented. 

Radical bass. The fundamental bass; the 
roois of the various chords. 

Raggione(rad-jX-d'n€), J(. Ratio; proportion. 

Ragoke. A small Russian horn. 

Rallentamento (r&Men-tSrm€n'td), 
Rallentando (ral-lSn-tan'dd), 
Rallentato (r&l-ien-t&'to). 

The time gradually slower, and the sound 

gradually softer. 

Rallentando assal (ral-ien-tan'doas-s&l). It. A 
great slackening of the time. 

Ranz des vaches (ranh dS vsish), Fr. Pastoral 
airs played by the Swiss herdsmen, to as- 
semble their cattle together for the return 

Rapidamente (r&-pe-d&-men't€). It. Rapidly. 

Rapidamente e bril''*nte (ra-pe-da-m6n't€ a 
bril-lan'16), It. Rapi ily and brilliantly. 

Rapidlta (r&-pedX-t&0, It- I^pidity. 

Rapido (rfi'pl-dd), J^ Rapid. 

Rapsodie (rftp-sO-de'), Fr. \ A capriccio, a 
Rapsody (rftp'so-dy), Eng. J fragmentary piece, 
a wild, unconnected composition. 

It. ^ 

Rasch (rSsh), Ger. Swift, spf'^ted. 

Rasegesang (r&'z^ghe-z&ngO, 43^ 1 A wild 
Rasefied (rfi'z6-led'), ^' j song, a 


Riithselcanon (r&th's'l-k&-n6n), Ger. Enig- 
matic canon. A canon written upon a sin- 
gle line, without marks to indicate where 
the following voices should enter. 

Rattenendo (rat-te-nSu'dd), » \ Holding 
Rattenuto (r&t-te-noo'io), ''*• j back, re- 
straining the time. 

Rattezza (rat-tefB&), It. Swiftness, rapidity. 

Raucedlne (r£i-oo-tsh€-de'ne), It. Hoarseness. 

Rauco (ra-oo-ko). It. Hoarse, harsh. 

Rauh (rou). Ger. > u-.„„v, 
Rauque (rok), Fr. / «o"«'i- 

Rauscher (row'sher), Ger. A passage in which 
every two tones are several times repeated. 

RauschflOte (roush'fio'tS), Ger.. A mixtnre 
stop of two ranks of pipes, sounding the 
twelfth and fifteenth. 

Rauschpfelfe (roush'pfi-f£), ^^ ) Rustling 
Rauschqnint (roush^ulnt), ^^' j fifth ; a 
mixture-stop in German organs, the twelfth 
« and fifteenth on one slide. 

Ravanastron. A very simple form of bow in 
strument, common in the East. 

Ravvivando (rav - vl - v&n' 66), It, Reviving 
quickening, accelerating. 

Ravvivando 11 tempo (rftv-vl-v&n'dd II tfim'- 
pd). It. Accelerating the time. 

Re (ra). A syllable applied in solfaing to the 
second degree of the major scale, or in 
France and Italy to the note D, irrespec- 
tive of key place. 

Reading music. The art of recognizing and 
feeling musical effects from the written no- 
Rebec. \ A Moorish word signifying an in- 
Rebecca. j . strument with two strings played 
with a DOW. The Moors brought the rebec 
into Spain, whence it pa^^sed into Italy, and 
after tne addition of a third string obtained 
the name of rebecca, whence the old Eng- 
lish rebec, or fiddle with three strings. 

Rebecchino (rft-bSk-kg'nd), II. Small rebec 

Re bimol (r^ ba-m61), Fr. The note Db. 

Re bimol majeur (ra b&-m61 m&-zhtLr), Ft- 
The key of D^ major. 

&anii,ftadd, &cUc, 6end, eeve,liU,liae,6old, 6 odd, oo moon, tX but, tlJV.wuna, kh Ger. cA, nh n^ar' 






ReceiMiofi (r&-tsauh-fil-finh), Fr. An analyt- 
ical criticism. Also used of careful or 
analytical editing. 

Recheat. An old term for a series of notes 
'which huntsmen sound on a horn to recall 
the d(%s from a falsotficent. 

RechercM (re-shfir-sha), Fr. Rare, affected, 

Recht (r^kht), Ger, Right 

^echte Hand (rSkh'tS hind), Oer. Right 

i^eclt (rft-set), Fr. Recitative. 

Recitado (r&-t^-t&'dd}, Sp. Recitative. 

Recital. A recital of choice music by a solo 
artist. Distinguished from concert by be- 
ing exclusively musical, the idea of dis- 
play not entering into the concept. 
R<K;itando (ra-tshl-tan'do), „ ) Declamatory, 
Recitante (r§,-tsh^tan'tfi), ^^* t in the style 
of a recitative. 

Recitatif (rg-sl-tatfif), Fr. ') 
Recltativ (rfi tel-tU tif ), Oer. J- Recitative. 
Recltativo (r6-t8hi-ta-t6'v6), It. ) 

Recitative (rd-sI-tH-tev'). A musical form in 
which a text is recited to musical cadence. 
Recitative raugeu all the way in musical 
quality, from the recitativo secco (dry reci- 
tative), in which, aided simply by a chord 
vow and then for insuring the intonation, 
the musical cadeiice seeks merely to deliver 
the text effectively, up to a recitativo ac- 
compagnato strormntcUo (accompanied and 
instrumented recitative), in which the mu- 
sical phrases hav6 perceptible melodic qual- 
ity, while the instrumentation colors and 
intensifies the dramatic effect. The latter 
variety approaches very nearly to arioso, 
and shades into it by imperceptible de- 
grees. To mention a familiar example, 
the four recitativbs in Handel's ** Messiah," 
narrating the appearance of the angels to 
the shepnerds, afford two examples of reci- 
tativo secco, and two of recitativo accom- 
pagnato. In operatic recitative the in- 
strumental accompaniment often plays an 
important part; even where the vocal 
phrases themselves are not highly accom- 

Skuied, the instrumental interlude often 
kes on a highly dramatic coloring. All 
the old operas of Mozart' » time, and be- 
fore, have a great deal of recitativo secco, 
which is generally accompanied by the 
'cello only. In the latter works of Waener 
there is little or no recitative of this char- 
acter, but an accompanied recitative, or 
more properly arioso, takes its place. In 
the first operau (Peri's *• Eurydice ") a simi- 
lar usage prevailed, but with the difference 
that in Peri's mere verbal delivery is the 
end sought in the musical cadence, where- 
as in Wagner the accompeuiiment rises to 
symohouic elaboration in the effort to in- 
^rpret the feeling of the text, and the 
^hole form is intensely mufiical as well as 
Iramatic in the best sense. 

Recitative accompanied. A recitative is said 
to be accompanied when, besides the bass, 
there are parts for other instruments, as 
violins, flutes, hautboys, etc. 

Recitativo instromentato (re-tsh!-t&-tg'vd In- 
strd-m6u-ta't6),i^ Accompanied recitative. 

Recitativo parlante (r^tshl-ta-te'v6 par-i 
lan'te), [ n. 

Recitativo secco (r^tshX-ta-te'vo s€k'k6),> 
Unaccompanied recitative; also, whenao-) 
companied only by the violoncello and 
double bass, or the pianoforte or organ. 

Recitativo stromentato (re-tshI-tSrt^v5 str6- 
m6u-ta-td. Recitative accompanied by the 
orchestra. See Becitativo instromentato. 

Rezitativzug: (re-tsX-ta-tef'tsoog), Oer. Re- 
citative stop. 

Recitazione (rS- tshi- 1&- tsX- (y n^), It. Recita- 

Rteiter (ra-sl-t£l'). Fi. To recite. 

Reciting note. The note in a chant upon 
which the voice dwells until it comes ^o a 

Recorder. An old wind instrument of the 
flageolet kind, but of smaller bore and 
shriller tone. Mentioned in Shakespeare. 

Recreation. A composition of attractive style, 
designed to relieve the tediousness of prac- 
tice; an amusement. 

Recreations musicales (rCk-i^-ft'si-dnh mii-^- 
kal'), Fr. Musical recreations. 

Recte (r^k'te), Lat. Right, straight, forward 

Recte et retro (rfik'tfi 6t ra'tro), Lat. Forward, 
then backward ; the subject, or melody, re- 
versed, note for note. 

Reddita (rM de'tfi), j. \ Befum to the sub- 
Redita (r3-de'tfi), r <*»/»♦• i^n^tui/^n <^r a 


Iject; repetition of a 

RWi^se (ra\^>as), i^'r. I t>« „!,«,.« tvi* 
Rediesis (ra dg-a'^^s). It. j ^ s^*'?' ^• 

Redondilla (r6-d6n-d6l' yfi), Sp. A roundelay ; 
a stanza ot four lines of eight syllables eacn. 

Redowa (rCdft-wa). ) A Bohem'«in 

Redowak (rS'dd-w&k) >- dance, in 2-4 and 

Redowazica (r^dd-w&ts-ka;. ) 3-4 time alter- 
nately. Modern redowas conflne them- 
selves to 3-4 measure. 

Redublicato (r^-doob-lX-ka'td), It. Redoubled. 

Reduciren (rC'doo-tsIr'fin), Oer. To reduce, or 
arrange, a full instrumental score, for a 
smaller band, or for the pianoforte or or- 

Reed. The flat piece of cane placed on the 
beak, or mouthpiece, of the clarinet and 
bassethorn; this is called a single reed. The 
double reed is the mouthpiece of the haut- 
boy, English horn and bassoon, formed of 
two pieces of cane joined together. Organs 
and reed organs have metal reeds of differ- 
ent forms, called " free " and " impinging," 
or striking, reeds. The free reed consists of 
a small socket of brass and a vibrating 
tongue, one end of which swings entirely 
through the socket at each vibration, in 


, Aodd, a ale, 6end, e eve,liU,li8le, 6 old, 6 odd, oonuxm, HtnUf u Fr, sound, kh Oer. ch, ntLKosoL 


DicrrroNARY of Mtrsia 

mlaed In pBTt by Ihe Bhiipe and elie of llkls 
pipe. ThoiniplQBliie.<'i'«"''*liK,reedUiu*l 
only In tiiB orgun Jlor tnimpui. oboe, sod 
voTDoueon-Biops). lutang^eBlrlkesagaliut 
the opening into the pipe, which It com- 
pLeWly covers. Instead of playing ihroiigh 
It, oafn Che free reed. Its (one 1?, therefore, 
very much more metallic aui snarly, dr- 
ranreoda ol bolh Tarleltea are tnned by ft 
■lldfDK wire, which ehurtenB or leOKthtiu 

IE ponton o( It 



reed^oiEHTis are permanent, and do not get 
odt of tuue except through weabehing of 
the metal tongue, whtca bappena after 

flaws in the metal. In brasa InatrumeutSi 
of the bom and trumpet ctan the llpaof the 
player perform the lunctlOD of a reed, Tb« 

Read Inctrumenti. Inatrnmente whOM 
■ounda are produced by the action of ait 
upon reeds formed ol metal or wood. 

Reed pipe- A pipelormedof reed, uaedila- 
gly or In liiimt>en, u the pipea of Pan, In 
ancient timet, or In connection with other 
kinds of pipea, as In the organ. 

llMd<«ta|u. Onan^tcp* in which the Bonnd 
la made by reeda. 

Reel. AllTelySootchdance, Originally the 
term Rhay. or Reel, wai applied to a very 
ancient Eaglinh dance, called the Bay, The 
reel la generally in t-t meaanre, bat aome- 
timea in 6-8. See Bttag. 

Refrain. The harden of a aong ; a rilomelSl 

RefeKrt'g'll, Ger. Kule. 
Reiens cheri Iri'gena kfi'n), /. 
master In Uerman churchea. 
Regtmental band. A company of mtulclaoa 

lllltary hand. 

Remittor. The i 

Rectatrimnr (ri-gUa-trft'roonc) , C 
of reglatrauon. 

RelhMi (n'(!n), Qer. Bong, danoe. 
Relbentui (n'en-tInUO,'?<r- Cinmlaidi 
Rain (tin), S(T. I^ie, clear, perfect; ton 

r«in, distinct and clear. 
R«lDa StloaoM (rl'ne atdn'mS), Qer. i 

. (rtWlW), Ber. J 

a pUgrim'a hymn, or aOiL 
Related. A term applied 
model, or keya, whii>h. h 
afflnlty and cloe 

traveling song; 

tboee chords, 
) teaaun of Uielc 
, admit ol an easy 
from one to the 

Relation. That connection which any two 
sounds have with one another in reapectol 
the Interval which Ihey form. 

Reiatlon of iceyi. Atflnlty of keys, arising 
from the identity of one or more chorda ap- 
pertalolag to both. The relationship be- 
comes closer and cloaet aoconUog to the 
number of aaeh Coincidences, According 
to modem nsage all keys are related, and 
there Is acarcely any chord which might 

other. It Is 
,. ore related In 
of chords they 

C portion to the _. , 
e la common. For It la a very difffcrent 
thing to introduce a siagla itrange chord 
(which may ba taken aa belonging to the 
chromatic key) and to bodily go into the en- 
tire foreign key to which anch a chord o» 
tenaibly bclonga. See Uodiilation. 

Relatio nan harmonica !r(-WM-6 nfln hl> 
mi^nl-ki), Lai. Fahie relation. 

Relative keys. Seya which only dIBbr by 
one sharp, or flat, or which have the aame 


R«ma)ear(rftmS.zhtlr), TV. D majoi. 
Re minenr (rl me-nOr), Fr. D minor. 
Remotekeya. Thoaekeys wbosescales have 

few tnnea In common, aa the key of C and 

the key of D[,. 
Renpllssan (tAah-plI.aKih), Fr. Ftlllng up ; 

the middle parts; alsoatennappliedtolbe' 

-,i.ts -. 

18 aud bravura alra. 

Dtrodnoed In O 

,, -hlgh.Iow.ormld- 

dleparts,ordlvlsiane.of Ihevolce; alao the 
compass of a voice or Inatrumenl, 
Registering. The management of the stops 

Resbterstimme (re-ghlB'ter-BUm'm«1, Oer. 
Bpeaklng-Blopa of an organ, aa diatlnguiahed 
from mechanical stops (couplers, etc.). 

t arm, a odd, I olc, e «iHi, 1 eiw, I W, I ial«, 9 aU, odd, 00 Tnoon, (k bvl, Q A-. MMfld, kh fitr. eft. nh iMiol 

Renveraeneat (rSnh-viia-mOnh), Fr. An lik 
ReavBTier (ranh-v^r-st), Fr. To invert. 
Renvoi (linh-vwS), Fr. A repeat r the mark 

of repetition. 
Repeat 8va. Bepeat an octave higher. 




Repeat. Two or more dots to the left or right 
of a double bar, indicating sign .f Repetition, 
that certain measures or pas- 
sages on the same side of the 
bar are to be sung or played 

R'spercttssio (r6-p€r-koos'sl-d), Lot. The an- 
swer, in a fugue. 

Repercusstofi. A frequent repetition of the 
same sound. A technical term in fugue, to 
denote the reappearance of the subject. 

Repertoire (ra-i)6r-twar), JV. Repertory. The 
entire list of works Te&dy for performance, 
or practicable after certain preparation. 

Repertoire de ropira (ra-p^r-twar dtih lo-pfi'- 
ra),-i'V. A collection of pieces from an 

Repetent (r6-p3-t6nt')t Oer, A teacher who 
couducts the rehearsals. 

Repetimento (re-pe-tl-mSn'td), » ) Repeti- 
Rcpetlzione (r6-p6-ti-tsl-6'n6), ''^•j' tion. 

Rip^itiofi (ra-pa-te-si-dnh), Fr. Rehearsal; 

Repetltore (re-pS-tit-tO're), It, The director of 
a reht»arsal. 

Replica (rft' pll-k&)« Jl, Reply, repetition. 
See also Rqftercusaio, 

Replicate (re-pll-k&'t6), II. Repeated. 

Replique (rft-plek), Fr. (1) Octave. (2) An- 
swer (in fugue). (3) Interval arisink from 
inversion. (4) Small notes insertea in a 
part to guide the performer. 

Reply. The answer, in fugue. 

R^ponse (ra-pdnhs), Fr. The answer, in a 
fugue. The subject very slightly modified 
so as to lead back to the tonic. 

Repos (r&-p6), Fr. Ai)ause. 

Reprise (rft'prez), Fr. The burden of a song ; 
a repetition, or return, to some previous 
pan ; in old music, when a strain was re- 
peated, it was called a reprise. 

Requieip </&' kwl - Cm), Lot. A mass, or mu- 
sical bervice, for the dead. 

4(e8in. Rosin. 

Resolutio (r^-C-loo'tsI-d), Lot. Resolution. 

Resolution. The solution of a dissonance. 
All dissonances are temporary substitutions 
In place of consonant tones, and the resolu- 
tion generally consists of the progression of 
the oissonant tone one step to the consonant 
tone which It displaced. See IHsaonance. 

Resoluzione (resd-loo-tsld'ng). It. Resolu- 
tion, decision, firmness; also the progres- 
sion from a discord to a concord. 

Resonance. The answering of one sound to 
another. Every sounding body resonates or 
answers to all tones which it contains itself. 
A room resonates or echoes to such tones as 
are part of its natural tone. Every piano- 
string, when the dampers are raised, reso- 
nates or answers every other string which 
produces its own tone or one of its partials. 
The human head resonates according to the 


clearness of the cavities and the direction 
of the tone formed In the throat. An echo 
is not a resonance. An echo is merely a re- 
flection of sound-waves, and not an answer 
with waves newly created. 

Resonanzboden (re-s6-n£nts'bd'd'n),<9er. Res- 
onance bodies. The sounding-board of a 
pianoforte, etc. 

Response. Response, or answer, of the choir. 
The name of a kind of anthem sung in the 
Roman Catholic Church after the morning 
lesson. In a fugue the response is the repe- 
tition of the given subject by another part. 

Responsivo (r&spdn-se'v6).., It. Responsively. 

Responsorlen (re-spdn-86'rl-€n), 
Responsorium (r€-spdn-s<Vrl-oom), Lot. 
Responsum (rS-spdn'soom), 
See Eesponse. 

Resserrement (rSs-sar'mfinh), Fr. See StreUo. 

Rest. Rhythmic silence. Characters indi- 
cating rhythmic silence. During rest the 
rhythm goes right on, and this circumstance 
distinguishes musical rest from mere cessa- 
tion. Rests correspond in denomination 
and value to all the different forms of note. 

Wbole Half Quartet Sth' ISth' SM Mth 

^ -■ p 1 =* g i 

Rests may be augmented by dots and 
double dots, exactly the same as notes. 

Restrtctio (re-strik'tl-d), Lot. The stretto in a 

Resultant tones. Tones formed by the co- 
incidences of vibrations when two tones 
are sounding together. These tones were 
first discovered by ttie violinist Tartini, 
who used them as a guide to correct in- 
tonation in double stopping far up the 
fingerboard. They may easily be observed 
upon the reed organ by taking a single set 
of reeds and prolonging E and G (4th and 
5th spaces of the treble staff) forte. A low 
humming will presently be heard, which, 
upon comparison, will be found to be mid- 
dle C. Upon changing to D and F, one 
degree lower, the humming will change 
to Bl?. 

Resurrexit (r&-s'tlr-rex1t). Lot. "And rose 
again." Part of the Credo of the Mass. 

Retard. To gradually slacken the move- 
ment. A retard denotes the dying away 
of the impulse immediately producing the- 
strain, and is generally preparatory to a 
new strain following, or els^ preparatory 
to the final close. A retard is gradual and 
cumulative in character, slackening the 
movement very gradually, and completing 
the slackening upon the note preceding 
the resumption of the new idea, if there be 
one. The common mistake is to retard 
too suddenly, and too soon. As a rule 
everv retard in music is prepared by an 
accelerando a little time previously, in 
approaching the climax after which the 
retard generally comes. 


Aonn, ftodd, &a{e, 6end, Qevt, liU, I isZe, 6 ofd, 6 odd, oo moon, tl but, d Fr. sound, kh Qtr. eh, nh 




RieUrdando (r«-t&r-dftn'd6), il. A retarding 
of the moyement. 

Retardation. Slackening, or retarding the 
time; also a suspension, in harmony, pro- 
longing some note of a previous chord in- 
to the succeeding one. 

Retraite (retrfit), Fr, Retreat; tattoo, in 
military music. 

Retro (re-trO^), LaJf., Backward, the melody 
reversed, note for note. 

Retrograde (rd'ti6-gr&d'). Going backward. 

Retrograde. An imitation repeating the sub- 
ject note for note, backwards, b^inning 
with the last note. 

Retrogrado (rfi-trO-gr&'dO), J^ Retrograde, 
going backward. 

Retto (ret^td), lU Right, straight, direct 

Reveille (re-v&'y€), Fr. Awaking, a military 
morning signal; also horn music played 
early in the morning to awake the hunter. 

Reverted. An imitation repeating a melodic 
motion in opposite direction, answering 
upward prcwressions with downwards, and 
the like. The union of retrograde and 
reversed imitation gives an imitation In 
which the subject is repeated note for 
note backwards, and in opposite direction 
of up and down. These are merelv mechan- 
ical devices for securing something appar- 
ently new in the working out of a fugue or 
thematic group. 

Reversed motion. Imitation by contrary mo- 
tion, in which the ascending intervals are 
changed into descending and vice vena. 

Revoice. To repair an organ-pipe so as to re- 
store its proper qualiiy of tone. 

R. H. In pianoforte music used to indicate 
the right hand. 

Rbapsodlsts. Greek minstrels, of the time of 
Homer and later. 

Rliythm. ) Measured move- 

Rhythmus (r!t'moos), Qer. j mentintime. All 
music b^ins by selecting a certain key. or 
group of chords, within which, or in rela- 
tion to which, all the melodic and harmonic 
movements take place. In like manner it 
also selects a certain rate of pulsation and a 
certain measure.within which,orin relation 
to which, all the rhythm of the piece takes 
place. Hence, in general, the rhythm of a 
piece of music is the time motion against 
the background of pulsation and measure. 
A rhythm is said to be completed when it 
reaches a symmetrical grouping and clones 
with an accent. This is also sometimes 
called a rhythmus. In orchestral works, 
and in elaborate pianoforte works, several 
rhythms are going on at the same time. 
This appears in simple pieces, where there 
is a rhy tnm of the melody as such , a rhythm 
of the accompaniment, and a rhythm of the 
two together. 

] Sought 
(after; this 
) plied to 
wherein re- 

Rhythme (rlthm), Fr. Rhythm. 

Rliytliniical. Conformable to rhsrthm. 

Rhythmically. In a rhythmical manner 

Rhythmique (rlth-mek'), ^»*. 1 t>>.«.*v«<««i 
Rhythmifich (Wmlsh), Qer. \ Rl^ytt^mical. 

Ribattere (re-b&t't«-re), It To reverberate. 

Ribattuta (r6-b&t-too'tft), It A beat, a passing 

Ricercare (r^tsh^r-k^'re), 

Ricercari (re-tsh^r-ka're), fA, » 

Ricercata (re-tsher»ka't&), ^^' 

Ricercato (re-tsher-k&'td), 
every kind of composition 
searches of musical design are employed. It 
is suitable to certain figures replete with 
contrapuntal artifices, also to madrigals, 
and the term was formerly applied to sol- 
feggi, and also to instrumental exercises 
when of considerable difficulty. 

Ricordanza (re - kor - dan' tsfi), lU Remem- 
brance, recollection. 

Riddone (red-dd'ne), i2. A roundelay; a vil- 
lasre dance 

Rldeau d*entr'acte (r6-dd d'&nh-tr*ftkt), Fr. 
Drop scene. 

RIdevolmente (re-d^vdl-mSn't^), H. Ludi- 
crously, pleasantly. 

Ridicolosamente (re-dl-kd-ld-za-mto'tS), B, 

RIdotto (r^d5t'td). It. Reduced ; arranged oi 
adapted from a full score ; also an entertain* 
ment consisting of singing and dancing ; a 
species of opera. 

RIejenharfe (r6'z'n-har'fe),(?er. .ffiolian harp. 

RIfiormenti (re-fe-5r-men't€), It. pi. Oma. 
meuts, embellishments. 

Rigadoon. A lively old French or Provencal 
dance in triple time. 

Rigodon (re-gd-d6nh), Fr. A rigadoon. 

Rigoletto (re-gd-iet't6), R. A round dance. 

RIgoil. An old instrument consisting of sev» 
eral sticks placed by the side of each other, 
but separated bv beads. It was played Yyf 
being struck with a ball at the end of a 

Rigore (re-Rd'r^), It. Rigor, strictness; a/ 
ngore di tempos with strictness as to time. 

Rlgoroso (re-gd-r6'zd), It, Rigorous, exact, 

Riiasciando (re-lS.-shX-an'd6), It. Relaxing the 

time, giving way a little. 

Rinforzando (ren-for-tsan'dd), 'i Strength- 

Rinforzare (ren-fOr-tsa're), « I ened, re» 

Rlnforzato (ren-for-tsa'to), "*'• [ inforced; 

Rinforzo (ren-for'tso). ) a repeat^ 

ed reinforcement of tone or expression ; in> 

dicating that several notes are to be played 

with energy and emphasis. 

Rlpetitura (re-p6-te-too'ra), « \ Repeti- 
Ripetizlone (re-p6-te-tsi-6'n6), -*'• jtlon; the 
burden of a song ; a refrain. 

RIpieni (r6-p€-a'n6), pZ. „ ) The tuttl. ot 
Ripieno (re-pe-a'no), "* * j full, parts which 

iorm. kadd. kale,^ end, eev€,l ilZ, I i8le,6 old,6 odd, oo moon, iX btU» iX FrAound, kh Qer eh, nh fuud 





fill up and augment the effect of the full 
chorus of yoiccji and instruments. lu a 
large orchestra all the violins, violas, and 
. basses, except the principals, are sometimes 
called ripieni. 

Riplenist. A player of the ripieno, or tuttl, 
parts in an orchestra. 

Riposte (re-pds'tfi), /<. Repeat. 

RIpresa (TS-prft'zft), „ ) Repetition, reiter- 
Rlpresc (re-pra'z6), ^^' /ation. 

RIsentitamente (re-fien'a-t&-men'te), ) r. 
RIsentito (re-sfin-te'tfi), r^' 

Marked, distinct, forcibly, firmly. 

Riseltttamente (re-zd-loo-t&-men't£), le. Reso- 
lutely, boldly. 

Risoitttlssimo (rS-zd-loo-tSs'sI-mO), II. Very 
resolutely, as boldly as possible. 

Risolttto (re-zd-loo^d), It. Resolved, resolute, 

RIsoluzione (r§-s6-loo-tsI-d'ne),iJI. Resolu- 
tion, determination ; also the resolution of 
a discord. 

Rljonante. Resounding, ringing, sounding. 

Rlsposta (r&-pd6'tA), R. The answer in a 

Rissonanza (rS-sd-n&n'tsa), It. Resonance. 

RIstrctto (re-stret'td), It. The stretto, the re- 
striction, or contraction, of the subject, in a 

Rlsvesliato (res-v&l-yl-tt'td), JZ. Awakened, 

RItard 1 Abbreviations of Ritardando. 

Rltardando (re-t&r-d&n'dd). It. Retardlng,de- 
laying the time gradually. 

RItardato (r^-t&r-d&'td), It. Retarded, de- 

Rltardo (r^-tar'dd), It. Retardation, gradual 
delay; in harmony prolonging some note 
of a previous chord into the succeeding 

Rltard6 un pochettlno (rS- t&r'do oon pd-ket- 
tS'nd), It. Slacken the time a little. 

iUten. An abbreviation of Ritenuto. 

Ritenendo (r6-t6-n6n'd6), „ ) Detaining, 

Rltenente (rd-t^nSn'te), ^^- j holding back 

the time. 
Rltenento(rfi-t6-n6n't6), « \ Detained, slower, 
Ritenuto (re-t6-noo't6), ^''j kept back; the 
effect differs from ritar4ando, by bein? 
done at once, while the other is effected by 
Ritmo (r6t'm5), It Rhythm, cadence, meas- 
Rltmo a tre battute (rSf md & tra b&t-too'tS), 

It. Rhythm in three beats. 

RItornel (re-tdr-nfil' . It. ) The burden of 

Ritorneilo (rd-tdr-nSrld), It. Va song ; aiso a 

Rltoumeile(re-toor-nei),Fr. \ short symphony 

or introduction to an air, and the 6''»*>nnorv 

which follows an air : it is sIro apolied to 

tutti parts introductory to, and between, or 

after, the solo passages in a concerto. 

Rltttai. The directions and text of formal 
services, such as those of the church, secret 
societies, etc. 

Riverso (r§-v6r's5). n\ Rt^ TtnvAaHn 

Riverscio (re-vfir-shrc), ^'* / ^®® Rovcsdo. 

Rivoigimento (re-vdl-vI-mSn'td), 72. Invex^ 
siou of the parts, in double counterpoint. 

Rivoitato (r6-v61-t&'t6),7, ) Inverted, in coun- 
Rivolto (re-vdl'to), ^^' ) terpoint. 

gSSSTcrt^?*?- } 01d-«~hloned. odd. 

Roehrquiiit (rdr'quint), ^ ) Reed - fifth ; 
Rohrquint (ror'qulnt), ^' j an organ-stop, 
souuding the fifth above the diapasons. 

Rohr (rdr), Oer. Reed, pipe. 

Rah re (reVre), Ger. pi Reeds. 

RohrfMHe (rOr'AS'te), Oer. Reed flute, a stop- 
ped diapason in an organ. 

Rohrwerk (rOr'wftrk), Oer, Reed-work; the 
reed-stops in an organ. 

Role (rdll), Fr. A part or character performed 
by an actor in a play or opera. 

Rolling. A term applied to that rapid pulsa- 
tion of the drum oy which the sounds so 
closely succeed each other as to beat upon 
the ear with a rumbling continuity of e£rect. 

Rol I , long. A prolonged roll of drums signal- 
izing an attack by the enemy, and for the 
troops to place themselves in line of battle. 

Rollo (r6in5), It. The roll on the drum and 

Formerly the 
name given to 
the long lyric 
tales sung by the minstrels ; now a term ap- 
plied to an irregular, though delicate and 
refined composition in lyric style. 

Ron]anesca(rd-Tn&-nes'k&), K. > A favorite 
Romanesque (rd-mftn-€sk), Fr. ) Roman or 
Italiau dance of the sixteenth century, re- 
sembling the galliard. 

Romantic. Interesting, strange, exciting. In 
poetry applied to the movement beginning 
near the close of the eighteenth century, 
Goethe and Schiller being the leading ex- 
ponents. In music to a similar tendency to 
make thought free and truly responsive to 
the inner life. Hence in music the works 
of Chopin, Schumann, and others, which 
were measurably free from classical restric- 
tions and carried out their ideas in any di- 
rection the fancy took them ; whereas Bach 
and the composers before him were con- 
stantly hampered by the ideal of treating a 
selected musical idea in a certain manner, 
which in the hands of common composers 
became merely pedantic and learned. Ac- 
cording to some philosophers the essence of 
the romantic spirit differs from the classic 
in this : That, whereas the ideal of classical 
art was to represent the eternal and ideal, 
the \t^f*« nf the romantic is that everything 
which the individual experiences is of in- 
terest to the whole race. Hence a vastly 
greater latitude of styles and forms. 

ft arm, & odd, & oZe, S end, S av, I iK, I isfe, d old, d odd. oo mo<m, ti &t«^, ti JV. sound, kh G'er. cA, nh notoL 





Roraantlque (rft-m&nh-tSkU Fr, \ Roxnan- 
Romanzesco (rd-milnli-ts&f'kO), il. j tic, imag- 
iuative, fairy like. 

Ronde (rdnd), Fr. A semibreve. 

Rondeau ( ' dnh'dd)» Fr. \ A composition, To- 
Rondo (rdn'd6), It, ) cal or instrumental, 

Seuerally consisting of three strains, the 
rst of which teimlnates in a cadence on 
the tonic and is repeated several times dur^ 
Ing the movement. 

Rondeau mignon (rOnh-dd' m6-yOnh), Fr. A 
favorite roudo. 

RondfletUCrdn-dMeftft), ) 

Rondinetto (rdn-dl-n^t^to), „ L^ short and 

Rondino (rdn-dd'nd), ''** C easy rondo. 

Rondoletto (r6n-dd-iet't5), ) 

Rondo form. In the style of a rondo. 

Root. The fundamental note of any chord. 

Rosalie (rd-sa'll-e>, Oer. A derisive name 
sometimes applied to cheaply constructed 
musical passages, consisting of sequences 
and common harmonies. 

Roatral (rds-trftlO, Oer, A mnsic-pen. 

Rota (rd^t&), R, A wheel ; applied to a canon, 
or a ruund. 

Rote. Name formerly applied to the hurdy- 

Rote, singing by. The act of singing, not 
from a knowledge of music, but from liisten- 
Ing to the singing of others. 

Rotondo (rd-tdn'dd). It. Round, full. 

Rotte (rGt'tC), It, Broken, interrupted. 

Roulade (roo-lild), JV. A florid vocal passage ; 
a division, or rapid series of notes, using 
only one syllable. 

Roulement (rool-milnh), Fr. A roll, or nhake, 
upon the drum or tambourine ; prolonged 
reiterations of one note, upon the guitar, 

Round. A species of canon in the unison or 
octavo ; also a vocal composition in tbrt^e 
or more parts, all written in the same clef, 
the performers singing each part in succes- 
sion. Tbey are caiiea rounds because the 
performeis follow one another in a circula- 
tory motion. 

Roundel. ) From the French word rounde- 
Roundelay. J let; a species of antique rus- 

tic song, or ballad, common in the four- 
teenth century, and so called on account of 
form, by which it constantly returned to 
the first verse, and thus went rouui. 

Roverscio (rd-vfti'shl-^), n \q^ j?/w^-r, 
Rovesio (ri^vft-sI-O), " -«• | S«o Roeacto, 

Rovesclamento (r5-v&-shI-&-men'tO), 1 „ 
Rovescio (r6-vft'»hI-6), | ^^' 

Reverse motion, the subject backward, in 

double counterpoint. 

Rubato (roo-b&'td), iZ. Robbed, stolen; tak- 
ing a portion of the duration from one 
note, and giving it to another. See Ten^to 

ROckgang (rSk'gftng), <?er. Goinebaek. The 
part of the sonata preceding the return of 
the principal. 

ROckung (rSk'oong), Oer, Syncopation. 

Rudiments. The first elements, or principles, 
of music. 

Ruhepunct (rooOie-poonktO, /3^ 1 Pause. 
Ruhepunkt (wK/he-poonkt), ^^^' J point of 
rest or repose ; a cadence. 

Ruhestelle (rooOie-stelie), ^^ 1 A pause. 
Ruhezeichen (roo'hfi-tsrkh'n),*'*^-; a rot! 

Ruhig (roo'hig), Oer. Calm, quiet, tranquil. 

Rule of the octave. The art of accompany- 
ing the scale, either ascending or descend* 
ing, when taken in the bass, with the prop- 
er chords or harmony. 

Rullando (rooM&n'dd), rt \ Rolling on the 
Rullante (rool-l&u'te), -'''J drum or t a m - 
bo urine. 

Run. A rapid flight of notes introduced as 
au embellishment; a roulade. 

Rundgedicht (roond'ge-dlkhf), rw ) Ron- 
Rundgesang (mond'ge-zang'), ^'^' { dean, 
roundelay, a convivial sung. 

Running passages. Divisions; series of notes 
appropriated to a single syllable. 

Russe (niss), Fr. Russian ; d la iSusse, in the 
Russian style. 

Russian bassoon. A deep-toned instrument 
of the serpent species, sometimes used in 
military bauds. 

Rustico (roos'tl-kd). It. Rural, rustic. 

Rutacher (root'sher), Oer. The dance called 
a galopade. 

uarm, ft add, &a(e, £«nd, £eve, liUflisZc, doId.O odd, oomo<m,iXbtU, <i Fr. aoundf kh Oer. ch, nh nasal. 





5. Abbreviation of Segno or Sinistra. 

Saccade (sfikk&dO. Fr. A firm pressure of the 
violin-bow against the strings, enabling the 
player to produce tvro, three, or four notes 
at oue stroke. 

5ackbttt. An old bass wind instrument, re- 
sembling a trombone. Thesackbutof the 
Bible was a stringed instrument. 

Sackpfeffe (sak'pH'fe), Oer. A bagpipe. See 

Sacred music. Music composed for public 
religious worship or private devotion; ora- 
torios, v6A^iQ<xly> etc. 

Saenirerfest (s&ng'Sr-f&stO, Oer. A festival of 

Saison (s&'sOnh), Fr. The musical season. 

Saite (si'tfi) , Oer, A string of a musical instru- 

Saiteninstrument (sVt'n-In-stroo-mentO* Oer. 
A btringed instrument. 

5aitenklanflr (sl't'n-kl&ng'), Oer. The sound, 
or vibration, of a string. 

5altenspleler (A'V n-sp^'lSr), Oer. Player on a 
striuged instrument. 

Saitenton (srt'n-t6nO. Oer. The tone of a 
striuged instrument. 

SaitiiT (si'tig), Oer. Stringed. 
Salclonal (sfil-sl-d-nfir), ") An eight- or 

Sallcet (Ka-ll-s&'). Fr. V sixteen - feet 

Saliclonal (fOl-le-sI d-n&lO, j organ-stop of 
small scale and stringy tone. 

Salle da concert (s&ll dtih kdnh-s&rtO, Fr. A 

Salle de muslque (sftll dlih mO-zSkO, Fr. > 

Salm (sUlmV Oer. \ . -^--i«, 
Salmo (bal-m6), It. / ^ P^^- 

5alonmusik (san6D-moo-zSk'), Oer. Salon m>i- 
sic; music for the drawing-room: hence 
music of a pleasing and not profound) char- 

Salpinx. The ancient Qreek trumpet 
Saltando (R&1-tan'd6), It. Leaping, proceed- 
ing by skips or Jumps. 

Saltarello (sal-t&-Tei'16). It. A Roman or Ital- 
ian very quick dance, deriving its name 
from the introduction of leaping skips, in 
2-4, 6-8, or 6 4 measure. 

Saltcretto (slll-t^ret'td), n. h. musical figure 
in 6^ time, the first and lourth quavers be- 
ing dotted; very u^aal in move- ^i^^ 
ments alia Siciliana. J . S J 

Saltero fs&l-t&'rd). Jt. Psaltery, instrument 
with ten strings. 

Salto (s&l'td). It A leap, or skip, from one 
note to a distant one ; also a canoe. 

Salve retina (s&rvs rft-g^^nft), Lot. "Hail, 
Queen ;^' a hymn to the Virgin Mary. 

Sambuca (s&m-boo'k&), Jl. An ancient stringed 
instrument used by the Greeks, the peculiar 
structure of which is unknown. 

Sanmlunir (sftmloong), Oer. A collection of 
airs, etc. 

Sanpoirna (s&m-pdn'y&), II. A species of pipe, 
bee Zampogna. 

Sampunia. A pneumatic instrument used by 
tne ancient Hebrews, resembling the mod- 
ern bagpipe. 

Sancttts(s&nk'tooii),Xa£. <'Holy;" the fourth 
movement of the Mabs. 

5anft (sftnft), Oer. Soft, mild, smooth ; mit 
aanjlen StiMmettt with soft stops. 

Sanftgedackt (F&nffgh«-dftkt), Oer. A soft- 
toned Slopped pipe. 

Sanftheft (sftnft^It), Oer. Softness, smooth- 
ness, ^entleuess. 

SAnftig (s&nf-tig), Oer. Soft, gentle. 

5anftmtfth (o&nfrmoot). ) a^ 

5anftmtithl8rkeit (s&nf fmU-tlg-klt), | ^^' 
Softness, gentleness. 

Sanftmathiflr (s&nff mU - tig), Oer. Softly, 

SBtkz (s&ng), Oer. Song. 

^tngrer (s&ng'fir), Oer. A singer. 

ilngerbund (s&ng'er-boondO. Oer, A league, 
or orotherhood, of singers ; a convention ox 
singing societies. 

SIngervereIn (s&ng'fir-ffir-rlnOt Oer, Singers' 

Sans (sfinh), Fr. Without 

Sans frappi (s&nh frftp-p&O, Fr. Without 
striking; play the notes without striking 
them hard or forcibly. 

Sans pMales (s&nh i>a-diU), Fr. Without the 

Santur (s&n-toor), Tur. A Turkish stringed 
instrument; the psaltery. 

Saquebute(sak-b<it),Fr. Thesackbut. 

Saraband (9ftr-ft-bftnd' , Enff. ") A dance said, 

Sarabanda (sar-a-ban'da), It. f to be orig- 

Sarabande (s&r-a-b&nd), Fr. ( inally de- 

Saral>ande(sar-&-ban'de), Ofr. J rived from 

the Saracens, and danced with castanets; it 

is in slow 8 4 or 8 2 time, and characterized 

by the second note of the measure being 

prolonged through the second and third 

beats, which gives gravity and mi^esty to 

the movement. 

4 urm, ft odd. & G(e; £ end, e ««,! iU, 1 182«, 5 o<d, odd, oo moon, a 2m^ ti ^. sound, kh Oer. c^ nh noMl. 
18 (1«0 




SttiTttsophones (a&r'roos-d-fdxies). A family of 
reed brass instrumentfl, with reed mouth- 
pieces. They are made in eight sizes. 

5attel (sftt't'I), Ger. The nat of the finger- 
board of the violin, etc. 

Satz (satz), Qer. Musical passage, composi- 
tion, theme. Applied to pieces of all dimen- 
sions, from a single phrase to a complete 
sonata or rondo movement. A single piece. 

, 5aut (86), J'r. BeeSaUo. 

'5autereau (fid-t^r6), Fr. The jack of the 

Sawtry. A term used in olden times for 

Sax-horn. A brass instrument introduced by 
M. Sax, with a wide mouthpiece and three, 
four, or five cylinders, and much used in 
militarv bands; tne tone is round, pure, 
and full. 

Saxophones. A family of brass wind instru- 
ments iuvented by M. Sax. The body of 
these instruments is a parabolic cone of 
brass, provided with a set of iceys; their 
tones are suft and penetrating in the higher 
part, and full and rich in the lower part of 
their compass. The saxophones are six in 
number, tbo high, the soprano, the alto, the 
tenor, the baritone, and the bass ; they are 
played with a single reed and a clarinet 

Saxotromba. A brass instrumen t in trod uced 
by M. Sax, with a wide mouthpiece and 
three, four, or five cylinders ; the tone is of 
a shrill character, partaking of the quality 
both of the trumpet and the bugle. 

Sax-tuba. A brass instrument introduced by 
M. Sax, with a wide mouthpiece and three 
cylinders ; the tone is very sonorous and 

Sbaizo (8bftl'ts6), It. Skip, or leap, in melody. 

Sbarra doppia (sbar'ra ddp'pI-&), Jl. A double 

Scagnello ^sk&n-y&rid), It. The bridge of the 
violin, etc. 

Scala (sk&'lfi). It. A scale, or gamut. 

Scala cromatica (sk&aft kTd-m&'tI-k&), It. The 
chromatic scule. 

Scald. A Scandinavian poe^mu8ician. 

Scale. From the Latin word scala. The de- 
nomination first given to the arrangement 
made by Guido of the six syllables ut, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la ; also called the gamut. The 
tones of a key arranged in regular order ac- 
cording to pitch. The tone compass of any 
instrument. The general dimensions or 
proportions of an instrument or a set of in- 

Scale, chromatic. A scale proceeding by half- 
steps, as when every key of the piano is 
touched In succession. 

Scale, diatonic major. A scale composed of 
the tones of the major mode, having half- 
steps between three and four and seven and 



Scale, enharmonic. A scale proceeding by 
intervals less than the diatonic and chro- 

Scale, German. A scale of the natural notea 
formtd of A, H, C, D, £, F, G, the B being 
reserved to express B|?. 

Scale, Gttido*s. The syllables ut, re, ml, fa, 
sol, la, used by Guido d'Arezzo, called also 
the Aretinian scale; the syllable si was in- 
troduced afterward. 

Scale, minor diatonic. The scale of the minor 
mode, having a minor third and sixth, the 
other degrees being the same as in the major 
of the same tonic. 

Scale, natural. The scale of C, called natural 
because it does not require the aid of fiats 
or shbrps. 

Scale of A major. A, B, C^, D, £, Fj(, Q#, A. 

Three sharps. 

Scale of A\f major. A|y, B^, C, D|y, £b, F, Qt, 
A|?. Four fiats. 

Scale of A minor. A, B, C, D, £, F, O^, A. 


Scale of A\f minor. Ab, B|y, Cb, D|y, B^, F)^, 04 
A|?. Seven fiats. 

Scale of B major. B, €#, D#, £, F*f, G#, A#, a 
Five sharps. 

Scale of B mInOr. B, qf, D, £, Fj(, G. A#, B. 

Two sharps. 

Scale of C major. C, D, £, F, G, A, B, C. Nat- 

Scale of C minor. C, D, £b, F, G, A.^, Bt|, C. 

TLree fiats. 

Scale of C major. C, D, £, F, G, A, B, C. Nat* 


Scale of Cif minor. L% D#, £, F^, G#, A, MT. 
C^. Four sharps. 

Scale of D major. D, £, Tift, G, A, B, C^, D. 

Two sharps. 

Scale of D minor, D, £, F, G, A, Bb, G^, U 

Two sharps. 

Scale of oi major. Di^, £b, F, G^, A|y, B^, C; 

Db. Signature five fiats. 

Scale of E\f major. £b, F, G, At^, Bb, C, D, Eb' 
Three fiats. 

Scale of Eb minor. £b, F, Gb, Ab, Bb, Cb, Dft 

£b. SixfiaU. 

Scale of E major: £, Fj(, G#, A, B, qf, D^^, K 
Four sharps. 

Scale of E minor. £, F#, G, A, B, qf, D^^, E. 
One sharp. 

Scale of P major. F, G, A, Bb, C, D, E, F. One 


Scale of P minor. F, G. Ab, Bb, C, Db, Ebf F. 

For four fiats. 

Scale of P4f major. F#, G#, A#, B, CJf, D#, E 
Fff. Six sharps. 

Scale of Put minor. F^, G#, A. B, qr, D. m. 
Fff . Three sharps. 

Scale of Q major. G, A, B, G, D, E, Ft^, Q. 

One sharp. 





Scale of Q minor. G, A, Bt?, C, D, Et?, Fif, G. 

Two flats. 

Scale of Q# minor. G#, A#, B, Qf, Dtf, E, 
FX, G. 

Sc^mando (sh€-m&zi'do) , R. Diminishing, do- 
creasing in force. 

Scena (8ha'n&), It. A scene, or portion, of an 
opera or play. 

Scenario (8he-na'rI-6), It. Actor's guide- 
boolc ; a programme ; scenes, decorations. 

Scene. Part of an act, portion of an opera ; 
an act generally comprises several scenes. 

Scenic music. Music adapted to dramatic 

Sciiiferlled (sh&'f€r-led), Qer. Pastoral song, 
shepherd's song. 

Sciilferpfeife (sha'ier-pfl'fS), Oer. Shepherd's 

Scliifertlnze (sh&'fSr-tan'tsS), Ger. pi. Shep- 
herd dances. 

Sciialkhaft (shM,lk'h&ft), O'er. Playful, roguish. 

Schail (shall), Ger. Sound. 

Schallbecken (sh&U-b^k'ken), Ger. Cymbal. 

Scliallloch (shall' lokh), Ger. Sound-hole. 

Sciiallrohr (sh&ll'ror), Ger. Speaking-trum- 

Schallstack (shall' stilk), Ger. The bell of a 
trumpet, bugle, horn, etc. 

Schalltrlciiter (sh&ll'trlkh-ter), Ger. The bell 
of wiud instruments. 

Sciialmay (sh&U-mi'), rj^ \ A shawm ; also 
Sciiaimel (sh&Uml'), * fan 8-feet reed or- 
gan-stop; the tone resembles that of the 
cremona, or clarinet. 

Sciiarf (sharf), Ger. Sharp, acute; a shrill 
mixture stop, of several ranks of pipes. 

Schauapiel (shou'8pel),0'er. Drama, dramatic 

ScfiauspieHer (shou-spe'lSr). Ger. Actor, 


Schelle (shei'lQ. Ger. A bell ; a jingle. 

5chellenl>aum (8henSD-bowm),G'6r. "Jingle- 
tree.'* The high stand of bells sometimes 
used in orchestral and band music for ori- 
ental coloring. 

Scherz (shftrts), Ger. \ Play, sport, jest A 
Scherzo (sk^r'tsd), It. j name given to a 
great variety of instrumental composi- 
tions, and indicative of their character 
rather than their form. Scherzi occur as 
single pieces, as items of sets of pieces 
(partite, etc.), and as movements of larger 
compositions. The scherzo was intro- 
duced into the sonata towards the end of 
the last century, and soon after also into 
the symphony and other kindred forms, 
where it freauently takes the place of the 
minuet. Its form in the sonata, etc., was at 
first that of the minuet (a first division of 
two parts ; a second division, or trio, of two 
parts, and a repetition of the first division) ; 
afterwards this form was developed and 

treated with greater freedom. This deyel- 
oped minuet-form is the most common 
form of the scherzo ; but there are scherzi 
with two trios, scherzi in form resembling 
that of the first movement of a sonata, and 
scherzi Irregularly and fantastically con- 
structed. Triple measure is oftenest to be 
met with, more especially 8-4 measure, but 
also 2-4 time occurs. 

Scherzando (skfir-ts&n'dd), It. ^ Playful, 

Scherzante (skgr-t^'an'tS). It. \ lively, 

Scherzevoie (sk&r-tsa'vd-i€). It. [ sportive, 

Scherzhaft (sh&rtshaft), Ger. ) merry. 

Scherzoso (sk^r-tso'so. It. Merry, playful, 

Scherzozamente (sker-tsd-sfi-mto'tfi)* It. Mer- 
rily, playfully, sportively. 

Schiettamente (ske-€t-ta-m£n't6), B. Simply, 

Schietto (skS-et'td), It. Simple, plain, neat. 

Schisma (sklsmfi), Gr. A very minute difiler- 
ence between the sound of intervals. In 
ancient music, a small interval equal to 
the half of a comma, or the eighteenth 
part of a tone. 

Schlachtgesang (shl&khf ghd-s&ng), \a^ 
Schiachtlled (shlakhtaed), / ^^• 

War song, battle-song. 

Schlag(shlag),(?er. Stroke, blow; a beat, as 
r^ards time. 

Schlagen (shISgh'n), Oer. To strike, to beat; 
to warble or trill. 

Schlagfeder (shlSgh'f&-d'r), Ger. A plectrum. 

Schiaglnstrumente (shlaghln-stroo-mSn't^), 
Ger. pi. Instruments of percussion. Form- 
erly key-board instruments also. 

Schlecht (sbiekht), Ger. Faulty. 

Schlechtertactthefle (shl€kh-ter-t&kt'thMe), 
Ger. The unaccented pans of the measure. 

Schleifbogen (shllf bd'gh'n), Ger. A slur. 

Schieifen (shllT n), Ger. To slide, to glide. 

Schielfer (shll'fSr), Ger. Slurred note, gliding 

Schlelfezelchen (shlL'fe-tfl'Ikh'n), Oer. A slur, 
a mark of the legato style. 

Schieppend ( shlSp' p^nd ), Oer. Dragging, 


Schluss (shlooss), Oer. The end, conclusion. 

Schltissel (shlOs's'l), Oer. A clef. 

Schlussfall (shlooss'fill), Ger. A cadence. 

Schlusssatz (shlooss'8ats),Ger. A closing pas- 

Schlusszelchen ( shlooss - tsl' kh'n ), Oer. A 

Schmelcheind (shmi-kh£lnd), Oer. Coazing- 
ly, caressingly. 

Schmerz (shm&rts), Ger. Grief, sorrow. 

Schmerzhaft (shmftrtsQi&ft), Oer. Dolorous, 

Schnabel (shn&'b'l), Ger. A beak ; a mouth- 
piece, as of the clarinet. 

& arm, ft odcl, ft oZc, e end, e eve, lia,l itlCt 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, H but, il Fr. sound, kh Qer. ch, nh noted, 





SchnabelflOte (shnft'b'l-fld'te), Qer, A beak- 
flute, i.e., flageolet. 

Schnarrpfeifen (shn&n'pfl-f n), a^ \Beed- 
Schnarrwerk (shn&rr'wftrk), ^^' J pipes, 
reedwork, or stops, in an organ. 

Schnecke (shn^k^kei , Oer. A snail ; the scroll 
at tho top of a violin. 

Schnell (shn€Il) , Oer. Quickly, rapidly ; etwas 
hewegter $chndlt a little quicker. 

Schnelle (8hiiein«), Oer. ri^ ) Quickness, 

Schnelllgkeit (shneiOXg-klt), *'^' j swiitness, 

Schneller (shnellSr), Oer. Quicker, faster. 
Ai»o a quick and short trill. 

Schneliwalzer (shn«irw&l'tser), Oer. Quick 

5chollrohr {gh6U'T6T), Oer. Trumpets, bugles, 
brass wind instruments. 

5choittl8ch (shdt'tlsh), Oer. A modem dance, 
rather slow, in 2-4 time. 

Schrige Bewegung (schr&'gh^ b&-w8'ghoong), 
Ger. Oblique motion. 

Schreibart (shrib'Art), Oer. Style, manner of 

Schreiber (shrl'bSr), Oer. A music-copsrist. 

Schreiend (shrl'tod), Oer. Acute, shrill, 

Schreiwerk (shil'wflrk), Oer, Shrill work; 
acute or mixture stops. 

Schrittmisslg (8hrIt'mfis'slg),G'«r. Slow time, 

Schuiftromppet(shwlftrOm-p€t),l>ut. A sack- 

Schule (shoo^e), Oer. A school, or method, 
for learning any instrument ; also a peculiar 
style of composition, the manner,or method, 
of an eminent composer, teacher, or per- 

Schttlgerecht (shooVghe-rekhtO, Oer. Regu- 
lar, in due form ; written correctly, in ac- 
cordance with the rules and principles of 
musical art. Used derogatorily, as denying 
higher qualities. 

Schultergeige (shoo]'t'r-gbrghe),(?<>r. Shoul- 
der violiu, as distinguished from "nee 
viol," 'cello. 

Schusterfleck (shoos'tfir-flekO, Oer. See Ro- 

Schwach (shwakh), Oer. Piano, soft, weak. 

SchwScher (shwa'khfir), Oer. Fainter, softer, 
mure piano. 

Schwache Stimme (shwfikh'€ stIm'mS), Oer. 
A weak voice. 

Schwirmer (.cchw&r^m'r), Oer. A passage in 
which each pair of tones are several times 

Schwebung (shw^-boong), Oer. Waving; a 
lighter species of tremulant, for the more 
delicate stops, such as the vox humana, etc. 

Schwelge (shwl'gh€), Oer, A rest. 

SchweizerHMe (shwI'tsSr-fldtfi), \ n^ 
SchweizerpfeHe (shwI-Uj6r-pfI'f6), / ^^' 
Swiss flute, or pipe. 

Schwellen {shwCVPn), Oer. To swell, to in- 
crease in loudness. 

Schwer (shw&r), Oer. Heavily, ponderously. 

Schwenntithlg(8hw&r-m&'ti[g),O0r. In a pen- 
sive, melancholy style. 

Schwiegel (shwe'g'l), Oer. An organ-stop of 
the flute species, of metal, pointed at the 

Schwindend (shwin'd'nd), Oer. Dying away. 

Schwingung (shwing'oong), Oer. Vibration 
of a strlug, etc. 

Sclalumo (se-ft-lii'md), Fr. A word employed 
in clarionet music, signifying that the notes 
are to be played an octave lower than writ- 

Scloltamente (she-61-t&-m€n'te), It. With free- 
dom, agility ; easily, the notes being rather 
detached than legato. 

Scloltezza (3hi-dl-tdt's&), It. Freedom, ease, 

Scioito (she-^rtd), n. Free, light See Seiol- 

Scolia (8kd^I-&), Or. Among the ancients 
songs in general, but more especially those 
of a festive kind. 

Scordatura (skOr-dft-too'rft), It. Tuning a vi- 
olin differently, for the more easily per- 
forming certain peculiar passages. 

Score. An arrangement of the vocal and in- 
strumental parts of a composition in equal 
lines, with bars drawn across the entire 
number (whence the name " score ' ') in such 
a way as to present the whole detail to the 
eye at once. A piano score of a vocal work 
contains all the voice {Mtrts, each on its own 
staff, and the pianoforte accompaniment. 
The copy of an opera for piano solo la not a 
score, but an arrangement, since the vocal 
parts are not shown. The only kind of copy 
to which the term score applies without 
limitation is the full orchestra score, which 
also contains all the vocal parts. This is the 
score, or German Partitur. Composers gen- 
erally write first a piano score, indicating 
the leadinginstruments for each motive as 
it occurs. Trom tuis the full score is after- 
wards developed, and in carr>ing out the 
instruments complete much detail is often 
added, leading later to anew pianoscore, in 
which the salient parts of this detail are in- 
cluded. The term score does not properly 
apply to the printed copy of a pianoforte 
composition . But a " score " of a trio, quar- 
tette, or even a composition for two pianos, 
whenever the copy contains all the parts, is 

Scorrendo (skdr-rSn'dd), It. Gliding from one 
sound into another. 

Scotch scale. The pentatonic scale, consist- 
ing of the tones do, re, mi, sol, la, do. Many 
Scotch melodies are mainly confined to this 
selection of tones in key, whence the term 

ft arm, fl add, & ale, 6 end, e eve, I iK, I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, tl ^, fl Fr, tound, kh Oer, eh, nh naamL 






Scotch snap. A peculiarity In Scotch tunes, 
and those written in imitation of the Scotch 
character. It is the leugtheninR of the time 
of a second note at the expense of the one 
before it, placing a semiquaver before a 
dotted quaver. It gives emphasis and spirit 
to dance tunes, and, when well applied, has 
a lively effect. 

Scozzese (8icdt-s9'z£), Jl. In the Scotch style. 

Scuoia (skoo-o'la), JL A school ; a course of 


Sdesrnante (sd&n-y&n'te), M, Angry, passion- 

Sdesrno (sdan'yd), It. Anger, wrath, passion. 

Sdeffnosamente (sdan-yd-za-men't6), J<. Scorn- 
fully, dl&daiufuily. 

Sdrucciolamento (sdroot-tshi-5-lfi- 

Sdruccioflato (sdroot-tshl-o-la'tO), 

Sliding tae fingers along the strings or the 

keys oi an instrument. 

5e (s&), It. If, in case, provided, as, so, etc. 

Se bisosrua (sa be-sdu'ya). It. If necessary, if 

Sec (p6k). Fr. ) Dry, unornamented. cold- 
Secco (Pfik'kS), It. j ly ; the note, or 

be struck plainly, without ornament or 


Seccarara (s£k-kfi-r&'r&). It. A Neapolitan 

SechF(s€khs), O'er. Six. 

Sechsachteltakt (sSkhs-^kh't'l-t^kt), Ger. 
Measure iu 6-8 time. 

Sechssaitiflr (sekhs-sl'titg), Ger. Instrument 
with six strings. 

Sechstel (sekhs'tei), G6r. A sixth. 

Sechsthelllg: (s£khs-trilg>, Ger. In six parte. 

5;echzehnftts5iK (sSkh'ts&n-fas'sIg, Gfr. Six- 
teen feet, applied to organ-pipes, or pitch, 
a IG-feet tone being an octave below the 
normal piich. 

Sechzehnte (sCkh'tsan-t^), Ger. Sixteenth. 

Secbzehntel (s€kh'ts&n-tei), Ger. Semiquaver. 

Sechzehntelpause (sSkh-tsan'-tSlpou'ze), Ger. 
A semiquaver rest. 

Second. The interval between any tone of 
the scale and the next above, or below. It 
derives its name from the fact that in reck- 
oning intervals both tones are counted as 
well as all that lie between. Seconds are 
always represented upon adjacent degrees 
of the Stan*. But the representation is de- 
termined by nature of tne interval and not 
the interval by the form of the representa- 

A minor second is equal to one half-step; 
a major second to two half-stevs; an aug- 
mented second to three half-steps, being 
equal to a minor third, from which, how- 
ever, it easily distinguishes itself by the 
manner in which it is used. 

Seconda (sa-kdn'd&), It. Second, a second. 

Seconda donna (sft-k6n'd& ddn'nil), It, Second 
female singer. 

Seconda volta (sa-kdn'd& vdl'ta), It. The seO" 
oud time. 

Seconda volta molto crescendo (s^ - kdn ' dft 

vol'ia mol'td kr6-sh6n'dd), It. Much louder 
the second time. 

Seconde (sa-k6nhd), Fr. Second. 

Seconde fOis (s&-k6uhd fwM,), Fr. Second 

Secondo (sa-kdn'dd). It. Second, a second. 
Second soprano. The low soprano. 

Second subject. The counter subject of a 
fuKue when it remains unchanged in all 
the parts. 

Second tenor. Low tenor. 

Second treble. Low treble. 

Sectio canonis (s^k-tsi'O k&-n<ynlfi), Lot, The 
section of the canon. The mathematical 
division of a string for determining the ex- 
act nature of intervals. This operation was 
performed by the Alexandrian mathemati- 
cians (Claudius Ptolemy, etc., about 2(K) A.D.) 
upon a monochord. See "Hawkins* History 
of Mu>ic." 

Section. A musical form consisting of two 
phrases, the section being half of a simple 
period. The name section is applied by a 
few theorists to what is more properly 
called a phrase, and conversely the two- 

ghra^e form is by them called a phrase, 
ee Period. 

Secular music. Music which is composed 
for the theater or chamber ; an expression 
used in opposition to sacred music, which 
is for the church, or worship. 

Secunde (sfi-koon'de), Ger. Second. 

Secundum artem (f^^koon'doom ftr'tem), Lot. 
According to art or professional rule ; with 
skill and accuracy. 

Sedesima (s&-da'p1-m&). It. Sixteenth. Ap- 
plied to intervals, and to an organ-stop. 

Seelenamt (sa'l'n-amt), ^ ) Requiem, 
Seelenmesse (s&'rn-m€s's€), ) or mass for 
departed souls. 

Seer. The ancient name for a bard or rha^ 

Se^fno (sfin'yd). It. A sign, -igf- ; ol segno, return 

to the sign ; dal segno, repeat from the sign. 

Ses:ue (8&'gw6), „ \ Follows, now fol- 

Ses:uito (sdrgwS'td), ) lows, as follows ; it 

also means, go on; in a similar, or like, 

manner, showing that a passage is to be 

played like that which precedes it. 

Segue coro (sa-gw6 k6'r6). „ \ The 

Seffue il coro (sa-gw€ el k6'r6), ^'" / chorus 
Allows, go on to the uhorus. 

Segno 11 duetto (sa-gwS el doo-€t'tO), It, The 
duet follows. 

Segue il menuetto (sa-gw€ el md-noo-et't6), 

It. The minuet follows. 

Seeue la finale (sa-gwC 1& fe-n&ie), It, The 
finale now follows. 

Aanii,flradd,&a2e,e«fid, eeve,lUL,li8ie,6old,6odd, oo moon, abut, <i jPV.«Ottnd, kh Oer,ch, nhnoaoi. 





Seffuendo (8«-gw«n'd6), „ \ poUo^ine next. 

Seguenza (sa-gw^n'tsfi), It. A sequence. 

Segue «enza interruzlone (s&-gw€ sSn'tsd, Sn'- 
ter-roo-tsl-o'nd). It. Go on without stopping. 

Segue sublto senza camblare 11 tempo (sa- 
gwe soo'bi-to sdn'tsa k&m-bl-a're), It. Pro- 
ceed directly, and without changing the 

Seguidilla (8&-gwS-derya), Sp. A favorite 
Spanish dance lu 3-4 time. 

Seguito (se-gwe't5), It. Followed, imitated. 

Sehnsucht (s&n'sookht), Oer. Desire.longing ; 
ardor, fervor. 

Sehnsttchtig (san'sHkh-tlg), Qer, Longingly. 

Sehr (sir), Oer, Very, much, extremely. 

Sehr lebhaft (sftr IgVh&ft), Oer. Very lively ; 
extremely animated and vivacious. 

Sei(8al),J<. Six. 

Seltenbewegung (isl't'n-b^w^goong), Oer. Ob- 
lique motion. 

Seitensatz (si't'n-sfitz), Oer. Sidepiece. An 
episode, or second subject, in an overture, 
sonata, or symphony. 

Sekunde (s^koon'dS), Oer. Second. 

Selah (si-Hi), Heb. A term anciently used to 
indicate the interlude, in which the priests 
should blow the trumpets, to carry up the 
sentiments expressed for a memorial before 

Semi (sdm-!). Lot. Half. 

Semibescroma, It. A sixty-fourth note. 

Semlbreve (sSml-brev), Eng. 
Semibreve (sSm-i-bra've), 
Semibrevis (sfim-I-bra'vis), 

Half a breve; the longest note now 

in general use. 

Semlbreve rest. A rest equal in dura- 
tion to a semibreve. 

Semichorus. A chorus to be sung by iialf or 
only a few of the voices. 

Semicroma ^sSm-I-kro'ma), M. A semiquaver. 

Semldemisemiquaver. A half demisemi- m 
quaver ; sixty-four of them being equal g 
to a semibreve. pS 

Semldemisemlquaver rest. A rest equal in i 
duration to a semidemisemiquaver. ^ 

Semi-fusa (s^m-I-foo'sa), Lat. A semiquaver. 

Seminar (sSm'I-nfir), Oer. A school for teach- 

Scmlographle (s6m1-6-gra'fe)j^ ^ ) The art 
Semieographle (sem'Iogra'fe), Jof nota- 
tion, or writing music in notes. 

Semipausa (sfi'mi-pow-za), JaU, A half-Test. 

Semiquaver. A note equal to half a 
quaver; a sixteenth note. 

£ng. ) 

), It y 

s), Lot. ) 


Semiquaver rest. A rest equal in dura- a 
tion to a semiquaver. ^ 

Semitone (s^ml-tdn), Eng. \ A hali- 

Semitonlum (s^ml-td'ni-oom), Lai. / tone. 
Improperly used for half step. 

Semitonium modi (s& ml- td' n^ oom mo'dl) , 
Loi. The leading note, or major seventh . 

Semituono (s^mX-too-o'nd), It. A semitone. 

Sempllce (sem'pll-tshe). It. Simple, pure, 

Semplicemente (sSm-pli-tshe-men'tS), J} 
Simply, plainly, without ornament. 

Semplicissimo (s^m-pll-tshes'si-md), It. Wita^ 
the utmost simplicity. 

Sempllcita (sem-ple'tshi-t&). It. Simplicity, 

Sempre (s6m'pr6). It. Always, evermore, con- 

Sempre forte (sSm'prS for't^). It. Always 

Sempre legato (sSm'pre 16-gfi'to), It. Always 

Sempre piano (s^m'prS pe-a'no), H. Always 

Sempre piu affrettando 11 tempd (s6m'pr6 
peMjo af-frfit-tan'do el t€m'p6). It. Contin- 
ually increasing the time. 

Sempre piu forte (sfim'pre pe'oo for'tfi), 72. 
Continually increasing in power. 

Sempre piu presto (sSm'pre pe'oo prSs'td), lU 
(Continually quicker. 

Sempre ritard^ndo (s^m'prS re-tar-dan'do), U, 
Always slower ; slower and slower. 

Sempre staccato (sSm'prS st§,k-ka't6), It. Al- 
ways detached ; staccato throughout. 

Sensibile (sen-se'bl-lS), It. Sensible, expreS' 
sive, with feeling. 

Sensibiilta (s€n-sl-beai-tfi). It. Sensibility, 
expression, feeling. 

Sensibllmente (s€n-R!-bIl-m$n't€), U. Sensi- 
bly, expressively, in a feeling manner. 

Sensible (san-seblO, Fr. The leading note, of 
major seventh, of the scale. 

Sentences. Certain interlude strains some- 
times introduced into the service of the 
established Church, especially of particular 
l^hapels; short anthems. 

Sentlmento (8€n-ti-m€n'to), It. Feeling, sen- 
timent, delicate expression. 

Senza(s€nts3.), i/. Without. 

Senza accompagnamento (f^Sn-t^H ak-kom -p&n« 

ya-mCn'to), It. Without accompaniment. 

Senza battuta (sen'tsS bat-too' ta) , It. At the 
pleasure of the performer, as regards the 
beat or time. 

Senza fiorl (sSn-tsa fg-d'r!), 

Senza ornamentl (sSn-tsa dr-n&-men't€) 
Without ornaments, without embellish- 

Senza interruzlbne (sen-tsaln-tfir-roo-tsI-d'nS), 
It. Without interruption 

Senza oboe (sSn'tsU o'bo-a). It. Without the 


&onii,ftadd, a aU^ Send, eeve, iitt, Ii«Ie,d iM^ <ioM^ oo moon, tl2m<, ti/'/.<ound, kh Oer, oh, nh noftU 





8eiiz« orgwio (sen'tsft ^l^g&'zl^), B. Without 

the organ. 
Senza pedale (sen'tsa pfi-daas), It. Without 

the pedals. 

Senza pianO (8en't8& pe-&'nO), It. Without the 

Senza repetizlone (sSn'tsft r&-p^te-tsl-^-^ 
n«), >It' 

Senza replica (8en't8& r&'pll-kfi). J 

Without repetition. 

Senza rigore (s^n'tf^ re-gd're), It, Without 
regard to exact time. 

Senza sordini (8«n't8& sdr-de'nl), II. pi. With- 
out the dampers, in pianoforte-playing, 
meaning that the dampers are to be raised 
from the strings. 

5enza sordino (sen'tsll sdr-d^nd), II. With- 
out the mute, in violin-playing, etc. 

Senza stromentl (sen'ts& strd-mSn'tl), It. pi. 
Without lustrumeuts. 

Senza tempo (s^n'ts^ tfim'pd), It. Without re- 
gard to the time; in no definite time. 

Se place (s& pS-ft'tshS), It, At will, at pleasure. 

Septet (s^p-tetO. Eng. \ A composition for 
Septette (sep-tet'tO). i^. j seven voices or in- 

Septieme (sCt-I-ftmO, Fr, \ The interval of a 
Septlme (sfip-te'me), Oer. /seventh. 

Septimenaccord (8eprtI-mSn-&k-kdrd},G^. The 
chord of the seventh, comprising the root, 
the third, fifth, and seventh. 
Septlmoie (s^p^ti-mdae), j . 1 A group of 
Septidle (8fip'a-6'16), ^^' J seven notes, 
having the value and to be played in the 
time of four of the same species. 

Septole (8£Tvt6'l£), Lat. A group of seven 
notes in the time of six or eight. 

Septnor (s^p-too-dr), Fr, A composition for 
seven voices or instruments. 

Septnplet (s^p-too-plSt). A group of seven 
equal notes in the time ox six or eight of 
the same name. 

Sequence (sS-1cw€ns), Eng. ) A series, or pro- 
Sequence (sa-k&nhss), Fr. f eresniou. of slml- 
Sequenz (sfi-kw^nts'), Qer. [* lar chords, or in- 
Sequenza (s^kw^n'tsft), It, j tervals,in succes- 

Seraphine (sfir'ft-fen). A species of harmo- 

G6r6nkde (sa-r^n&d'). Fr. \ Night music ; an 
Serenata (sa-r^n&'ta), It. j evening concert in 
the open air and under the window of the 
person to be entertained. Also a musical 
composition on an amorous subject. Also 
any light, pleasing instrumental composi- 
tion comprising several movements. 

Serene (se-r&'n6), R. Serene, calm, tranquil, 

Seria (s&'rI-&), » I Serious, grave : in a 

Serioso(s6-rl-^z6),j serious, sedate style. 

S^rleusement (s&-rl-tts-m&nh), Fr. Seriously, 

Serinette (s^r-I-nfit), Fr. A bird organ. 

Serlnghl (s6-rSn'ghe), Hin. A Hindoo in- 
strument of the violin class. 

Serio (sa'rI-0), M. Serious, grave. 

Serio-comic. A song combining the giave 
with the ludicrous or humorous. 

Serpent (sSr-p^nt), Eng. ) A bass wind 

Serpente (ser-p^n't^). It. > in s t r n ment, 
Serpentono (ber-p€n-td'n6), It.) of deep,coar8e 
tone, resembling a serpent in form. It is 
chiefly used in military bands, though 
nearly superseded by the ophicleide; the 
name is sometimes given to a reed-stop in 
an organ. 

Service. A musical composition adapted to 
the services of religious worship. Those for 
Anglican use are generally known by the 
name of the composer and the leading key, 
as, ** Burnley, in A," •* Stainer, in F," etc. 

Service-book. A missal : a book containing 
the musical service of the church. 

Service, choral. The Anglican service in- 
toned, instead of spoken. 

Sej^ui (sS^wI), LaL A Latin particle, sisni- 
fyiug a whole and a half, and which, when 
joined with alterat terza^ ^liarto, etc., expres- 
ses a kind of ratio. 

Se8qulaltera(8&i'kwI-&Vtfi-rft),I/a^. The name 
given by the ancients to that ratio which 
includes one and a half to one. An organ- 
stop, comprising two or more ranks of 
pipes, of acute pitch. 

SesU (s«fl'tM,), „ ) The interval of a sixth. 
Sesto (b&'td), ^^' /See, also, SaUe. 

Sestet (8&9-tfitO. Eng. ) A composition for 
Sestetto (s&)-t€t'td). It. /six voices or instru- 

Sestina (s6s-tfi'na), « ) * «^w^i^ 
Sestola (Wte'Ul); ^'- |-A^ sextole. 

Sette (s^rt^), 7i(. Seven. 

Settlma (sSt'tl-mft), j, \ The interval of a 
Settimo (s^t'tl-mo), '''* /seventh. 

Settima magglore (sSf tl-m& mfid-ji-o're), IL 
Major seventh. 

Settima minore (a&t'tl-mSi me-nd^rS), It. Mi- 
nor seventh. 

Settimola (set-tX-mdaft), It. A septimole. 

Set to music. An exprefisinn applied to anv 
language to which music is adapted. Sucn 
a composition is said to be set to music. 

Setzart (^Sts'&rt), Oer, Style, or manner, of 

Setzkunst (sfitslcoonst), Oer. The art of mu* 
sicai Composition. 

Sevens and eights metre. A metre consist^ 
ing of a stanza of eisht lines, iu trochaic 
measure, and dcsignuted thus, 7s and &s. 

Sevens and fives metre. Consists of a stanza 
of four lines, in trochaic measure, and des- 
ignaied, 7s and 5s. 

Sevens and sixes metre. A meter designated 
thus, la and 6s, consisting of a stanza of 
eight lines in trochaic and iambic measure. 






Sevens, eflgrhte* and sevens meter. A meter 
designated tbQ'«. 78, 8b, and 78. consisting 
of a stanza of eleht lines in iambic measure, 
with number of syllables corresponding to 
the designation. 

Sevens metre. A stansa of four linM in tro- 
chaic measure, each line containing seven 

Sevens, sixes, and eights metre. A metre 
designated thus, 78. 68, and Ss, consiiiting of 
eight lines in trochaic and iambic measure. 

Seventh. An interval between any tone of 
the K»ile and the next but five above or be- 
low. There are three kinds of seventh : The 
mi^or, equal to eleven half-steps, occurs be- 
tween the tonic and the seventh degree of 
the major scale, and nowhere else. The ml- 
nor.equal to ten half-«tepe,oocur8 between re 
and do, ml and re, sol and fa. la and sol, si 
and la. The diminished, equal to nine half- 
steps, occurs between si and fa and nowhere 

Severamente (i«-ver-ft-mto'tfi), Jl, Severely, 
strictly, rigoroutfly. 

Severita (s^-v^rl-t&O . It. Severity, strictness. 

SexU (sex'tfl), Xa^ Sixth. 

Sexte (sSx'te), Qer. A sixth ; also the name 
of an organ-stop with two ranks of pipes, 
Bounding the interval of a msjor sixth, a 
twelfth, and tierce on one slide. 

Sextet. A composition for six voice parts, or 
instruments. More commonly used in in- 
strumental music to designate a chamber 
composition (sonata form) for six instru- 

Sextette. QeeSesteUo. 

Sextttor (sSx'twdr), Fr. A sextet. 

Sextole (s6x'td-16), ^ _, \ A group of six 

S«xtuplet (bfix'too-piet), ^^' J notes, having 

the value, and to be played in the time, of 


Sextuple measure. The name formerly given 
to measures of two parts, composed of« six 
equal notes, three for each part. This is 
more generally called, now, compound 
double measure. 

Sf., or Sfz. Abbreviation of Sforzando. 

Sfbgato.(sfd-gft'td), 72. A very high soprano. 

Sforza (sfdr'zfij. It. Forced, with force and 

Sforzando fsfdr-tsfin'dd), » ) Forced; one 
Sforzato (sfdr-tsft'td), ^^' { particular 

chord, or note, is to be played with force 

and emphasis. 

Sforzare la voce (sfOr-tsft'rS 1& vd'tshe), B. To 
oversiratn the voice. 

Sforzatamente (sf6r> tR&- 1&- mto' te), iZ. Im- 
petuously, energetically. 

Sfuggtto (sfood-jS'td). It. Avoided, shunned, 
r<.mbiiiig. See Cadema ^uggita. 

Sgaliinacciare ( f^l- 11- n&- tsbi- &' r^ ), n. To 
crow ; a bad method of singing. 

Shalce. A n ornament produced by the rapid 
alternation of two successive notts, compre- 
hending an inter- written. pi»7«d. 
val uot groater 
than a wnole step, 
nor less than a half 

Plain shake, or trill. 


Shalce , double. Two simultaneous shakes on 
noteH which are 
either sixths or 
thirds to each 
Double shake. 

Shake, passing. A short trill made in flow« 
lug passages of quavers or semiquavers, 
without breaking the time, or Interferizigr 
with the natural course of the melody. 


tffi jTtrf^ 

Sharp. A character ( ^ ) indicating an eleva- 
tion of a half-step. Applied to a staff de- 
gree. Sharps are either in signature or ac- 
cidental. Accidental sharps affect the staff 
degree through the measure in which they 
occur; signature sharps affect the degree 
and all its octaves on the same staff 
throughout the line. 

Sharp, double. A double sharp is equivalent 
to two sharps, implying an elevation of two 
half-feteps. Always applied as accidental, 
and only to a degree which has already 
been once sharped. 

Shawm. A wind instrument of the ancient 
Hebrews, supposed to be of the reed or 
hautboy species. 

Sheminith (sh^m-I-nlth), Heb. A stringed 
instrument. It was also sometimes used to 
denote a species of music, and also a partic- 
ular part of a composition. 

Shepherd's flute. A pastoral flute, shorter 
than the transverse flute.and blown through 
a lippiece at the extremity. 

Shift. A change of position of the left hand, 
in playing the violin, etc., whereby the sec- 
ond finger is placed successively one degree 
farther down the fingerboard until the very 
high notes are reached. 

Shiginoth (sbe'ghl-n6th), Heb. According 
to variable tunes. 

Shofar (shd' fkt), Heb. A trumpet, or bent 
born, so called because it gave a brilliant, 
clear, ringing sound. 

Short a^poggiatura. A grace note. A small 
note with a stroke through the stem, played 
very quickly before its principal note. See 
Mdodte EmbeUishnients in introduction. 

Short hallelujah metre. A stanza of six 
lines in iambic measure. 






Short metre. A stanza of four lines in iam- 
bic measure. 

Short mordent. A mordent consisting o' 
two notes, viz.: that having the sign over it, 
and that below or above it, before the prin- 
cipal note. 

Short octaves. A term applied to the lower 
notes in old organs, where some of the notes 
were omitted. 

Short particular metre. A stanza of six lines 
in iambic measure. 

Short shake. An embellishment formed by 
two or more notes preceding the principal 

Shrill. An epithet applied to those acute 
sounds which form the upper part of the 
scale of soprano voices aud treble instru- 

Si (sS), Fr, Applied in solfaing to the note B. 

SI b6mol (sd b&-Tn6n, J^. > m^j. _ _4_ ™ 
Si bemolle (se bft-mche), It, ] ^^^ ^^^ ^' 

Si bemol maleur (se bft-mdl mft-zhdr), Fr. 
The key of B> major. 

Si bcmoi mineur (s6 b&-m61 mS-nOr), Fr. 
The key of B]^ minor. 

Sibllus (s^i-loos), Lai, A little flute, or flag- 
eolet, utied to teach birds to sing. 

SIclllana (se-tshd-ll-ft'nft), 7^< ) A dance of 
Siciliano (se-tshd-U-Jl'ud), ''^* ] the Sicilian 
peaKauts, a graceful movement of a blow, 
soothing, pastoral character, in 6-8 or 12-8 

^ide drum. The common military drum, so 
called from its hanging at the side of the 
drummer when played upon. Called also 
snare drum, from two strings of catgut 
called snares, stretched across the lower 
head in order to check reverberation. This 
Instrumeut, whose military use is very old, 
dates as orchestral instrument only from 
the time of Rossini, who first introduced it 
in the overture to " La Gazza Laddra." 

^1 diese (sS dl-&z), Fr. The note B4(. 

Sleben (sfi'b'n), Ger. Seven. 

SiebenklaniT (sen3'n-klAng'),G'er. Heptachord, 
a scale of seven notes. 

Siebente (sS'bdn-tS), Ger, Seventh. 

Stebenzehnte (s6'b'n-tsen-t€), 6^. Seven- 

Slegesgeaanir (sS'ghte-gh6-sftngO, ) a^ 
SiegesAed (s&ghe^lW), i ®^" 

A triumphalsoug. 

Siegesmarsch (se'ghSs-mftrshOi Qer. A tri- 
umphal march. 

Slfffldte (sTflffld'te). Qer. An onran-stop of 2- 
or 1-foot scale, of the Hohlfluie 6i>ecies. 

Siffler (slf-fl&), Fr. To make a hissing noise. 

Sifflet ((ilf-fl&), Fr. A catcall, a pqueaking in- 
strument used in playhouses to condemn a 

Slgmdhom (dg-n&l'hom), Qer. A bugle. 

Signatur (sIg'nA-toorO. Oer. )Namegivento 
Signature. ) the sharps or 

flau placed at the beginning of a piece, and 
at the commencement of each staff, to indi- 
cate the key in which it is written. The sig- 
nature adjusts the staff to the demands of 
the key in which the piece is written, ex- 
cept in the' case of the minor mode, which 
is always written with the signature of the 
relative major, and a regular accidental, a 
sign of the elevation (a sliarp or natural), 
upon the seventh decree. The sharps or 
flats of the signature affect not only the lines 
and spaces upon which they are placed, but 
all octaves above or below upon the same 

Signature, time. Figures, in the form of a 
iraction, placed at the beginning of a piece 
to indicate the time. The upper of the two 
figures tells the number of pulses in a meas- 
ure, and the lower the kind of note which 
represents one pulse, and accordingly is 
taken for the time unit of the piece, all 
other notes being valued in relation to it. 

Slgne (sSn), Fr. The sign ^ See Segno. 

Signes accldentels (sSn &k-sl-d&nh't'l), Fr. 
Accidental sharps, flats, or naturals. 

Signes de silences (sSn d6 sM&nhsO»l>. Rests. 

Signs of abbreviation. Strokes, waving lines, 
(lots, and figures, employed to denote a rep- 
etition of notes, continuation of rests, etc. 

SIguidllla (s6-gwe-dsryfi), 8p. See SeguidiOoL. 

Silence (««-l&nhs), Fr. \ . _^|. 
Silenzlo (s6-16u'trf-6), R.]^ '^"^ 

SI leva II sordino (fS 12'v& «1 sfir^fi'nd), il. 
Take off the mute. 

SI levano I sordino (se l^vft'nd 8 sfir-dd'nd), iZ. 
Raise the dampers. 

Silver trumpet. The chatsoteroth of the an- 
cient Hebrews, straight, a cubit long, with a 
bell-shai^ mouth. 

SI maggiore (sd m&d-jdr'e), li, B major. 

Si majeur (se mfl-zhtlr), Fr. The key of B ma- 

Simile (se'ml-l€), IL Similarly ; in like man- 

SI mineur (s< ml-nttrO. Fr. The key of B mi- 

SI minore (s< ml-nd're), IL B minor. 

Simplified. Rendered free from difilcalt pas- 

Sin', il. As far as. See5<no. 

Sin' al fine (s<n ftl f^nQ, B, To the end, as 
far as the end. 

Sin' al segno (dn &1 s&n'yd), R. As far as the 


SI naturrel (se n&t-oo-r£l), J^. B. 

Sinfonia (sin-fO'nI-ft), R. \ An orchestral 
Sinfonle(s&nh-f6-n6'), Fr. j compoaltloii In 
many parts; a symphony. 

i arm, ft CBdd,& ale, fiend. e eve. 1^,1 isle dold, 6 odd, oo moon, a 6tt/,ti JV. sound, kh Oer.c/^ nh 






Slnfonla ■ plttoriai(sIn-f6-nS'&& pet-tfi'rikfi). 
JL A symphony descriptiTe of soenes and 

Slnfonla concertante (sln-fd-ne'ft k6n- \ 

Slnfonla concertata (sln-fd-ne^ft kdn- 

Slnfonla concertate (sIn-fd-nS'a kdn- 
tsher-t&'t«>, / 

A concerto for many instruments ; a con- 
certo symphony. 

Slnfonla da camera (sIn-fd-ne'S d& k&'m^-rfi). 
It. Sympbouies composed for chamber use, 
as quartets, trios, eic 

Slnfonla erolca (sin-fd-ne'fi &-r<)1-kfi), It. A 
symphony in the heroic style. 

SInfonle (sln'f6-n§0» ^^* ^ symphony. 

Sing. To perform melody with the yoice. 
The singing voice ditt'ers primarily from the 
speakinp' voice in two particulars. First, 
tne intonation is at a determinate pitch, 
and the voice is carried directly from one 
intonation to another without any break in 
the continuity of tone except where the idea 
breaks. Second, the tone quality is of bet- 
ter grade and finer resonance. The act of 
singing implies an emotional excitation to 
which speaking would not be adequate. In 
all very emotional speech the tone assumes 
certain qualities of singing. 

Singakademle (slng^kfi-dfi-meO, Qer. Vocal 

Slnganstalt (sIng'&n-st&ltO,G^. Singing club. 

Slngart (sing-art), Ger. Manner, or style, of 

Slnffiwr (sing'b&r), Ger. That may be sung, 

SIngen (slng'en),(?«r. To sing, to chant ; sing- 
ing, chanting. 

Slngend (sXng'end), Ger. See CarUabile. 

Slnffgedlcht (sIng'gbfi-dXkhf), Ger. Hymn, 
I>oem intended to be sung. 

Slnghlozzando Odn-ghX-dt-s&n'do), It, Sob- 

Slngkunst (sing'koonst), Ger. The art of 

SInffle-actlon haip. A harp with pedals, by 
which each string can be raised one semi- 

Single chant. A simple harmonized melody, 
extending onlv to one verse of a psalm, as 
sung iu cathedrals, etc. 

Singmlhrchen (sXng'm&r'kh'n), Ger. A ballad. 

Slngmanieren (sIng'ma-nS-r'n), Ger. Singing 

Singjchausplel (aIng'8hou-spel),Ci^6r. Singing- 
drama; a drama with songs, etc., inter- 

SIngschule (sXng'shoo'ie),tifer. Singing-school ; 
a school, or method, for the voice. 

Singjchtiler (sIng'shaiSr),6er. Singing-pupil. 

SIngsplel (slng'spSl), Ger. An opera, melo- 
drama, a piece interspersed with songs. 

Slnirstlmme (slng'stlrn'mQ, €hr. Singing* 
voice : a vocal part. 

Slngstlmmen (sIng'stXm'men), Ger. pi. Tba 
voices ; the vocal parts. 

Singstfick (sing'stiik), Ger. Air, melody. 

SIngstande (sXng*stoon'd€), Ocr. Singing-les- 

SIngtanz (sing-tfints), Ger. Dance, accom- 
panied by singing. 

SIngvereIn isIng'fSr-rln'), Ger. A choral so- 

SIngwelse (slng'wi'sS), Ger. Melody, tune. 

SInlestra (s€-n!-fa'tra), fip. ) «!,« io** k-«^ 
Sinistra (sln-Is trfi), Liu. | The left hand. 

Sinistra^ (idn-Xs-trft), Lot. Left-handed flutes. 
See Dextrx. 

Sinistra man^ t^-nls'tr& ma'nd), B. The left 

SInktoace. A five-step dance. Clnquepace. 
A galliard. 

Sine (s^n6), j, \ To, as far as, until ; eon 
Sin* (sen), ^' ' fjiwco sin* al fine, with spirit 
to the end. 

Sln« ai fine pianissimo (f^nd al i&nd pS-Sr 
nls'si-moj, It, Pianissimo to the end. 

SInO al segno (ne'nd al s&n'yd), IL As far as 
the sign. 

SI place {8& p6-&-tsh€), It. At pleasure, as you 

SI raddoppla II tempo (se rfid-ddp^pl-ft 81 t6m'- 
pd) , It. Redouble the time ; as fast again. 

Siren. In ancient mythology a goddess vfho 
enticed men into her power by the charms 
of music and devoured!^ them. 

Sirene. An i nstmment used for ascertaining 
the velocity of aerial vibration, correspond- 
ing to the different pilches of musical 

Siren song. A song of a bewitching, fascinat- 
ing style. 

Slrenengesang(s2rSn'8n-gh6-s&i)g'), Ger. Si- 
ren-song ; a soft, luscious, seductive melody. 

SI replica (se ra'plX-ka), It. A repeat ,* to be 

SI replica una yolta (sS r&'pll-k& oo^nft vdl'ta). 
It. Play the part over again. 

SI scrlva (se scr^vfi), 7Z. As written, without 
any alterations or embellishments. 

Si segue (sS s&'gwe), It. Qo on. 

SIstrum (sis'troora), Lai. An instrument of 
percussion of very great antiquity, supposed 
to have been invented by the Egyptians, 
and was much used by the priests of iris and 
Osiris in sacrifice. It oonsioted of a rod of 
iron, bent into an oval or oblong shape, or 
square at two corners and curved at the 
others, and furnished with a number of 
movable rings, so that, when shaken, or 
struck with another rod of iion, it emitted 
the sound desired. It answered the sam^ 
purpose as the bell in the Mass. 

Si tace (se t&'tshS), It. Be silent. 

ft orm, & odd, & olc, e «nd, € 01^ I iK, I isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, tl 5tt<, U lY. sound, kh G^er. cA, Fk 





Six<>eis:hth measure. A measure having the 
value of six eighth-notes, marked 6-8. 

Sixes and fives metre. A metre consisting 
of a stanza o* eight lines in iambic or tro- 
chaic measure, designated thus, 6s & 5s. 

Sixes and four. A metre designated thus, 6s 
& 4, consisting of a sianza of four lines in 
iambic measure. 

Sixes and tens. A metre designated thus, 6s 
<& lOs, consisting of a stanza of six lines in 
iambic measure. 

Sixes metre. A metre designated thus. 66, 
consisting of a stanza of eight lines of six 
syllables each, in iambic measure. 

Sixes and sevens and eiglits metre. A metre 
designated thus, 6s, 7s, & 8s, consisting of a 
stanza of eight lines, in iambic measure. 

Sixi^me (sez-I-am'), Fr. A sixth. 

Six pour quatre (sez poor katr), Fr. A double 
triplet, or sextuplet ; six notes to be played 
in the time of four. 

SIxte (sekst), Fr. A sixth. 
Sixteenth note. A semiquaver. 5 

Sixteenth rest. A pause equal in duration to 
a sixteenth note. 

Sixtes (sekst), jFV. Sixths. 

Sixth. The interval between any tone of the 
scale and the next but four above or below. 
A sixth is represented upon the staff by a 
line and a space with two lines between. 
There are three sixths in use: The minor, 
equal to eight half-steps, as between mi and 
do ; the major, nine half-steps, as between 
sol and me ; and the augmented, of ten half- 
steps, as between fa and re-sharp. The ma- 
jor and minor sixths are classed as imper- 
fect consonances. 

Sixth-chord. The first inversion of the triad. 

Sixty-fourth note. A hemidemisemiquaver. 

Sixty-fourth rest. A pause equal in point 
of duration to a sixty-fourth note. 

Slcalde (skal'd€^, Qer. A scald ; ancient Scan- 
dinavian bard. 

Slcip. A term applied to any transition ex- 
ceeding that of a whole step. 

Slcizzen (sklts's6n), Oer. pi. Sketches ; short 

Slargando (sl&r-g&n'dO), „ \ Extending, 
Siargandosl (slar-gan-do'zl), -^ ' j enlarging, 

widening; the time to become gradually 


Slentando (sl€n-t&n'dd), It. Relaxing the 
time, becoming gradually slower. 

Slide. (1) The movable part of the trom- 
bone and slide trumpet, by which the 
length of the tube can be increased. A slide 
consists of a tube in the shape of a U* with 
prolonged shanks wide enough to admit of 
the Insertion of two shanks of the remain- 
ing part of the instrument. What on the 
horn and the ordinary trumpet is affected 
by crooks and valves can be easily and 

more perfectly accomplished on the trom^ 
bone and slide trumpet by the slide. In 
the case of the Bt? trombone, for instance, 
the player can change the key of the instru- 
ment by drawing the slide more and more 
out into A, Ai^. G, G|y, F, and E. (2) An 
ornament consisting of two or more quick 
notes proceeding dtatonically to the priu' 
cipal note. (3) A sliding strip of lath,which 
in the organ cuts off a rank of pip<» from 
their wind. 

Slide, tuning. An English instrument pro- 
ducing thirteen semitones and used icr 
pitching the keynote. 

Slogan. The war-cry, or gathering- word, of a 
Highland clan in Scotland. 

Slur. A curved line over two or more notes, 
to show that they must be played smoothly. 

Small octave. The name given in Germany 
to the notes included between C on the 
second space of the bass staff and the B 
above, these notes being expressed by small 
letters, as a, b, c, d, etc. 

Smaniante (smft-nl-fin't€), ) Furious, vehe- 
Smaniato (sma-nI-M,'td), It. V ment, frantic; 
Smanioso (sma-nl-o'zo), J with rage. 

SminuendO (sme-noo-€n'-do), ) Diminish- 
Sminulto (sm^noo-e'to). It. >ing, decreas- 
Smorendo (sm6-ren'dd), J ing ; gradu- 

ally softer. 

Smorfiozo (smdr-fl-o'zd), It, Affected, coquet- 
tish, full of grimaces. 

Smorz. An abbreviation of Smorzando. 

Smorzando (smdr-ts&n'do), « \ Extinguish- 
Smorzato (smdr-tsa'to), jed, put out, 

gradually dying away. 

Snare drum. The side drum. 

Soave (s6-a've). It. A word implying that 
a movement is to be played in a gentle, 
soft, and engaging style. 

Soavemente (so- a- vS- mfin' tC), IL Sweetly, 
agreeably, delicately. 

Soggetto (Bdd-jet't6), It. Subject, theme, mo- 

Soggetto di fuga (s5d-jet't0 de foo^gft), It, Sub- 
ject of the fugue. 

Soggetto invariato (sod-jet'td In-va-rI-&'tA), H, 
The invariable subject— a term applied to 
the subject of counterpoint when it does 
not change the figure, or situation, of the 

Soggetto variato (sod- jet' t6 v&-il-&'t5), R. 
\ ariable subject— a term applied to the sub- 
ject of a counterpoint when it changes the 
figure, or situation, of the notes. 

Soirte musicale (sw&- ra' mil- zi- kal'), Fr. A 
musical evening. 

Sol (sOl). A svllable applied by the Italians 
to G, the fifth sound of the diatonic scale or 
octave of C. 
Sola (soaa), It. Alone. See Solo, 
Sol bemol (sol ba'mdl), Lat, The note Q^. 

Sol Mmol majeur (sol b&-mdl ma-zhtlr), Fr. 
The key of GV major. 

■ w^V««^^N^W 






8ol Mmol mlneur (sdl b&-mdl mS-utlr), JPV. 
The key of G> minor. (Not in use.) 

Sol diese (sdl dX-&z), J'r. The note 0#. 

Sol diese mlneur (sdl dl-&z md-nOr), Fr. The 
key of G$f miuor. 

Solenne (sd-ien'n€), R, Solemn. 

Soiennemente ( s6- Ito- nfi- mSn' tfi ), II, Sol- 

Solfa. To pronounce the names of the notes 


Solfainflr. Singing the notes of the scale to 
the monosyllables applied to them by 
Guido. bee Solmization, 

Solfege (sol-f&zh), Fr. ) Exercises for the 
Solfeggi (Rdi-fed'il), It. V voice according 
SolfegjjTlo ls6l-m'}l-6), It. ) to the rules of 

Solfeggiare (sdl- fed- jl- fi' rg), H, To practice 

Solfegglren (sdl-feg-gi'r'n), Ger. \ «, ,* 
Sclfier (bol-fl-a), Fr. f ^^ ^^^ 

Soil (sd^li), jR. A particular passage played 
by priucipals only, one performer to each 

Sollst. The solo -player. Also sometimes 
called soloist. 

Sol majeur (sdl m&-zhtlr), Fr. The k^y of G 


Sol mlneur (sdl me - ndr), Fr, The key of G 

Solmlsare (sdl-ml-za'rS), It, ") The prac- 
Solmlslren (sdl-ml-se'ren), Oer, > tice of the 
Solmlzare (sdl-mX-tsa'rS), It. ) scales, ap- 
plying to the different tones their respec- 
tive syllables, do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si. fo 
this kind of vocal exercise the practice of 
solfeggi is added. 

Solmlzatlon (sdl- ml- za' shftn). Eng, The art 
of singing by solfa, i. e., by use of the scale 
syllables. In Italy, France, and Germany, 
the scale-names do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do 
are applied to C, D, E, etc., according to the 
scale of C, no matter what the key may be. 
In this usage the solfa amounts merely to 
an arbitrary set of words for preparatory 
stages of vocal training. But according to 
the system practiced in America and by 
the tonic solfaiHts in England the syllables 
are applied to the degrees of the scale, do 
toone, re to two, etc., through the keys. In 
this usage the syllables become associated 
with certain relations of tone in key, and 
are a help to identifying key -relations. 
They are tnerefore peculiarly advantageous 
In the earlier stages of study. There comes 
a time, however, when the introduction of 
modulations and arbitrary dissonances ren- 
ders the solfa rather complicated, and the 
best musicians are not yet agreed whether, 
on the whole, some other system might be 
invented which would afford the help 
without the disadvantages mentioned. 

iJfc JSIiS* p; 1 A composition for a single 

Solo (Sd Id), J'r. V voi#i or inaknimAnt. 

Solo^rid'ld), Ger, 

voice or instrument. 

Solomanle (8d-ld-m&-ne), Tur. The Turkish 
flute, entirely open and without any reed. 

Soloslnger (sold-s&n'gfir), Ger, Solo-sin;fer, 
principal singer. 

Solo-soprano (sd'ld sd-prft'nd), Jt, For so- 
prano only. 

Solospleler (sdld-spdlfir), G«r. Solo-player. 

Somma (sdm'ma), It, Extreme, exoeediii|j:ly 

Somma espresslone (sdm-m& fis-prds-sl-d'ue)^ 
It. Very great expression. 

Son (sdnh), Fr 1q«„„j 
Son(sdu),V I Sound. 

Son algu (sdnh &-g{i), J'V. A sharp, ac«ile 


Sonante (sd-nan'tS), Sp. Sounding, sonorous. 

Sonare (sd-nft'rS), It. To sound, to havrj a 
sound, to ring, to play upon. 

Sonare alia mente (sd-n&'ri^ &Y]& mQn'tSi\. II. 
Formed accord iug to the mind ; to pla> ex- 
tempore, to improvise. 

Sonata (sd-nS'ta), It. Something soui^ded. 
Hence an instrumental composition. This 
appears to have been the original meaning 
of the word. Sonata Form designates what 
is sometimes called the Principal Form in 
music, or the ideal form toward whi^h all 
compositions tend which are neither purely 
lyric, fugal, nor dance. 

The sonata affords one of the most in- 
structive illustrations of development to be 
found in music. Originally it was derived 
from dance forms, each movement being 
a serious enlargement of some popular 
rhythm, but carried out thematically and 
contrapuntally, i. e., without lyric episodes. 
Bach's sonatas for organ, and f*»r violin 
solos, consist of from three to five move- 
ments of this kind, duly contrasted among 
themselves. The trio organ sonatas are ex- 
tended iu fonnand beautifully written. All 
they lack for modern hearing is occasional 
points of lyric episode. The innovation 
made by H^ydn coubisted of adding these 
points of lyric repose, both as episodes in 
the allegro movements and as foundation 
for the slow movements. Mozart added to 
Haydn's work a still more distinct return to 
the folksong as the type of the lyrical mo- 
ments in a sonata. As practiced by these 
great masters the sonata consisted of three 
movements or four. First, an allegro, fol- 
lowing a certain type of treatment (of which 
presently) ; then a slow movement, gener- 
ally an andante cantabile or an adagio; 
then a rondo or finale. Beethoven made 
several innovations upon this order, first by 
inserting a third movement between the 
slow movement and the finale. This is a 
menuet or a scherzo with trio. His further 
innovations consisted in intensifying the 
lyl'ic movements and moments, and in 
making them still more deep and heartfelt 
The sonata-piece (Sonatasatz) is the prin- 
cipal movement in a sonata. The entire 
sonata-piece divides into three chapters: 
First, from the beginning to the double bar. 

(kwm^S^add, %aU,(t end, 6 eve, liU, I isle,6 old, 6odd, oo moon, Hbttt, H Fr,tound, kh Ger. eh^ nhnos** 





This contains all the original material of 
the entire movement. There is, first, a prin- 
cipal, or leading, subject, which generally 
^8 thematic in character, closes in the domi- 
nant, and leads off toward the second by 
means of passage or modulating periods, de- 
rived in part from the material of the prin- 
cipal. Then comes the second, in the dom- 
inant of the original key, or in the relative 
major, if that had been minor. The second 
is also called by the Germans Oesanggruppe, 
*' song-group/' in token of its lyric charac- 
ter. After some si xteen or thirty- two meas- 
ures of this, passage work may or may not 
intervene, leading to the partial close, which 
brings around to a cadence upon the domi- 
nant ot the original kev at the double bar, 
where Is always marked a repeat for the en- 
tire work up to this part. In some in- 
stances, as In • Beethoven's Sonata Appas- 
sionata, the modulating material after the 
principal is so much enlarged and so inter- 
esting as to become almost an equal factor 
with the principal, the second, and theclose 
in affordiug material for the later develop- 
ment. The second chapter of the sonata- 
piece follows the double bar, and consists of 
an elaboration (German Durcl^fuhrungssatz, 
"workinff-out piece") a free fantasia upon 
motives already introduced. This, after suit- 
able development, leads into a pedal point 
upon the dominant of the principal key, 
leading to the third chapter of the sonata- 
piece, the repetition, or reprise, in which all 
Che matter ot the first chapter comes again, 
with little modification, except that the 
principal is sometimes slightly abridged, 
and the second is now in the principalkey 
of the work, leading to the close in that key. 
The sonata-piece is the type of most over- 
tures (all which are not potpourris), and 
is at the foundation of all works in sonata 
form, such as sonatas, chamber duos, trios, 

?[uartet8, etc., concertos and symphonies, 
ts great advantage for the composer is its 
liberality of opportunity in thematic and 
lyric directions combined, thus permitting 
a composer to give his fancy loose rein, and 
make new works, at once interesting and 
beautiful, in whatever style may happen to 
please him. 

The slow movements of sonatas are often 
largely ui>on the same lines, except that, 
owing to the greater time occupied by a 
Blow movement, the forms have to be short- 
er, and the elaborations are greatly abridg- 
ed. This is in consequence of the limitation 
to the persistence of musical impressions. 
An elaooration becomes intelligible to a 
bearer only when he remembers the mu- 
sical material in its unelaborated form, and 
this wi 11 be only a certain very short interval 
after he has heard it. Moreover, there is 
better effect in a slow movement in devel- 
oping a lyric theme, as we find in many 
symphonies by Beethoven, Brahms, and the 
other great writers. 

The third movement in a sonata of four 
movements is generally a song form with 
trio. This is the lightest division of the 

work. The last movement is either a rondo 
or a finale. The latter is a sonata-piece, 
if taken as leading movement. The rondo 
comes from a different source, and is light- 
er. See Hondo. In several instances Bee- 
thoven introduced other kinds of movement 
in his so-called sonatas. An air and varia- 
tions are met with as first movement, or as 
second, and in one instance, two instances, 
at least, as last movement. 

In the Sonata, Opus 110, the last move- 
ment is a fugue. Hence the proper defini- 
tion of a sonata will be a composition in 
which one or more movements are in the 
form of a sonata-piece. 

Sonata da camera (sd-na'tcL da ka'm((-r&), It. 
A sonata designed lor the chamber or parlor. 

Sonata di bravura (sd-nS,'t& dS bra-voo'ra), It. 
A brave, bold style of sonata. 

Sonata di chiesa (so-nsl'ti, dS ke-&'za). It. A 
church sonata, an organ sonata. 

Sonata, grand. A massive and extended so- 
nata, cuutsisting usually of four movements. 

Senate (so-na't€), Oer, A sonata. 

Sonatina (sd-na-te'n&), It. \ A short, easy 

Sonatlne (so-na-ten), JPr. j sonata. 

Son doux (sOnh doo), Fr. Soft sound. 

Sonetto (so-nSt'td), B. A sonnet. 

Sonevble (sd-na'v6-ie). It. Sonorous, ringing, 

Song. That which is sung. A melody ; a 
poem set to music for a single voice, or for 
several voices (partsong). Songs are distin- 
guished as strophic. in which .he same mu- 
sic answers to all the stauzas of the text, 
and "through-composed," in which each 
stanza has its own music. Also songs are 
distinguished as folksongs, which are sim- 
ple melodies of unpretending musical qual- 
ity, and art songs, in which the music 
seeks solely to interpret the text, hampered 
only by the practicability for the voice and 
the proper limits of an accompaniment. Of 
the latter kind Schubert and Schumann 
wrote some beautiful examples, which 
stand as models. 

Song:, bacchanalian. A song which either in 
sentiment or style relates to scenes of rev- 

Song, boat. A song snng by the rowers; 

Song, erotic. A love-song. 

Songform. In the form of a song. A musical 
form consisting of one, two, three, or at 
most five, periods making a unity. The 

Srincipal subjects of all the Beethoven An- 
ante Cantabiles are practically songforms. 
So are men nets, scherzi, and the individual 
ideas of most dances. 

A second form is often added in a related 
key. This is called a trio, and is merely an 
independent and contrasting songform. Af- 
ter this a return is made to the first songr 
form. Of long examples of songform Schu 
mann left the best in the first movements 

a arm, ft add, a cUe, 6 end, e eve, liU,l islefi Qld,6 odd, oo moon, a but, u Fr.80und, kh Qer, ch, nb norafc 





of his Nov«ke«eB, in E, Opus 21, No. 7, and 
in B minor, Opus 99. 

The periods in a songform are lyrical in 
rhythm, if not in essential nature. 

Son^ without words. Pianoforte pieces of 
a poetical character, consisting of a melody 
with an accompaniment. 

Sonnet. A short i>oem of fourteen lines, two 
stanzas of four verses each, aud two of 
three each, the rhymes being adjusted by a 
particular rule. 

Sono (s6'n6), II. A sound. 

SonOramente (sd-nd-ra-mSn't^), It. Sonorous- 
ly, harmoniously. 
Sonore (s6-n6r'), Fr. ) Sonorous, harmoni- 
Sonoro (sd-nO'ro), It. j ous, resonant. 

Sonoridad (so-nd-rl-d&d), Sp. Sonorousness. 

Sonorita (R6-n6-rI-taO» If- I Harmony, sound, 
Sonority (s6-n6-ri-ta')i ^- ) sonorousness ; 
having sonority. 

Sonorous (sd-ndr'ous). An epithet applied to 
whatever is capable of yielding sound ; full 
or loud in sound ; rich-toned ; musical. 

Sons harmoni^ues (s6nhs har-m6nh-ekO, Fr. 
pi. Harmonic sounds. 

Sons plains (sdnhs plftnh), Fr. pi. In flute 
music this means that the notes must be 
blown with a very full, round tone. 

Sonus (so'noos). Lot. Sound, tone. 

Sopra, It. Above, upon, over, before. 

Sopra domlnante (sd'pr& d6-ml-nan't£). The 
nfth, or upper dominant. 

Sopran (sd-pr&n'), Crer. ) The treble, the high- 
Soprano (so-pra'no). It. j est kind of female 
voice ; a treble, or soprano, singer. 

Soprana chorda (sd-pra'n& kor'da). It, The E 
string of a violin. 

Soprani (so-prfi'nl). It. pi. Treble voices. 

Sopranist. A male soprano. 

Soprano acuto (so-pra'nd Srkoo-t6), It. High 

Soprano clef. The treble or G clef. 

Soprano clef. The C clef on the first line of 
the staff for soprano, instead of using 
the G'clef on the second line for that 

Soprano clef, mezzo. The C clef when placed 
on the sec< aid line of the ptaff, formerly used 
for the second treble voice, and for 



which the soprano clef is now sub- 

Soprano concertato (sd - pr&' nd kon - tsh^r- 
ta'to). It. The soprano solo part, the part 
for a solo treble voice in a chorus. 

Soprano concertina. A concertina having 
tne compass of a violin. 

Soprano mezzo (sd-pra'nd m^zo). It. A 
species of female voice between soprano 
and alto. 

Soprano naturel (so-pra'-nd nfirtoo-ral). It. A 
natural soprano. A falsetto. 

Soprano, second. Low soprano. 

S<M>rano seoando od alto (s6-pnl'nd s&-koon'- 
do dd £ll'td). It. The second soprano or alto. 

Sopranstlmme (sd-pr&n'stlm'm€), Ger. A so- 
prano voice. 

Sopra qulnta (sd'prH quln'tfi). It. Upper dom- 

Sopra una corda (sd'prft oo'nft kdr'dfi). It. On 
one string. 

Sorda (sdr'da). It. Muffled, veiled tone. 

Sordamente (sdr-dfi-m€n'te). It. Softly, gen- 
tly ; also damped, mulfled. 

Sordine. A small instrument, or damper, in 
the mouth of a trumpet, or on the bridge of 
a violin or violoncello, to make the sound 
more faint and subdued. A mute. 

Sdrdini (sor-dg'ni), It. pi. Mutes in violin- 
playing and the dampers in pianoforte mu- 
sic. See Con sordini aud Senza sordini. 

Sordini levatl (s6r-de'n! 16-vfi't6), It. The 
dampers removed. 

Sordino (s6r-de'n6). It. A sordine. A mute. 

Sorgf&ltig (sfirg'fal-tigh), Qer. Carefully. 

Sorgfiltig gebunden (sdrg'fal-tigh g^boon'- 
d'u), Oer. Very smoothly. 

Sortita (s6r-te'ta), B. The opening air In an 
operatic part ; the entrance aria. 

Sospensione (sds-pSn-sI-d'ug), It. A suspen* 

Sosplrando (sos-pl-rau'dd), ) Sighing, 

Sospirante (s6s-pl-ran't6). „ (very sub- 

Sospirevole (s68-pl-ra'vd-16), ^^* C diied, dole- 

Sospiroso (sds-pl-ro'zd), ) ful. 

Sospiro (sos-pe'ro), It. A crotchet rest 

Sostenendo (sds-t6-n€n'dd), » > Sustaining 
Sostenuto (pos-te-noo'td), ■*'* j the tone, 
keeping tiie notes down their full duration. 

Sostenuto molto (B5s-te-noo'td mOl'tO), It. lu 
a highly sustained manner. 

Sotto (s6t't6). It. Under, below. 

Sotto voce (s6t-t6 vd'tshfi), It. Softly, in a 
low voice, in an undertone. 

Soubrette (soo-brfitf), Fr. A female singer 
for a subordinate pis^rt in a comic oi>era. 

Soufflerie (soof-flC-re), Fr. The machinery be- 
longing to the bellows in an organ. 

Sound. The impression made upon sense- 
perception by vibrations of the air, origin- 
ating in the air itself, or communicated to 
it by any sounding body. The pitch of the 
sound depends upon the frcouency of the 
vibrations, which are Inaudible when they 
fall below the rate of from 8 to 32 per sec- 
ond, or when they rise above the rate of 
about 40,000 per second. The intensity of 
the sound depends upon tbe amplitude of 
the vibration—the impression of Intensity 
being, perhaps, referred back to a theory 
that greater force is behind the ample vi- 

Sounds difTer in respect to consistency 
within themselves. Some, as, for instance. 

\ arm, ft add, & a2e, e eru2, S ere, I {B, i t«2e, o o2d, 6 odd, oo mo<m, tl &tt<, U JV. sovtuf, kh Ger. cA, nia ti 




a blow upon a block of wood, are dull and 
oonfuaed; bo, also, a blow upon an iron 
kettle, or a wooden box. In these cases 
several rates of vibration are in operation 
at the same time. Again, when a stretched 
string vibrates and makes a tone, there are 
also several rates of vibration in operation 
at the same time, the string vibrating not 
only in its full length but also in various 
aliquot parts, whereby the sounds of several 
liflerent pitches are produced. In the case 
of the strinff all these rates are multiples of 
the rate of tne full string, and the resulting 
partial tones mutually combine and coal- 
esce, so that the individual elements com- 
posing them can not be made out by ordi- 
uary ears. Hence what is called a musical 
tone, the essential element of which is con- 
sistenci^ within iUeHJ^ so that the vibrations 
combine into a harmonious and complete 
whole. The opposite of tone is noise, which 
is simply a sound so inconsistent and con- 
tradictory In the conflicting rates of vibra- 
tion composing it that it affords the ear no 
repose whatever, and therefore it has no 
musical character. Noises are of limited 
application in music, the kettledrums, tri- 
angles, cymbals, and bass drum being prac- 
tically less offensive noises. They are em- 
ployed for the sake of rendering the ensem- 
Dle more Imposing, and their empty charac- 
ter, from a musical standpoint, is glossed 
over by an imposing amplitude of brilliant 
tone from the orass and other telling quali- 

The timbre, or color, of tone depends up- 
on the selection and relative Importance of 
the partial tones present in the klang, or 
tone. This subject is iully investigated in 
Helmholtz's great work on "Senstttions of 
Tone,"i"Tonempflnduug.") The difference 
between the color of tones derived from 
the violin, flute, cornet, or other instru- 
ments, depends wholly upon the nature 
and relative Importance of partial tones 
composing them. These again are influ- 
encea by the nature of the sounding mate- 
rial, brass lending itself to the production 
of high upper partlals, in which the flute 
is comparatively poor. Of all forms of tone 
that derived from strings reinforced by 
wooden sounding-boards is the most satis- 
factory, excepting the tones of the human 
voice, which admit of assuming ^<nost any 
kind of timbre. 

All stringed instruments are susceptible 
ti considerable tonal variety, according to 
the skill with which the vibration is in- 
cited. In those of tbe violin family this is 
done by skillfully handling the bow; The 
tone of the harp is very much modified by 
the manner in which tne finger plucks the 
strintc; and even in the pianoforte, where 
mechanism woulcl seem to have been most 
exact, the tone is largely influenced by the 
manner in which the xeys are attacked. 
The use of the pedal also influences the 
quality of the piano tone, the finer shades 
being impossible without the help of the 

Soundboard. ) The thin board over which 
Soundinsr-board. j the strings of the piano* 
forte and similar instruments are distended. 
The vibrating table of any wooden instru- 

Soundholes. The / holes in the belly of in- 
struments of the violin family ; the round 
hole in the belly of the guitar, etc. They 
are designed to afford more perfect commu- 
nication with the outer air. 

Soundpost. A small post, or prop, within aj 
violin, nearly under the bridge. 

Sound-resister. An apparatus invented in 
Paris in 1858, by means of which sounds are 
made to record themselves, whether those 
of musical instruments or of the voice In 
singing or speaking. 

Souplr (soo-per), Fr. A crotchet rest. 

Sourdellne (soor'di-len), Fr. An Italian bag 
pipe, or musette. 

Sourdement (soord'manh), Fr, In a subdued 


Sourdine (soor-den), Fr. The name of a har- 
monium-stop. See, also. Sordino, 

Sous (soo), Fr, Under, below. 

Sons-chantre (soo sh&nhtr'), Fr, A sub- 

Sous-dominante (soo d6-ml-n&nht'), Fr, The 
subdominaut, or fourth of the scale. 

Sous-mediante (soom&-di-finht), Fr, The sub- 
mediant, or sixth of the scale. 

Sou5-tonlque (soo t5n-ekO, Fr, The seventh 
of the scale, or subtouic. 

Sontenir (soo-te-ner'), Fr. To sustain a sound. 

Souvenir (soo-v6-nerO, Fr. Recollection, rem- 


Spaces. The intervals between the lines of 
the staff. 

Spagnoletta (span-yd-lSftfi), It, A Spanish 
dauce, a species of minuet. 

Spagnuola (span-yoo-d'la), It, The guitar. 

Spalla (sp&l'm). It. Shoulder. See VioUi da 

Spanisch (spftn-ish) , Oer, \ In the Span- 

Spagnolesco (span-yd-l€s'ko), II. j ish style. 

Spassapensiere (spas-sS,-p€n-sI-&'r6), It, The 

Spasshaft (spfissli&ft), Oer, Sportively, play- 
fully, merrily. 

Spasshaftlgkelt (spfiss'h&f-tIg-kIt),G'er. Sport- 
ivene>«, playfulness. 

Spatium sp&-sh!-oom), Lat.i A space between 

Spazio spa'tsi-o), /^ S thelines where 

music is written ; a distance, an interval. 

Spianato (spe-a-na't5). It. Smooth, even ; le- 

Spiccato (spek-ka'to), It. Separated, pointed, 
distinct, detached ; in violin musi(i it means 
that the notes are to be played with the 
point of the bow. 

Spiel (spel), Ger. Play, performance. 

%4art», ftadd, ftoZe, Qendfieve, liU, I isle, 6 oldf 6 odd, oo moon H btU,iXFr. sound, kh Qer. cA, nhnaaoL 





Spielart (sp^r&rt), Oer, Manner of playing, 
style of performance. 

Splelen (spel'n), Ger, To play on an Instru- 

Spieler (spe'lSi), Oer. Performer. 

Spielmanieren (spSl'mft-nS'r'n), Oer. Play- 
mauners. Instrumental ornaments, graces. 

Spinet (spin'St), Eng. ) A stringed instru- 
Spinett (spI-iiStO, ver. >ment,formerlymuch 
Spinettal'«pl-u6t'ta),i2. j in use, somewhat 
similar to the harpsichord, and, like that, 
consisting of a case, sounding-board, keys, 
jacks, and a bridge. It was evidently de- 
rived from the ham, and was originally 
called the couched harp, though since de- 
nominated spinet, from its quills, which re- 
semble thorns, called in Latin apirue. The 
spinet was a small harpsichord, in square 
lorm, whereas the larKcr instrument had 
the shape of a grand piano. 

Splrito (spe'rl-t5), II. Spirit, life, energy. 

Spirltcsamente spe-rl-td-zi-mSn'te), \ „ 
Spirltoso (spe-ri-to'zo), J ^'• 

Lively, animated, brisk, spirited. 

Spiritnale (spe ri-too-ai6), It. \ Sacred, splr- 
Spirituel (spIr-e-too-&r), Fr. j itual. 

Spirituoso (spe-rl-too-d'zd), R. See SpirUoio. 

Spissi flrravissimi (spIs'sX gra-vls'si-ml), Lai. 
Hypatoides— the deep, or bass, sounds of 
the ancient Greek system. 

Spissus (spls-soos), laL Thick; full, refer- 
ring to intervals. 

Spitz (spitz), Ger. Point 

Spltzfl5te (spltz-flytfi), a^ \ Pointed flute; 

Spltzfflute (spitz-floo'te), ^^' j an organ- 
st(tp of a soft, pleasing tone, the pipes of 
which are conical and pointed at the top. 

Spltzharfe (ppltz'hftr-fe), Ger. Pointed harp. 
A small harp with two sounding-boards and 
two rows of strings. 

Spitzquinte (spItz-kwIn'tS), Ger. An organ- 
stop with pointed pipes, sounding a fifth 
above the foundation stops. 

^M>ndee ^spdn-da), ImL A musical foot con- 
sistiugof two long notes or fcyllables, 

Sprung (sproong), Ger, A skip. 

Square B. Name formerly given to B-natural 
ou account of its shape. 

Square piano. A piano made in square form, 
the Ktrings and sounding-board lying hori- 
zontally, and the keyboard upon one of the 
long sides of the instrument Now nearly 
obsolete, on account of lack of room for the 
three stringed unisons which nearly all 
modern pianos contain, and also because in 
square pianos each action has to be fitted to 
the instrument to which it belongs, whereas 
^n uprights the parts are interchangeable. 

Sta (»ta), R. This, as it stands ; to be played 
as written. 

Stabat mater (stU'b&t m&'tSr), Lot. The 
Mother stood— a hymn on the crucifixion. 

f f 

Stabile (8t&nt>Me), 72. Firm. 

Stac. An abbreviation of Staocato. 

Staccare (st&k-k&'rS), ft. To detach, to sepft- 
rate each note. 

Staccatisslmo (stfik-k&-tXs'sa-m6), R. Very 
much detached ; as staccato as possible. 

Staccato (8t&k-k&'t5 . It. Detached, distinct, 
separated from each other. 

Staccato delicatamente istak-kfi'td dei-X-k&-t&- 
m^n'tS), It. In staccato style, lightly and 

Staccato marks. Small dots or dashes placed 

over or under the 
notes, thus: 

No dlfiference is now made in playing the 
dotted staccato signs and the pointed ones. 
Formerly it was taught that the dots repre- 
sented a half staccato. 

Staccato touch. A sudden lifting up of the 
fingers from the keys, giving to the music a 
light, detached, airy effect A staccato touch 
is one which has an attack, but is not fol' 
lowed by a clinging pressure for maintain- 
ing the tone. In general staccato tones are 
made very short, but occasionally the pedal 
is used in such a way that ihe tone nas a 
resonance slightly longer than the repose of 
the finger upon the key. Upon the violin 
an ordinary staccato is played with the bow, 
the resulting tones being, therefore, merely 
somewhat separated from each other, but 
of the same quality. The extreme staccato 
is made pizzicato, as it Is called, by pluck- 
ing the strings with the fingers, whereby the 
tone is extremely short and of limited so- 

Stadtmusikus (stadt'moo'sl-koos), ) /^^ 
Stadtpfeifer (stadt'pfi'ffir), / ^^' 

Town musician. 

Staff. The five horizontal and parallel lines 
ou and between which the notes are written. 
The lines and spaces are named as follows : 

'First added line above. 

Fifth line - 
Fourth line- 

Space above. 
Fourth space. 

Third line - 
Second line- 

Third space. 

Second space. 

First line 

First space. 

Space below. ' 

First added line below. 

Second added line below. 

Staff, bass. The stafiT marked with the basi 

Staff, tenor. The staff marked with the tenor 

Staff, treble. The staff marked with the 
treble clef. 

Stasrlone (st&'jI-d'nS), R. The season, the ma' 
slcal season. 

iiarm, & odd, a oZe, € end, e eve, I iU, I ide, 6 old, 6odd, oo moon, tLbut^^Fr, aound, kh Oer. eh, nh natal 





Stammacov/d (stam'&k-kdrd), Ger, A radical 
or f uudajiental chord, from which others 
are derived. 

Stampita (st&m-pe'ta), iZ. An air, a tune, a 

StXndchen (st&nd'kb€n), Ger. A serenade. 

SUndhaftiflTkeit (st&nd'h&f-tlg.-klf ), Ger, 
Firmuess, resolution. 

Stand, music. A light frame designed for 
holding sheets or hooks, for the conven- 
ience of performers. 

Stanghetta (st&n-gSt' ta), Ji. A 
bar-line. The fine line drawn 
across, and perpendicular to, 
the staff. 

Stanza (stUn'tsa), R, A verse of a song or 

Stark (st&rk), Ger, Strong, loud, vigorous. 

Starke Stimmen (stftr'kS stlm-m€n}, Ger, 
Loud stops ; ntU starken Stimmen^ with loud 

Stave. Name formerly given to the staff. 

Stes: (stagh), Ger, The bridge of a violin, etc. 

Stem. The thin stroke which is drawn from 
the head of a note. 

Stem, dbubie. A stem drawn both upward 
and downward from a note, indicating that 
the noie belongs to two parts, in one of 
which it has its natural and appro 
priate length, as shown by its face, 
while in the other it may be shorter. 


corresponding to the notes that follow 

Stentando (sten-t&n'do), R. Delaying, retard- 
Stentato (sten-t&'td), It, Hard, forced, loud. 
Stentorian. Extremely loud. 

Stentorophonic tube. A speaking trumpet, 
so called from Steutor. The stentorophonic 
horn of Alexander the Great is famous; it 
was so powerful that he could give orders 
at a distance of one hundred stadin, which 

. is about twenty English miles, so they say. 

Step. The larger diatonic interval between 
two consecutive tones of the major scale. 
A step is equal to twe half-steps. 

Step, half. The smallest interval in the tem- 
pered scale, eleven of them making an oc- 
tave. The interval from any piano-key to 
the next. Half-steps are sometimes, irra- 
tionally, called semitones. 

Sterbend (stftrnt)€nd), Ger. Dying away, the 
same as morendo. 

Steso (sta'z5). It. Extended, diffused, large. 

Stesso (stSs'Rd), It. The same ; ViMisM thnpo, 
in the same time. 

Sticcado (stlk-ka'd6), jf \ An instrument 
Sticcato (stik-k&'td), ''^' j consisting of little 
bars of wood rounded at the top and resting 
on the edges of a kind of open box. They 
gradually increase in length and th1c!ine8s, 
are tuned to the notes of the diatonic scale, 
and are struck with a little ball at the end 
of a stick. 

Sticker. A portion of the connection, in an 
organ, between the keys or pedals and the 
valve; a short link attached to a key or 
pedal, and acting on the backfall. 

Stile (stele), J<. Style. 

Stile a cappella (steae a k&p-p«ri&), II. Tn the 
chapel style. 

Stile grandi65o (ste'l^ gr&n-dl-d'zd). It. In a 
grand btyle of composition, or performance. 

Stile rigoroso (st§13 ri-gd-rd'zd), II, In a 
rigid, strict style. 

Still (still), Ger. Calmly, quietly. 

Stillgedakt (stlU-g^dfikt'), Ger, A stopped 
diapason, of a quiet tone. 

Stllo (ste'ld), It. Style, manner of composi- 
tion or performance. 

Stilo alia cappella (steld &VI& k&-p€iaa). It. In 
the church or chapel style. 

fttllo di recitatlvO (stelo dg ra-tsh^ta-teVo), 
It. In style of recitative. 

Stlmme (stim'mfi), Gfr, The voice, sound; 
also the soundpost in a violin, etc.; also a 
part ill vocal or imtnimental music; also 
an organ-stop or register. 

Stimmen (stira'm'n;, Ger. pi. Parts or voices ; 
also organ-stops. 

Stimmfiihrung (stlm'fdh-roong), Ger, Voice 

Stlmmgabel (Stim'ga'b'l), Ger. Tuning-fork. 

Stimmhammer isiim'h&m.'jrk6T),Ger. Tuning- 
key, tuning-hammer. 

Stlmmhorn (stim'horn),(?er. Tuning-cone for 
metttl organ-pipes. 

Stimmstock (stim'stdk), Ger. The soundpost 
of a violin, etc. 

Stimmumfans: (stXm'oom-fang), G^er. Compass 
of a voice. , 

Stimmunsr (stim'moong), Ger. Tuning, tune, 

Stimmweite (stlm'wi-tS) , Ger, Voice-breadth, 

Stinguendo (stln-guSn'dd), It. Dying away, 
beaming extinct. 

Stiracchlato (Rte-rak-ki-&'t<3), „ ) Stretched, 
Stirato (ste-rtl'to), -*'• / forced, re- 

tarded. See AUargando. 

Stonante (st6-nlln'te). It. Discordant, out of 

Stop. A raster, or row of pipes, in an organ ; 
on the violin, etc., it means the pressure oi 
the finger upon the string. 

Stop, bassoon. A reed stop in an organ, re- 
sembling the bassoon in quality of tune. 

Stop, claribel. A stop similar to the clarinet 

Stop, clarion, or Octave trumpet. A stop 
resembling the tone of a trumpet, but an 
octave higher than the trumpet stop. 

Stop, cornet. A stop consisting of five pipes 
to each note. 

14 (209) 




stop, cremona. A zeed stop in unison with 
the diapasons. 

Stop, double diapason. An open set of pipes 
tuned au octave below the diapasons. 

Stop, doable trumpet. The most powerful 
reed stop in the organ, the pipes being of 
the same length as the double diapason, to 
which it is tuned in unison. 

Stop, dulciana A stop of peculiar sweetness 
of tone, which it chiefly derives from the 
bodies of its pipes being longer and smaller 
than those of the pipes of other stops. 

Stop, faggotto. The bassoon stop. 

Stop, fifteenth. A stop which derives its 
name from its pitch, or scale, being fifteen 
notes above that of the diapason. 

Stop, flute. An organ-stop, resembling in 
tone a flute or flageolet. 

Stop, hautbov. A reed stop having a tone in 
imitdtiou oi the hautboy. ' 

Stop, larlgot, or Octave twelfth. A slop 
the scale of which is an octave above the 
twelfth. It is only used in the full organ. 

Stop, mixture, or furniture. A stop com- 
prii!>ing two or more ranks of pipes snriller 
than those of the iF>esquiaItera, and only cal- 
culated to be used together with that and 
other pipes. 

Stop, nazard. Twelfth stop. 

Stop, open diapason. A metallic stop which 
commands the whole scale of the or^^au, 
and which in called open, in contradistinc- 
tion to the stop diapason, the pipes of which 
are closed at the top. 

Stop, organ. A collection of pipes, similar 
in tone and quality, running through the 
whole, or a great part, of the compass of 
the organ; a register. 

Stopped. Closed with a stopper. Applied to 
certain organ-pipes. 

Stop, principal. A metallic stop, originally 
distinguished by that name, because hold- 
ing, in point of pitch, the middle staiion 
between the diapason and the iifteenth, it 
forms the standard for tuning the other 
stops. In German organs the principal is 
the open diapason. 

Stop, Aallclonal. A string stop. 

Stops, compound. An assemblage of several 
pipes In an organ, three, four, five, or more 
to each key, all answering at once to the 
touch of tlie p.-rformer. 

Stops, draw. Stops in an organ placed on 
each side of the rows of keys in front of the 
instrument, by moving which the player 
opens or closes the stops within the organ. 

Stop, sesqulaltera. A stop resembling the 
mixture, running through the scale of the 
instrument, and consisting of three, four, 
and sometimes five ranks of pipes, tuned in 
thirds, fifths, and eighths. 

Stops, foundation. The diapasons and prin- 
cipal, to which the other stops, be they few 
or many, are tuned, and which are abso- 
lutely required in an organ. 

Stops, mutation. In an organ the twelfth , 
tierce, and their octaves. 

Stop, solo. A stop intended for solo use. 

Stops, Organ. A stop in an organ is properly 
a complete set of pipes of uniform tone- 
quality. There are four varieties of tone, 
called diapason, string, flute, and reed. 
The diapasons are metal pipes of large 
body and clear, solid sound, wnich in mo- 
dern organs has rather more string-qual- 
ity than formerly, because it is found that 
this Quality blends better and pleases the 
ear. The diapason class includes the open 
diapasons, principal or octave, thefifteenth, 
and the mixtures. The pedal diapasons 
are sometimes made of wood, in order to 
save expense, but the tone is not so good. 
The F'tring family of stops have metal pipes, 
preferably of tin or a large percenttwe of 
tin, small diameter, and frequently with a 
small hole at a certain distance, for promo- 
tlDg the formation of the overtones, upon 
which the cutting quality of the string tone 
depends. The names usually given them 
are Gamba, Keraulophon, Sallcional. 

The flute stops are of wood, like the stop- 
ped diapason, claribel, etc., or of metal 
voiced like wood, such as the flute harmo- 
nique, flauto traverso, etc. The reed stops 
are sounded by means of a striking or a free 
reed (which see), and are commonly named 
oboe, cornopeon, trumpet, vox angelica, 
voxhumana, etc. 

Mixture stops are compound stops, pro- 
ducing octaves of the fundamental, and, 
generally, one fifth, voiced like a flute. A 
mixture having three elements is called a 
three-rank mixture. This is the usual 
number, but five ranks are not infrequent. 
The mixture stops are used on^^ in full 
organ passages, and are intended to rein- 
force the upper partial tones, which it is 
not easy to secure from pipes in sufficient 

The variety of names of organ-stops is ex- 
cessive, but necessitated by the number of 
stops in large modern organs, often reach- 
ing to more than one hundred. Hence the 
stops of any given family are shaded from 
each other by decrees which are almost im- 
perceptible, except to an expert. However 
many the Ptops may be in number, there 
are only these four varieties of tone. 

The name "stop "is sometimes applied 
to the draw-knobs, by which the stops are 
brought into connection with the key- 

■ board, or cut off. 

Stops, reed. Stops consisting of pipes, upon 
the end of which are fixed thin, narrow 
plates of brass, which, being vibrated by 
the wind from the bellows, produce a reedy 
brilliancy of lone. 

Stop, stopped diapason. A stop the pipes of 
which are generally made of wood, and its 
bass, up to middle C, always of wood. They 
are only half as long as those of the open 
diapason, and are stopped at the upper end 
with wooden 8topi)ers, or plugs, which ren- 

aarm, &add, aate, € end, e eve, XiK, lisle, 6 old, odd, oo moon, tl but, U ^. sound, kh Qer,ch,BhfumU, 





der the tono more soft and mellow than 
that of the open diaixason. 

Stop, stopped unUon. The stopped diapason 

Stop, tierce. A stop tuned a major third 
hijarher than the fifteenth, and only em- 
ployed in the full organ. 

Stop, treble forte. A ntop applied to a melo- 
deon, or reed organ, by means of which the 
treble part of the instrument may be in- 
creased in power, while the bass remains 

Stop, tremolo. A contrivance by means of 
which a fine, tremulous effect is given to 
some of the registers of an organ. 

Stop, trumpet. A stop so called because its 
tone is imitative of a trumpet. In large or- 
gans it generally extends through the whole 

Stop, twelfth. A metallic stop so denomi- 
nated from its being tuned twelve notes 
above the diapason. This stop, on account 
of its pitch, or tuning, can never be used 
alone ; the open diapason, stopped diapa- 
son, principal, and fifteenth, are the best 
qualined to accommodate it to the ear. 

Stop, vox humana. A sto]^ the tone of which 
resembles th6 human voice. 

Storta (stdr'tfi) , It. A serpent. See that word. 

Stortina (stor-te'na), It, A small serpent 

Str. Abbreviation for Strings. 

Straccinato (stril-tshl-nfi'td), It. See Strasci- 

Stradivari. The name of a very superior 
make of violin, so called from their makers, 
Stradivari us (father and son), who made 
them at Cremona, Italy, about A. D. 1650. 

Strain. A portion of music divided off by a 
double bar. 

Straflclcando (str&-shl-kS,d'do), It. Dragging 
the time, trailing, playing slowly. 

Attrasclnando (striL-shl-nau'do), It. Dragging 
the time, playing slowly. 

ftrascinando Tarco (stra-shl-n&n'dd lar-ko). 
Keeping the bow of the violin close to the 
strings, as in executing the tremolando, so 
as to slur or bind the notes closely. 

Strasclnato (strft-shl-na'to), It, Dragged along, 
played slowly. 

Strasclno 0^tr&-she'n5), 7Z. A drag. This grace, 
or embellishment, is chiefly confined to vo- 
cal music, and only used in slow passages. 
It consists of an unequal and descending 
motion, and generally includes from eight 
to twelve notes, and requires to be intro- 
duced and executed with great taste and 

Strathspey. A lively Scotch dance, in com- 
mon time. 

Strava^ante (strfi-vH-gan'tfi), It. Extravagant, 
odd, mntasucy 

Stravacranza (str&-v&-gfin'ts&), Xt, Extrava- 
gance, eccentricity. 

Street organ. Hand oigan. 

Streich (strikh), Oer, String. Used in com- 
position, as, Streichinstrurnentet stringed in- 
struments; Slreichquartet, stringed quartet, 

Strens: (strCng), Ger. Strict, severe, rigid. 

Streitge gebunden (strSn'ghd gh^boon'd*n), 
Gtr. Strictly legato, exceedingly smooth. 

Strens: Im Tempo (string !m tSm'pd), Oer. 
Strictly in time. 

Strepito (str&'pl-to). It. Noise. 

Strepitosamente (stra - pi - to - s& - m€n' tS), It. 
y/iih a great noise. 

Strepitoso (stra-pl-to'zd), H, Noisy, boister- 

Stretta (str^t'til). It. A concluding passage, 
coda, or finale, in an opera, taken in quicker 
time to enhance the effect. 

Stretto (strfit'tO), It. Pressed, close, contract- 
ed ; formerly used to denote that the move- 
ment indicated was to be performed in a 
quick, concise style. In fugue-writing that 
part where the subject and answer succeed 
one another very rapidly. . 

Strich (strikh), Oer. Stroke, the manner of 

Stricharten (strikh &r-t'n),<?0r. Different ways 

of bowing. 

Strict canon. A canon in which the imita- 
tion is complete, each voice exactly repeat- 
ing the other. 

Strict composition. A composition in which 
voices alone are employed: that which rig- 
idly adheres to the rules of art. 

Strict fugue. Where the fugal form and its 
lavirs are rigidly observed. 

Strict Inversion. The same as simple inver- 
sion, but requiring that whole tones should 
be answered by whole tones, and semitones 
by semitones. 

Strictly inverted Imitation. A form of imi- 
tation in which half and whole tones must 
be precisely answered in contrary motion. 

Strict style. A style in which a rigid adher- 
ence to the rules of art is observed. 

Strident (strS-danh), Fr. ) oh«m shrill 
Stridente (strg-d6u't6), n. }■ J^!lt^' ^'^^^^ 
Stridevole (stre-d6-v6ae), It. J *°^^®- 

Strikins: reed. That kind of reed pipe in an 
organ in w.hich the tongue strikes against 
the tube in producing the tone. 

String band. A band of stringed instruments 

Stringed instruments. Instruments whose 
sounds are produced by striking or drawing 
strings, or by the friction of a bow drawn 
across them. 

Stringendo (stren-g6n'dd). It. Pressing, ac- 
celerating the time. 

String pendulum. A Weber chronometer. 

String quartet. A composition for four in- 
struments of the violin species, aa two vio- 
lins, a viola, and violoncello. 






Strinsrs. Wires, or chords, used In musical 
inbtruxnents, which, upon being struclc or 
drawn upon, produce tones; the stringed 
instruments in a band or orchestra. 

Strings, latten. Wires made of a composition 
coiisistiug of copper and zinc. 

Strinifs, open. The strings of an instrument 
when not pressed. 

Strisciando (stre-Rh!-&n'd6), R. Gliding, slur- 
ring, sliding smoothly from one note to an- 

Strohfiedel (strd'fS-d'l),(?er. Straw fl<^dles. A 
xylophone composed of rods of wood, which, 
when struck by a little mallet, give out mu- 
sical sounds. 

Stroke, diagonal. A transverse heayv stroke, 
having a dot each side of it, denoting that 
the previous measure or the previ- r— — 
ous group of notes in the same meas- j— i^ 
ure u to be repeated. ^ 

Stroke, doable. Two strokes or dashes 
drawn over or under a semibreve or through 
the stem of a minim or crotchet, implying 
that such note must be divided into as many 
semiquavers as are equivalent to it in dura- 

Stroke, single. A stroke or dash drawn over 
or under a semibreve, or through the stem 
of a minim or crotchet, implying that such 
a note must be divided into as many qua- 
vers as are equivalent to It in duration. 

Stroke, tranAverse. A heavy stroke placed 
above a fuudamental note to indicate the 
intervals of changing notes, and also used 
for anticipation in an upper part. 

Stroke, triple. Three strokes or dashes 
placed over or under a semibreve, or 
through the stem of a minim or crotchet, 
implying that such note must- b^ divided 
into as many demisemiquavers as are equiv- 
alent to it In duration. 

Stronibazzata(str6m-bftt-t8&'tfi), « )The 
Stronibettata(str6m-bet-t&'ta), ^'' j sound 
of a trumpet. 

Strombettare (8tr5m-b€t-t&'re), It. To sound 
or pmy ou the trumpet. 

Strombettlere (strom-b^t-tX-a're), It. A trum- 

Stromentatp (str5-mSn-t&'t6), II. Instrument 
ed, scored lor an orchestra. 

Stromenti (stro-mSn'tS), It. pi. Musical in- 

Stromenti da f lato (str&-mSn'te dS. ) 
fe-a'l6), ' (. 7? «7 

Stromenti di vento (stro-mfin'te de f •*'• P'" 
vfin'to), ) 

Wind instruments. 

Stromenti d*arco (str6-men'te 'd'ar'k6), It. pi. 
lu&iruments placed with the bow. 

Stromenti dl rinfor2o(str6-m6n't5 de'rin-f6r'- 
U>d), i^j)I. Instruments employed to sup- 
port or strengthen a performance. 

Stromento (8tr6-m6n'td), B. An instrument. 

Strophe. In the ancient theater, that part of 
a sung or dance around the altar which 
was performed by turning from the right 
to the left. It was succeeded by the anti- 
strophe, in a contrary direction. Hence, 
in ancient lyric poetry, the former of two 
stanzas was called the strophe* and the lat< 
ter the antistrophe. The epode, or after 
song, followed after. 

Stiick (stiik), Oer. Piece, air, tune, musical 

Stfickchcn (stOk'khfin), Oer. Little airs ox 

Studien (stoo'dl-to), Oer. pi. Studies. 

Studio (stoo'dl-o), 71. \ A study, an ex- 

Studium (stoo'di-oom), €fer. j ercise intend' 

ed for the practice of some particular difQ- 


Stufe (stoo'f^), Oer. Step, degree. 

Stufe der Tonleiter (stoo'fd dfir t6ji11'ter), Oer. 
A degree of the scale. 

Stufcn ((stoo'fn), Oer. Btspa or degrees. 

Stufenwelse (stoo'f'n-wl'se), Oer. By degrees. 

StUnnisch (stdr'mlsh), e'er. Impetuou8lv» 
boisterously, furiously. 

Starzc (star'tse), Oer. The bell of wind in- 

St vie. That manner of composition or per- 
lormance on which the effect chieflv, if not 
wholly, depends. The distinction *^strict " 
and "free'^ style is often made. By strict 
Btvle is meant a manner of composition in 
which a certain number of voice-parts are 
carried through in accordance with the 
principles of this form of composition, 
which substantially are that only triads 
and their first inversions are to be used, 
and that no dissonances are employed, ex- 
cept those proper to strict counterpoint. 
In free composition, or style, the numoer of 
voices may vary from strain to strain, and 
dissonances are freely introduced. Accom- 
paniments must be obllgato, etc. 

Stylo (ste'16), 12. Style. 

Stylo dramatlco (steld drft-m&'tl-kd), II. In 
dramatic style. 

Styld ecclesiastico (ste^o ek-klA-id-as'tX-kd), J?. 
In churcJi style. 

Stylo fantastico (steld fan- tas' tl- k6), JR. An 
easy, humorous style free from all restraint. 

Stylo rappreseutativo (ste'ld r&p-prS>-z£n-t&- 
te'vo), i/. The name originally applied to 
music written for opera, meaning that the 
chief office of the music was to represent 
the poetry. At first this meant simply the 
spirit of the declamation ; later the *^ repre- 
sentation " was enlarged to the point where 
music it<:elf became elaborated in order to 
give fuller representation to the spirit of 
the poem and the dramatic situation, no 
less than of the words merely. 

Stylo recitativo (AteiO ra-tfi!-tfirte'v6). It. In 
the St) le of a recitative. 






Su (soo), B. Above, upon. 

Suabeflute. An organ-stop of pure liquid 
tone, not bo loud as tbe Waldflute ; it was 
invented by William Hill, of London. 

Suave (8oo-|;veK JJ. i Q^^^ j^iid agree- 

Suave (soo.a'v6), Sp. ^ ^^^^^ pieaaant. 

7), JfT, I 

Suave (sw&v) 

Suavemente (soo-a-v6-m6n'te), Sp. i Suavity, 
Suavemente (800-a-v6-men'te), It. \ sweet- 
Suavita (soo-k-vUa'), It. > ness, 

delicacy. - 
Sub (8tib), Lot, Under, below, beneath. 
Subbass (sooVbfiss), Qer. Underbass; an or< 
gan- register in the pedals, nstllklly a double- 
stopped bass of 32- or 16-feet tone, though 
sometimes open wood-pipes of 16 feet, as at 
Haarlem; the groundbass. 

Subbourdon. An organ-stop of 82-feet tone, 
with stopped pipes. 

Subdominant. The fourth note of any scale 
or key. 

Subitamente (soo-bl-tfi-mSn'tS), » ) Sudden- 
Subito (soo'bi-to), ^^* J ly, im- 

mediately, at once. 

Subject. A melody or theme ; a leading text 
or motivo. 

Subject, counter. The counterpoint of the 
subject, which every voice in a fugue per- 
forms after giving out the subject. 

Submediant. The sixth tone of the scale. 

Suboctave. An organ-coupler producing the 
octave below. 

Subprincipal. XJnderpnnclpal ; that is, be- 
low the pedal diapason pitch ; in German 
organs this is a double open bass stop of 32- 
feet scale. 

Subsemitone. The semitone below the key- 
board, the sharp seventh of any key. 

Subsemitonium modi (soob-sem-I-to'nl-oom 
md'dl). JM, The leading note. 

Subtonic. Under the tonic; the S4;mitoiie 
immediately below the tonic. 

Succentor (sook-sSn'tdr), IM. A snbchanter, 
a deputy of the precentor. A bass singer. 

Sudden modulation. Modulation to a distant 
key, without any intermediate chord to pre- 
pare the ear. 

Suffocate (soof - fo • k&' to). It, Suffocated. 
Choxed, as if with grief. 

Sul (sool), J<. Sul. 

Suite (swet), Fr. A series, a succession ; une 
^uite de pUceSt p series of lessons, or pieces. 

Suite (swet), jFV. A series, a set ; i. e., a series, 
or set, of pieces (suite de pieces). In the 
earlier part of the eighteenth century, and 
anterior to that time, a suite consisted in 
most cases of dances, to which, however, 
was often added a prelude as an introduc- 
tory first piece. Other pieces than dances 
were also occasionally interspersed— for in- 
stance, in some of J. S. Bach's suites we find 
an air. As to the dances, they were artis- 

tically treated, differing from those intend- 
ed to be danced to, both in form and style, 
and not unfrequently also in character. 
Bach's Suites Anglaises all open with a pre- 
lude, but his Suites Franpaises are without 
such an Introductory piece. The first of 
Bach's Suites Anglaises contains the follow- 
ing pieces: (1) Prelude; '(2) Allemande; 
(8) Courante; (4) Sarabande; (5) Bour^; 
(6) Gigue. Instead of the bourse we find in 
others of the master's suites a gavotte, or a 
menuet, or a passepied. The allemande is 
generally the first of the dances; the order 
and selection of the other dances were less 
settled, but the courante and sarabande 
were very common as the second and third 
constituents, as was also the gigue as the 
last. Other dances to be met with in suites 
are the loure, anglaise, polonaise, pavane, 
etc. As a rule the pieces are all in the same 
key. Their number differed. In recent 
timra composers have taken the suite again 
into favor. But the modern suite is more 
varied than the old ; its constituents com- 
prise not only dances of the past and pres- 
ent, but also characteristic pieces of all sorts, 
even fugues. It need hardly be added that 
the moderns do not, like their forefathers, 
adhere io unity of key. 

Suivez (swe-va), Fr. Follow, attend, pursue ; 
the accompaniment must be accommodated 
to the singer or solo player. 

Sulet (fia-zh&), Fr, A subject, melody, or 

Sul (sol), *) 

Suir (sool). It. >0n, upon the. 
Sulla (soom), j 

Sul A. On the A string. 

Sul D. On the D string. 

Sulla mez:^ corda (soolla mSfsft kdr'dfi.), R. 
On the middle of the string. 

Sulla tastiera (sool-la tfis-tl-a'ra). It, Upon 
the keys, upon the fingerboard. 

Sul ponticello (sool pdn-tl-tshsrio). It. On or 
near the bridge. 

Sumara. A species of flute having two pipes, 
common in Turkey ; the shorter pipe is used 
for playing airs, and the longer for a con- 
tinued bass. 

Summational tones. See ResiUiavt tones. 

Sumpunjah (soom-poon-yah), Heb. The dul- 
cimer of the ancients. It was a wind instru- 
ment made of reeds; by the Syrians called 
samboujah and by the Italians zampogna. 

Sumsen (soom's'n), Oer. To hum. 

Suo loco (soo'd lo'ko). It. In its own or usual 

Suonantina (soo-o-nan-te'na). It. A short, easy 

Suonare (soo-d-n§,'r€), It. To play upon an 


Suonare lecampane (soo-6-na'r€ 16 kam-pa'nS), 
It. To ring the bells. 

Suonar sordamente (soo-o-n&r' sor-da-m6n't€}, 
It. To play softly. 

karm, ft add, & ate, 6 end, e eve, liil,l isle, 6 old, 6 odd, oo moon, a but, iX Fr, sound, kh Oer. eh. nh nasoL 





Suonata (80o-&-ii&'t&), It. A sonata. 

Suoni (soo-o'nl), It. pi. Sounds. 

Suonl armonichi (soo-o'nl &r-Bid'nI-kI), 
Harmuuic sounds. 

Suono armonioso (soo-o'nd ar-md ni-d'zd), R. 
Harmonious sounds. 

Superano (soo-p^r-a'nd), Sp. Soprano. 

Superdomlnant. The note in the scale next 
above the dominant. 

Superfluous intervals. Those which are one 
semitone more than the perfect, or major, 
intervals. See Augmented intervais. 

Superoctave. An organ-stop tuned two oc- 
taves, or a fifteenth, above the diapasons ; 
also a coupler producing the octave above. 

Supersus (soo-p^r'soos), Lot. Name formerly 
given to trebles when their station watt very 
high in the scale. 

Supertonic. ) The note 

Supertonlque (8\i-p€r-t6nh-€k')fi^''. ) next 

above the tonic, or key-note ; the second 

note of the scale. 

Supplichevole (soop-pli-ka'vd-l€), ) 

Suppllchevolmente (soop-plI-ka-vdl-mSn't€) j 
ft. In a supplicatory manner. 

is? &■/:: } on. upon. over. 

Surdeline. The old Italian bagpipe, a large 
and rather complicated instrument con- 
sisting of many pipes and conduits for the 
conveyance of the wind, with keys for the 
opening of the holes by the pressure of the 
fingers, and inflated bv means of bellows, 
which the performer blows with his arm at 
the same time that he fingers the pipe. 

Sur la quatrldme corde (siir 1& kftt - rl - am 
kOrd), Fr. On the fourth string. 

Sur la seconde corde (siir la s&-kOnhd kdrd), 
Fr. Upon the second string. 

Sur una corda (soor oo'na kor^dft), It. \ Upon 
Sur une corde (sUr tlnh kdrd), Fr. j one 

Suspended cadence. See Interrupted Cadence. 

Suspension. The clashing effect of a disso- 
nant tone which having been a conso- 
nant tone in one chord is retained, sus- 
pended, after the beginniog of the next 
following chord, in which it is dissonant. 
The dissonance presently subsides, or gives 

Slace to the consonant tone (generally one 
egree below), which it bad displaced. 
This disappearance of the dissonance is 
called its resolution. The appearance of 
the proposed dissonant tone as one of the 
regular members of the previous chord is 
called its preparation. 

Suspension, double. A suspension retaining 
two notes, and requiring a double prepara- 
tion and resolution. 

Suspension, sing^ie. A suspension retaining 
but one note, and requiring only a single 
preparation and resolution. 

Suspension, triple. A suspension formed by 
suspending a dominant or diminished sev- 
enth on the tonic, mediant, or dominant, of 
the key. 

Siiss (siiss), G&r. Sweetly. 

SassflOte (sOss'fld'te), Qer. In organs, the soft 

Sussurando (soos-soo-ran'dd), » ) Whlsper- 
Sussurante (soos-soo-ran'tS), jing, mur- 

Sussuratlon. A whispering; a soft, mur- 
muring sound. 

Sustained. Notes are said to be sustained 
when their sound is continued through 
their whole time or length. See Soatenuio, 

Svejrliato ( sval - yl - a' to ), It. Brisk, lively, 

Svegliatojo (svei-yl-a-td'yd). It. An alarm bell. 

Svelto (svei'to), II. Free, light, easy. 

Swell. A gradual increase of sound. 

Swell organ. In organs having three rows of 
keys, the third, or upper, row controlling a 
number of pipes enclosed in a box, which 
may be gradually opened or shut, and thu£< 
the toue increased or diminished by d^reto. 

Swell pedal. That which raises the dampers 
from the strings or opens the swell-blinas of 
the organ. 

Syllables, QuIdOnian. The syllables ut, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la, used by Guldo for his system 
of tetrachords. 

Symbal. See Cymbal. 

Sympathetic strings. Strings which were 
formerly fastened under the fingerboard of 
the viola d'amore, beneath the bridge, and. 
being tuned to the strings above, vibrated 
with them and strengthened the tone. 

Symphonla (sim-fo-ni-a). Or. Agreement of 
sounds. The name was applied at one time 
to a stringed instrument of the hurdygurdy 
variety. A symphony. 

Symphonic. In the style, or manner, of a 
symphony; harmonious; agreeing in sound. 

A form of com- 
position for 
Symphony (idm fo-ny), Eng. j orchestra 
(somewhat enlarged), of an elevated and no- 
ble style. There is no settled order of move- 
ments in a symphony, but in general (with 
or without a slow introduction) the first 
movement. is all^ro, in the form of a eon- 
ata-piece; the second is a slow movement; 
the third a scherzo or other playful move- 
ment, and the fourth a finale, which ismore 
often a sonata-piece. The variety of instru- 
ments in a modem orchestra affords the 
symphony unlimited opportunities for poet- 
ical and pleasing effects of toue color and 
contrast. The greatest masters of syndphony 
are Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, and 

The name symphony Is applied in Eng- 
land to orchestral or other interludes and 
preludes of songs. In this sense Handel 

Symphonie (sftnh-fo-ne), Fr. ) 
SymphOnie (sim-fo-ne), Ger. [ 

'" " " h ) 






uses it In the " Messiah " as " Pastoral Sym- 
phony," which would now be called an in- 

Symphonlenseser (8lm-l6-nl-€n-s^6fir), Qer, 
Bymphonist ; a composer of symphonies. 

Symphonious. Harmonious; agreeing in 

Symphonischc Dlchtuns: (sim-fd'Dl-she dlkh'- 
toong), Qer. A symphonic poem. An or- 
chestral composition with a poetic basis (a 
program) ana of a free form— the latter be- 
ing determined by the subject, not by rule 
and custom. Liszt ia the originator of the 
kind and the name. Before him Berlioz 
had written symphonies with a poetic basis 
and diflfering more or less from the ortho- 
dox compositions of that appellation. Nev- 
ertheless Liszt was* an originator of more 
than the name, for his symphonic p ems 
are peculiar in variousways, especially in 
these two: their continuity (they are no; 
broken up into separate divisions) and the 
extensive employment of transformation 
of themes (melodic, harmonic, and rhyth- 
mic, modification of themes for the purpose 
of cnanging their expression). This latter 
serves to give unity to the various constitu- 
ents of the composition. 

6ymphonl5t. A composer of symphonies. In 
France the term symphonist is also applied 
to a composer of church-music. 

Symposia. An epithet generally applicable 
to cheeriul and convivjal compositions, ua 
catches, glees, rounds, etc. 

Syncopata (sin-k6-pfi't&) ) 

Syncopate (sln-kd-pa't€), 12. V Syncopated. 

Syncopate (sln-kd-p&'td), j 

Syncopatlo(sIn-k5-p&'ts!-d), Xo^.*) A rhyth- 
Syncopation, Eng, }>mic distur- 

Syncope (tj&nh-kop), Fr, ) bance con- 

sisting essentially of c6ncealing the true 
accent by the device of b^inning a tone on 
the weak pulse or part of a pulse, and pro- 
longing it across the strong pulse or part of 
a pulse, thus depriving the strong rhythmic 
place of its proper accent. The note so be« 
gun, and proloDged across a point where an 
accent would be expected, is said to be syn- 

in pianoforte-music, when one hand has 
syncopation, the other generally has the 
true accent. Syncopated notes are accent- 
ed, the accent being anticipated from the 
strong pulse across which they syncopate. 
There are a few examples, in modern music, 
of syncopating forms in the accompani- 
ment where no accent is implied. (For in- 
stance in Schumann's " Warum.") 

Synccper (sftnh-kd-p&), Fr, \ To syn- 
Syncopiren (sln-k&-pe'r'n), Oer. j copate. 

Syst^mc (sis-tam), Fr, A system. 

T. Abbreviation of Tempo ; also of Tenor. 

TaballO (t&-band). It. A kettledrum. 

TatMU* (t&-b&r), It, A small drum ; a tabor. 

Tablatura (tab-m-too'rft). It, ^ A term for- 
Tablature (ta-bla-tiJr), isv. f merly ap- 

Tablatnrc (tftb'la-tshOr), £ngr. f plied to the 
TabulatHr(iafboo-la-toor),6?«r. J totality or 
general assemblage of the signs used in mu- 
sic: so that to understand the notes, clefs, 
and other necessary marks, and to be able 
to sing at sight, was to be skilled in the tab- 
lature. More particularly applied, however, 
to a curious notation for the lute, viols, and 
wind instruments invented between A.D. 
1400 and 1500. It consisted of lines and bars, 
with signs in the spaces and above the staff. 
There were as many lines as strings upon 
the instrument noted. The lute nad six 
frets, which the tablatura indicated by let- 
ters, a for open string, b for first fret, c for 
second, etc. The tabulature bad these let- 
ters for all the stopping required, bars for 
measure, and signs of value for duration. 
The tablature for wind instruments was dif- 
ferent, but upon similar principles, indicat- 
ing the mechanism of performing the tones 
rather than the tones themselves. 

Table d*harmonle (t&bl d'ar-md-ne), Fr. A 
table or diagram of chords, intervals, etc. 

Table dMnstrument (t&bl d'&nh-stni-m&nh), 
Fr. The belly of an instrument. 

Table songs. Songs for male voices formerly 
much in vogue in German glee clubs. 

Tabor. A small drum, gf'nerally used to ac- 
company the pipe or fife in dances. Prob- 
ably a tambourine without jingles. 

Taboret. A small tabor. 

Tabourin (ta-boo-rftnh), Fr. A tabor, or tam- 
bourine—a shallow drum with but one 

Tabret. A kind of drum used by the ancient 

Tacet (ta's«t), or, Tacent (t&-tsent). Lot. 

Tace (t&'tshS), It, 

Tad (t&'tshi). It. 

Taciasi (t&-tsbla'z!), It. 
Be silent; meaning that certain instruments 
are not to play ; as, violino tacet, the violin is 
not to play ; oboe tacet, let the oboe be silent. 

Tact (t&kt), Ger. See Takt. 

Tactus (t&k'toos), Lnt. In the ancient music 
the stroke of the hand by which the time 
was measured or beaten. 


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Tafclmusik (t&Tl-xnoo-Blk'), Q«t. Table- 
music ; music sung at the table, as part- 
songs, glees, etc. 

Talllc (t&-ah), Fr, The tenor part ; the yiola. 

Taillc de violon (t&-tih dtlh y§-5-ldnh), Fr. 
The yiola, ur tenor yiolin. 

Tailpiece. That piece of ebony to which the 
yioLu, yiola, etc., are fastened. 

Takt (tfikt), Qer, Time, measure. 

Taktart (t&kt'&rt). Get, Species of time, com- 
mon or triple. 

Talctfest (t&kt'ftet), Qer, Steadiness In keep- 
ing time. 

Taktfiihrer (tftkt-fah-rer), Qer. A conductor ; 

Talctieren (tfik'ter-to), Qer, To direct in meas- 

Talctlinle (tftktns-nl-6), z,^ lA bar-line; 

Talctstrich (takt'strikh), ^^- J the lines 

which mark the bars. 

TalctmiUsig (tfikt'ma'slg), Ger. Ck>nformable 
to the time. 

Talctzeichen (tftkt'tsl'kh'n), Oer. The figures, 
or signs, at the beginning of a piece, to 
show the time. 

Talabalacco (ta-1a-ba-lfik'kd), II. A species of 
Moorish drum. 

Talon (ta-ldnh), Fr. The heel of the bow ; 
that part nearest the nut. 

Tambour (tftnh-boor), Fr. Drum ; the great 
drum; also a drummer. 

Taiiiboara. An ancient instrument of the 
guitar kind used in the East 

Tambour de basaue (t&nh-boor ddh bask),ii'r. 
A tabour, or tabor; a tambourine. 

Tambouret (t&nh-boo-r&), Fr. \ A timbrel, a 
Tambourine, Eng. \ small instru- 

ment of percussion, like the bead of a drum, 
with little bells placed round its rim to in- 
crease the noise. 

Tambourine- (t&nh-boo-rin), Fr. A species of 
dance, accompanied by the tambourine; 
also a tambourine. 

TambOurineur (t&nh-boo-re-ntir), Fr. Drum- 
mer, lambuurine-player. 

Tambour major. See Drum major. 

Tambourello (t&m-boo-ral'16), » ) A tam- 
' Tambouretto(t&m-boo-rat'to), j bourine; a 
little drum. 

Tambourone (tUm-boo-rd'n^), It. The great 

Tamburaccio (t&m-boo-r&t'tshi-d), H. A large 
old drum ; a tabur. 

Tamburino (t&m-bno-rS'n5), It. A little 
drum; also a drummer. 

Tambnro (t&m-boo'rd). It. A drum. 

Tamtam. An Indian instrument of percus- 
sion ; a species of drum, or tambourine. 

TXndeInd (t&n'dSlnd), Ger. In a playful man- 

Tanedor ( t&- n^- thdrO, 8p. Player on a mu- 
sical instrument. 

Tansent (t&n'ghtot),G«r. The jac> -3f a harp- 

Tantino (t&n-tS'nd). R. ' A little. 

Tanto (tftn'td), II. So much ; as iruch : dOe- 
gro non tanto, not so quick, not too quick. 

Tantum ergo (t&n'toom ar'gO). Lot A hymn 
sung at the Benediction in tb^ BomaLt 
Catholic seryice. 

Tanz (t&ntB), Oer. A dance. 

Tfknzeit&u'ts&), Dances. 

TInzer (tan'tsCr), Ger. A dancer. 

TInzcrin (t&n'tsft-rln), Ger. A fema)<^ dancer. 

Tanzkunat (t&nts'koonst), Ger. The art of 

Tanzstack (tans-sttlk), Ger, A dane? tune. 

Tap. A drum-beat of a single note. 

Tarabouk. A musical instrument used b^ 
the Turks, formed by drawing a parchment 
oyer the bottom of a large earthen YCbseL 

Tarantella (t&r-rftn-t$inft), H. A swift, delirl. 
oiis B>.'rt of Italian dance in fi-8 time. Th^ 
form has been adopted by many of the mod 
em composers, as Liszt, Chopin, etc. So 
called becauKC long regarded oy th3 peas* 
antry as a remedy for the bite of the taran« 
tula spider. 

Tardamente (tftr-dft-mto'tC), R. Slowly. 

Tardando (t&r-dftn'dd). It, Lingering, retard' 
ing the time. 

Tardo (t&r'do), n. Tardy, slow. 

Tartini*s tones. The resultant or oombiniu 
tion tones, which are formed when two 
notes are sounded together upon the yiolin. 
Tartini first observed them, and as they al- 
ways represent the natural root of the tonea 
which sound thtm, he msde them serve 
him as guides to the correct stopping ot 
double touches in the high positions. 

Tastame (tfls-tE-mS), It. ) The keys or 
Tastatur (tas't&-toor), Ger. f keyboard of a 
Ta8tatura(tSs-t&-too'r&),(^. (pianoforte, or- 
Tastiera (tas-ti-&'rfi), It. ) gan, etc 

Taste. A sympathetic appreciation of the re- 
fined, intelligent, and noble in any art. 

Taste (tfis'te), Ger. \ The touch of anyinstm- 
Tasto (tUs'td), It. j meut; hence, also, a key, 
or thing, touched. 

Tastenbrett (tas't'n-brSt), Oer. Keyboard of 
a vlauoforte, etc. 

Tasto solo (t&s't6 sdHd), R. One key alone ; IS 
orKan or pianoforte music this means a not9 
without harmony, the bass notes oyer or un- 
der which it is written are not to be acoom' 
panied with chords. 

Tatto (ta'to). It. The touch. 

Tattoo. The beat of a drum at night calling 
the feoldiers to their quarters. 

Teatro (t&-a'tr6), R, A theater, playhouse. 

Teatro dl gran cartello (ta-&'trO dd gr&n kfiiw 
terid). It. Lyric theater of the first rank. 

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Technlc. That part of the art of playing, per- 
form mg, or working which can be taught. 
Upon instruments the technic includes the 
application of the fiuKers, their expertuess. 
and the means for making them expert, and 
the mechanism of producing tones of dififer- 
ent qualities. In composition the technic 
Includes all the practical principles, ana ex- 
pertuess in applying them. With reference 
to piano-playing, the term technic was for- 
merly restricted to finger-facility merely, 
whereas at present it applies to all parts of 
the mechanism of playing, including everv 
sort of movement and the art of differenti- 
ating tones. 

Technik (tSkh'nIk), Oer. ' Technic. 

Technlsch (t^kh'nish), Qer. Technical ; this 
word is also used to Indicate mechanical 
proflolency, as regards execution. 

Tcdesca (tS-d^ncft), » ) German ; aUa tedea- 
Tedesco ^td-d^kd), )ca, in the German 


Te Deum laudamuA (tS da'oom lou-d&'moos), 
Lot. We praise Thee : a canticle, or hymn 
of praise, of leu attributed to St. Ambrusius. 

Telltale. A moyable piece of metal, bone, or 
ivory, attached to an organ, indicating by 
its position the amount of wind supplied by 
the bellows. 

Tcma (t&'m&), II. A theme or subject; a 

Temperament. The system of compromise, in 
accordance with which the octave is divided 
into twelve equal intervals (sometimes 
called semitones) for the purpose of simpli- 
fying the music and permitting many rela- 
tions of chords which would not be possible 
upon instruments producing fifths and 
thirds in perfectly accurate accoustical re- 
lation. In order to play in perfect tune up- 
wards of fifty intervals in the octave would 
be necessary, and many tones which are 
id. ntiial upon the tempered instrument 
would then be found different at d incap- 
able of substitution for each other. An 
equal temperament is one in which the im- 
perfections are equally distributed ; an un- 
equal temperament is one in which a few 
keys are nearly perfect, while all others are 
very bad. In correct temi)eraments the 
fifths are a twelfth of a comma flat; the 
fourths the same amount too sharp; the 
major third is a fourth of a comma too 
sharp, and so on. All intervals are incor- 
rect except the octave and unison. But the 
differences are so small that, except in slow 
chords, the ear is quite well satisfied. 

Temperatur (tfim'p^rfi-toor'), Qer. Tempera- 

Tcmpestosamcnte (tem'p€»td-z&-mto'tS), JZ. 
Furiously, impetuously. 

Temp«8to80 (t4§m-pte-td'z6),Ji(. Tempestuous, 
stormy, boisterous. 

Tempete (t&nh-p&tO, Fr. A boisterous dance 
in 2-4 time. 

Tempo (t€m'pd), It. Time, rate of movement 
Tempo is classified from very 6low to mod> 
eraie, fast, and very faist, the grades being 
the following: Grave, lento, adagio, an- 
dante, moderato, allegro, presto, prestissi* 
mo, the latter being as fast as possible; a 
tempo, in time. 

Tempo alia breve (tem'pd S\n& bra'vS) , H, In 
a quick species of common time. 

Tempo a placere (tSm'pd & pe-a-tsh&'rS), It. 
The time at pleasure. 

Tempobezelchnuniir (tem'pd-be-t89kh'noong) , 
Qer. Measure-marking. The signs indicat- 
ing the variety of measure. 

Tempo comodo (t€m'pd k&-md'dd), It. Con- 
venient time ; an easy, moderate d^ree of 

Tempo d£ ballo (t^m'pd de b&Fld), It. In 
dance time; rather quick. 

Tempo di bolero (t5m'p6 d6 b6-16'r«). It. In 
time of a bul^ro. 

Tempo di cappella (tfim'pd dg k&ppSria), It. 
Ill the church time. See AUa breve. 

Tempo di gavotta (tSm'pd de gft-vdt'ta), tt, 
lu the time of a gavot. 

Tempo di marcla (t^m'pd de m&r'tshI-£), It 
In the time of a march. 

Tempo dtmenaetto(tem'pd de mS-noo-6t't5), 
It. lu the time of a minuet. 

Tempo di polacca (tSm'pd de pd-lak^kft), It. 
In the time of a polacca. 

Tempo di prima parte (tSm'pd de pre'mA 
p&i'tA), It. In the same time as the first 

Tempo di valse (t^m' pd de ySI'bq), It. In 
waltz time. 

Tempo debolc (t6m'p6 da-b6'16), It. The un- 
accented part of the measure. 

Tempo frettevole (t6m'p6 fr6t-tS'v6-16), > „ 
Tempo frettolo50(rem'pd fr6t-t6-l<5'z6), j "*'• 
In quicker time ; hurrying, hastily. 

Tempo siuAto (t6m'p5 joos'td), It. In j ust, ex- 
act, strict time. 

Tempo maggiore (t6m'p6 mad-jl-Cre), H. In 
a quick species of common time. 

Tempo ordinario (t€m'p6 6r-d!-nfi'rI-6), It. Or- 
dinary or moderate timl. 

Tempo primo (t6m'p6 pre'md). It. First, or 
original, time. 

Tempo rubato (t6m'p6 roo-bft'to). It. Robbed 
or stolen time; irregular time ; meaning a 
slight deviation to give more expression, by' 
retarding one note, and quickening another, 
but so that the time of eatth measure is not' 
altered in the whole. Rubato is of several 

?:rades : Applied to a single tone, and so re- 
ating to the movement of the tones in one 
or two beats, or (2) within the measure as a 
whole, or (3) applied to a group of measures 
within which certain motives or tone«* are 
retarded and others accelerated. 

Tempo wie vorher (t^m'pdwe fSr'h&r), Ger. 
The time as before. 






Temps (t&nh), jf^ \ Time ; also the various 
Icms (t&ub), "^^ j parts,or dlTision8,of a bar. 

Temps foible (t&Db fw&bl). Ft, The weak, or 
unaccented, parts of a measure. 

Temps fort (t&nh fdr). Fr. The strong, or ac- 

ceuied.iiarts of a measure. 
Temps lev^ (t&nh ie-v&), Fr, The upbeats, or 

uuttccented parts. 

Temps trappy (t&nh trflp-p&), JPr. The down- 
beats, or accented parts. 

Tempos imperfectum (tSm'poos Im-p€r-fSk'- 
t um), Lai. Imperiect time; a term used 
by old writerR, meaning common time of 
two in a measure. 

Tempus perfectum (t^m'poos p€r-fek'toom), 
Lot. Perfect time; a term used by old 
writers, meaning time of tiiree in a meas- 

Tendrcment (t&nhdr'-m&nh), Fr. Tenderly, 

Tenebrae (tSn'^bTa), Lai. Darkness ; a name 
given to the Roman Catholic evening serv- 
ice during Holy Week, in commemoration 
of the darkness which ai tended the cruci- 

Teneramente (te-nS^rft-mgn'tS), It, Tenderly, 

Tenerezza (te-uS-i-et'tsft), lU Tenderness, soft- 
ness, delicacy. 

Tenero (ta'ne-rO), It, Tenderly, softly, deli- 

Tenor. That species of male voice next 
above the baritone, and extending from 
the C upon the second space in the bass, 
to G on the. second line in the treble. 

Tenor C. The lowest C in the tenor voice; 
the lowest string of the viola, or tenor vio- 
lin. Cue octave below middle C. 

Tenor clef. The G clef when placed upon 
the fourth line. 

Tenore (t6-n6'r6^, It Tenor voice ; a tenor 
singer. S.eaUo Vioila, 

Tenore buffo (te-no're boof fo), R. The second 
tenor singer of an opera company for comic 

Tenore di s^razia (t^-nd're dS gra'tsi-fi.). It. A 
delicate and graceful tenor. 

Tenore leggiero (te-nd^rS lMjI-&'rd), 71. A 
tenor voice of a light quality of tone. 

Tenore prlmo (tS-nd'r€ pre'm6). It. First 

Tenore robnsto (te-nC'rC r6-boos't6), R, A 
strong teuor voice. 

Tenore secondo (te-n<yre s6-k6n'dd), R, Sec- 
ond tenor. 

Tenore viola (t6-n6'r6 ve-6'la), R. Tenor viol. 

Tenorlst(ten'6-rl8t), Qer. \. tenoraineer 
Tenorista (t6n-6-r6s't&), J«. J ^ ^enorsmger. 

Tenoroon. The old tenor hautboy, the com- 

Sass of which extended downward to tenor 
. The name is someiimes applied to an or- 



Tenorposaune (t6-ndr'pO-zou'n6), Qer. 
tenor trombone. 

Tenorschlfissei (te-n6r'shliis'8'l), Qer. 
tenor clef. 

Tenor, second. Low tenor. 

Tenorstlmme (t^ndr'stlm'me), Qer. Tenor 
voice; a tenor. 

Tenor trombone. A trombone having a com- 
pass from the small c to the one-lined g, uud 
noted in the tenor clef. 

Tenor viole (tfi-nor fl-61€), Qer, Imv^^^i. 
Tenor violin, Eng. ] ^^ ^^^ 

Tenorzeiclien (t6-ndr'tid'kh'n),<?er. The tenor 


Tensile. A term applied to all stringed in^ 
struments, on account of the tension of their 
' strings. 

Tenth . An interval comprising an octave and 
a third ; also an organ-stop tuned a tenth 
above the diapasons, called, also, deoim* 
and double tierce; obsolete. 

Tenue (ta-n{i), Fr. See Tenulo, 

Tenutc (*a-noo't6), « ) Held on, sustaineo. 
Tenuto (ta-uoo'td), ^'* j or kept down the full 

Tterbe (t^6rb), Fr. See Theorbo, 

Teoretico aa-5-r&'ti-kd), R. Theoretical. 

Teoria (ta-i^rfi'a), R, Theory. 

Teoria del ovito (ta-d-re'& del k&n'td), R, Th« 
theory, or art, of singing. 

Tepldamente (t&-pl-d&-men'te), R, Coldly, 
with indifference; lukewarm. 

Tepidita (t&-p§ di-t&Oi il. Coldness, indiffer- 

Ter (t6r), Lai. Thrice, three times. 

Tercero (t6r-thft'rd); Sp, Third. 

Tercet (t5r-B&), Fr, A triplet. 

Terms, musical. Words and sentences ap- 
plied to passages of music for the purpose of 
indicating the style in which they should 
be performed. 

Ternarlo (t6r-na'ri-6), P. Temario. 

Ternarlo tempo (ter-nft'ri-^ t^m'pd), R, Triple 

Ternary measure. Threefold measure; triple 

Terpodlon. An instrument invented by 
Buschmann, of Hamburg, resembling the 
harmonium in appearance, the tone being 
produced from sticks of wood ; the name is 
also given to an organ-stop of 8-feet tone. 

Terpsichore. In clansical mythology the muse 
ot choral dance and song. 

Tertia (ter'tol-ft), X<rf. ) Third, tierce; also 
Tertzia(ter't8i-£), Qer. ) an organ-stop, sound- 
ing a third or tenth above the foundation 

Ter unca (tfiroon^kH), Lai, Three-hooKed ; 
the old name of the aemisemiquaver. 

ftomt, &adc{, aoZe, ecnd,eeve,Xi2Z, ItsiefOofd, 6odd, oo moon, tlbu<,ii^. sound, kh Qer. ch. nhnoM 




TefZ Ctftrts),»G'€r. "\ A third, the Inter- 
Terza (t&r'tafi), iZ. / val of a third; also 
Terza (t&rtse), Ger. y an organ-stop sound- 
Terzie (t&T'tsi-€), Ger. \ ing a third above the 
TerM (tai'tso), It. J fifteenth. See Tierce, 

Tcrz dedmole (tftrts da-t8!-m6'l£), Ger. A 
p'ronp of thirteen notes, having the value of 
"iignt similar ones. 

TWOM maesiore (tai'tsfi m^-jl-«'re), H. Ma- 
jor third. 

Tek:£a minore (tar'tsfi me-nd^rS), R. Minor 

Terzen (tftr'ts'n), Ger. Thirds. 

Terzetto (t6r-ts6t't6), It, A short piece, or 
trio, for three voices. 

Terzflbte (t&rts'fld'te), Ger. A flute sounding 
a minor third above ; also>an organ-stop. 

Terzina (tar-tse'na), It. A triplet. 

Teste (tfis'to), It. The text, strt)ject. or theme 
of any composition. A word applied by the 
Italians to the poetry of a song ; when the 
words are well written the song is said to 
have a good testo. 

Testndo ftSs-too'do), Lai. Name given by the 
Romans, in imitation of the Greeks, to the 
lyre of Mercury, because it was made of the 
back or hollow of a sea tortoise. 

Tetrachord (tSt^rft-kdrd), Gr. ^ A. fourth ; also 

Tetracorde (i6t'r«l-k6rd), Fr. V a system of 

Tetracordo (let-ra-kor'ao), Jit. j four sounds 

among the ancients, the extremes of which 

were fixed, but the middle sounds were 

varied according to the mode. 

Tetrachords, conjoint. Two tetrachords, or 
fourths, where the same note is the highest 
of one and the lowest of the other. 

Theile (trie), Ger. pi. Parts, divisions of the 
bar ; also strains, or component parts of a 
movement or piece. 

Thema (tha'ma), Gr.') 

Thema (ta'm&), Ger. > A theme or subject. 

Theme (tSm), Fr. ) 

rhematic. Derived from appertaining to a 
theme. This style of music is illustrated 
by the Inventions of Bach, manv pieces of 
Schumann (the Novell6ttes, etc.) and the 
middle part of the sonata-piece. It is op- 
posed to lyric. 

Theme. The subject of a composition. 

Theorbe (t6-6r'b6). Ger. \ An ancient in- 
Theorbo (the or'bo), Eng. j strument of the 
lute species. See Archlute. 

' Theoretical musician. One who is acquaint- 
ed with the essence, nature, and properties 
of music, considered as science, and as art. 

Theoretilcer (t6-6-r?'ti-k6r), Ger. \ 

A theoret- 
ical mu- 

Th6oricien (t&-6-re'sI-anh), Fr 
siciau, a theorist. 

Theorla (tfi-o'rl-a), Lai.\ The science of mu- 
rhicrie (ta'6-re'), i^r. > sic ; the principles 
Theory (the'6-ry), Eng. ) of sound, as re- 
gards concords and discords ; the system of 
i'.a7monical and melodial arrangement for 
the x>urpose of musical expression. 

Thesis (th&'sis), Gr. Downbeat; theaccentefT. 
part of the bar. 

Theursic hymns. Songs of incantation, such 
as those ascribed to Orpheus, i)erformed in 
the mysteries upon the most solemn occa- 
sions. These hymns were the first of which 
we have any account in Greece. 

Third. The interval between any tone of a 
scale and the next but one above or below. 
The major third is equal to four half-steps; 
the minor to three half-steps; the dimin- 
ished to two half-steps. The latter is of 
rare occurrence. 

Third shift. The double shift in violin-play- 

Thirteenth. An interval comprising an oc- 
tave and a sixth. It contains twelve dia- 
tonic degrees, i. e., thirteen sounds. 

Thirty-second note. A demisemiquaver. 

Thirty-second rest. A rest, or pause, equal to 
the length of a thirty-second note. 

Thorousrhbass. A system of indicating the 
chords by means of figures written over or 
under the cotes of the bass. In this system 
8, 5, or 8 indicated the common chord ; 7, 
6-6, 4-8, 4-2, or 2, various forms of the seventh. 
All intervals were indicated by writing their 
flgural number, reckoning from the actual 
bass note (not necessarily the root). Hence 
the term " thoroup^hbass " is often employed 
as synonymous with ** harmony." Tnls no- 
tation was first invented for accompanying 
recitative, and afterwards used in scores for 
facilitating reading. 

Three-eig^hth measure. A measure having 
the value of three eighth-notes, marked 3-8. 

Threefold. A chord consisting of three tones, 
comprising a tone combined with its third 
and fifth. 

Threnodia (thre-no'dt-ft). Lot. \ An elegy, a 
Threnodie (thrfi nd'de), Gr. j funeral-song. 

Threnody. Lamentation, a song of lamenta- 

Thrice-marked octave. The name given in 
Germany to the notes between the G on the 
second added line above the treble stafif and 
the next B above, inclusive ; these notes are 
expressed by small letters, with three short 

Tibia (te'bI-&), Lot. The ancient name of all 
wind instruments with holes, such as the 
flute, pipe, and fife : originally the term was 
applied to the human leg-bone made into a 

Tibia major (teHsI-fi mSrydr), Lot. An organ- 
stop of 16-feet tone, the pipes of which are 
stopped or covered. 

TlbisB pares (te'bi-a p&'rSs), Led. pi. Two flutes, 
one for the right hand and the other for the 
left, which were played ou by the same per- 

Tibia utricularia (te'bl-a oot-rl-koo-la'ri-ft), 
Lai. Name by which the bagpipe was 
known among the ancient Bomans. 

ian» \,Qad,a,aUt(i€nd,ieO€,iiXLt\i8U,6old^todd, oo moon, a (m^, ii /V. sound, kh Ger, ch, hhnasoL 




Tibloen (tfintil-tsen), Lai. The aacient flute- 
player, or piper. 

Tie. A Blur ; a curved line placed over notes 
on the same degree of staff requiring a con- 
nected note. 

Tie! (tef), Oer. Deep, low, profound. 

Tiefer (te'ffir), Oer, Deeper, lower ; Bva H^er, 

octave below. 
Tieftttnend (tef td'ntod), Oer. Deep-toned. 

Tierce (ters), Fr. A third ; also the name of 
an organ-stop tuned a major third higher 
than the fifteenth. 

Tierce de plcardie (ters dtkh ifl-k&r'de), Fr. 

I ierre of Ficardy ; a term applied to a major 
third, when introduced in the last chord of 
a composition in a minor mode : the custom 
was supposed to have originated in Picardy, 
and formerly was quite common. 

Timbalier (t&nh-bft-lX-&), Fr. A kettledrum- 

Timballes (tftnh-bfti), Fr. pL Kettledrums. 

Timbre (tflnh-br), Fr. Quality of tone or 

Timbrel. An ancient Hebrew instrument, 

supposed to have been like a tambourine. 

Time. That in which duration exists. The 
measure of sounds In regard to their con- 
tinuauce or duration. Often used, inele- 
gantly, in place of measure. 

Time-table. A representation of the several 
notes in music, showing their relative 
lengths or durations. 

Timidezza, con (te-ml-det'sft kdn). It. With 

TimoroAamente ( te - mO-rO - zft - mSn' t€ ), R. 

Timidly, with fear. 

Timoroso (te-m&-rd'zd), M. Timorous, with 

Timpani (t!m-p&'ne), It. pi. \ The kettle- 
Timpani (tim-pa'ne), iSp. pi. j drums. 

Timpano (tlm'pa-no). It. Drum, timbrel, la- 

Tlntement (tanh-f-manh), Fr. Tingling of a 
bell ; vibration, or ringing sound. 

TIntermell. An old dance. 

Tlntinnabulary. Having, or making, the 

sound of a bell. 
Tlntinnabulum (tln-titn-n&'boo-loom), Lot. 
Tintinnabolo (tin-tln-na'bo-ld). It. 
TintinnabHlo (tin-tlu-n&'boo-ld). It. 

A little bell. 
Tlntinnamento (tIn-tln-na-mSn'td), It. Tink- 

II ug of small bells. 

Tiorba (teor'bft), It. Theorbo. 

Tipping. A distinct articulation given to the 
tones of a flute bv placing the end of the 
tongue on the roof of the mouth. SeeDou- 

Tirasse (tX-rgss'). Fr. The pedals of an organ 
which act on the manual keys by pulling or 
drawing them down. 


Tlrata (t^rft't&), B. A term formerly applieu 
to any number of notes of equal value tr 
length, and moving in conjoint degrees. 

TIrato (tS-rft'td), It. Drawn, pulled, stretched 
out ; a downbow. See, also, Tirasae. 

Tira tutto (te'ra toot'td). It. A pedal or mech- 
anism in an organ, which, acting upon alJi 
the stops, enables the performer to obtain at 
once the full power of the instrument. 

Tlr6 (t6-r&), Fr. Drawn, pulled ; a downbow. 

Tir6-lirer (t^ra le-r&), Fr. To sing like a lark. 

ToccmUk (t5k-ka'ta). It. A purely instrumental 
form, of which we hear already in the latter 

Sart of the sixteenth century. The name is 
erived from tocare, to touch, to play. In 
its older form the toccata is a prelude con- 
sisting of a few chords and colorature, or a 
something between a prelude and a fantasia, 
made up of runs, arpeggios, and short aper- 
cus. A characteristic of the toccata is that 
It has the appearance of an improvisation. 
Although very different, the modern toccata 
shares yet to a greater or less extent the 
chief cbaracteristicd of its predecessor. It is 
generally constructed out of a nimble figure 
which is kept up throughout ; melodic efi^i- 
sions are excluded, and technical display 
and rhythmical movement are mainly 
aimed at. In short, the modem toccata par- 
takes of the nature of the prelude, study, 
and improvisation. 

Toccatina (t5k-k&-te'na), It A short toccata. 

Tocsin. An alarm-bell ; ringing of a bell foi 
the purpose of alarm. 

Todesgesang (td'dSs-ge-zang), rj^ ) A dirge, 
Todeslied (tydfis-led), ^^' ]" a fu^ 


Todtengltfckchen ( tod' t'n - gl5k' kh'n ), Oer, 

Todtenlied (tdd't'n-ledO, Oer. Funeral-song 
or anthem. 

Todtenmarsch (tddl'n-m&rshO.G>er. Funeral 

Tolling. The act of ringing a church bell in 
a slow, measured manner. 

Tome (tom), Fr. Volume, book. 

Tomtom. A sort of drum used by the natives 
in the East Indies. 

Ton (t6nh), Fr. '\ Tone, sound, voice, 
Ton (tdn), Oer. ' 9 melody ; also accent, 

Tdne (to'ne), Oer. pi. V stress ; also the pitch 
Tono (td'uo), Sp. \ of any note as to its 
Tons fr. pi. J acuteness or gravity; 

also the key or mode. Le ton d^vi, the key 

of C. See, also, Tone. 

Tonadica (to-n£-de'ka), q_ \ A song of a live- 
Tonadilia (t6-na-d€rya),'^- 1 ly and cheerful 
character, generally with guitar accompa- 
Tons fichti (to'ne flch't^), Lot. The trans- 
posed ecclesiastical modes. 

Tonalitlit (tdn'M-X-tftt^Gc